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Bats and Human Health: Ebola, SARS, Rabies and Beyond

ISBN: 978-1-119-15003-9
416 pages
December 2017, Wiley-Blackwell
Bats and Human Health: Ebola, SARS, Rabies and Beyond (1119150035) cover image

Description

An important resource that reviews the various infectious diseases that affect bats and bat populations

Bats and Human Health: Ebola, SARS, Rabies and Beyond covers existing literature on viral, bacterial, protozoan, and fungal infections of bats and how these infections affect bat populations. The book also offers an overview of the potential for zoonotic transmission of infectious diseases from bats to humans or domestic animals. While most prior publications on the subject have dealt only with bat viral infections, this text closely covers a wide range of bat infections, from viral and bacterial infections to protist and fungal infections.

Chapters on viral infections cover rabies, filoviruses, henipaviruses, and other RNA viruses, as well as information on bat virome studies. The book then provides information on bacterial infections–including arthropod-borne and other bacteria that affect bats–before moving on to protist infections, including apicomplexans and kinetoplastids, and fungal infections, including white-nose syndrome, histoplasma capsulatum, and other fungi. Comprehensive in scope, yet another key feature of this book is a searchable database that includes bat species, bat family, bat diet, bat location, type and classification of infecting microbes, and categories of microbes. This vital resource also: 

  • Provides a history and comprehensive overview of bat-borne diseases
  • Incorporates information from the World Health Organization, as well as historical data from the National Libraries of Health and infectious disease journals
  • Covers a variety of diseases including viral infections, bacterial infections, protist infections, and fungal infections

Written for microbiologist, bat researchers, and conservationists, Bats and Human Health provides a comprehensive exploration of the various types of microbes that affect bats and their potential to affect human populations.

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Table of Contents

CONTENTS

Foreword xv

A Brief Introduction to Unique Features of Bats in Relation to Infectious Diseases xv

About the companion website xix

I Introduction 1

1 BAT IMMUNOLOGY 3

1.1 Introduction to the Immune System of Bats 3

1.1.1 White blood cell count and other serological parameters 3

1.1.2 Innate versus adaptive immunity 4

1.1.3 MicroRNA 5

1.2 Viral Pattern ]Recognition Receptors and the Bat Immune Response to Microbes 5

1.3 Introduction to the Interferons 7

1.3.1 Regulation of interferon production 7

1.3.2 The JAK ]STAT pathway and interferon ]stimulated genes 8

1.3.3 Type I interferons 10

1.3.4 Type II interferon 12

1.3.5 Type III interferons 12

1.3.6 Viral avoidance of the host IFN response 14

1.4 Antibodies and B Lymphocytes 15

1.5 Macrophages, Dendritic Cells, and Proinflammatory Cytokines 16

1.6 T Lymphocytes 17

1.7 Other Parameters of the Immune Response 18

1.8 Conclusions 19

References 21

II Viral Infections of Bats 25

2 RABIES VIRUS AND OTHER BAT RHABDOVIRUSES 27

2.1 Introduction to the Family Rhabdoviridae 27

2.2 Lyssaviruses 27

2.2.1 Rabies virus 32

2.2.2 Other lyssaviruses of bats 36

2.2.3 Lyssavirus transmission 40

2.2.4 Lyssavirus sites of infection 41

2.2.5 Lyssavirus entry into cells 42

2.2.6 Prevention of lyssavirus infection 43

2.2.7 Immune response to lyssaviruses 44

2.2.8 Lyssavirus surveillance 45

2.3 Other Rhabdoviruses 45

2.3.1 The Kern Canyon serogroup of genus Vesiculovirus 46

2.3.2 Kumasi rhabdovirus 47

2.3.3 Unclassified rhabdoviruses 47

2.4 Conclusions 48

References 49

3 HENIPAVIRUSES AND OTHER PARAMYXOVIRUSES OF BATS 53

3.1 Introduction to Paramyxoviridae 53

3.2 Diseases Associated with Paramyxoviridae 59

3.2.1 Henipaviruses and disease 59

3.2.2 Morbilliviruses and disease 59

3.2.3 Rubulaviruses and disease 60

3.3 Henipaviruses in Bats 60

3.3.1 Henipaviruses in bats from Oceania and Southeast Asia 60

3.3.2 Henipaviruses and bats from Africa 61

3.3.3 Henipaviruses in bats from Madagascar 62

3.3.4 Henipavirus proteins and infection of bats 62

3.4 Hendra Virus 64

3.4.1 Hendra virus in Australian bats, horses, and humans 64

3.4.2 Factors affecting levels of Hendra viruses in bats and the potential for zoonotic transmission 65

3.5 Nipah Virus 66

3.5.1 Nipah virus in humans and pigs 66

3.5.2 Nipah virus in bats from Malaysia and Indonesia 67

3.5.3 Nipah virus in bats from India and Bangladesh 68

3.5.4 Interspecies Nipah virus transmission via date palm sap and bat urine 68

3.6 Cedar Virus 70

3.7 Protective Bat Responses to Henipavirus Infection 70

3.7.1 The interferon/STAT pathway and henipaviruses 70

3.7.2 Antibodies and henipaviruses 72

3.7.3 Apoptosis 72

3.8 Methods of Preventing Henipavirus Infection 73

3.9 Rubulaviruses 74

3.9.1 Bat parainfluenza virus 74

3.9.2 Menangle virus in bats and domestic animals 74

3.9.3 Tioman virus in bats and humans 75

3.9.4 Tuhoko viruses in bats 75

3.9.5 Achimota viruses in bats 75

3.9.6 Sosuga virus in bats and humans 76

3.9.7 Jeilongvirus in bats 76

3.9.8 Mumps ]like bat virus 76

3.9.9 Mapuera virus in bats 76

3.10 Morbilliviruses in Bats 77

3.11 Belinga bat Virus 77

3.12 Large, Multiviral Studies of Paramyxoviruses in Bats 78

3.12.1 Multiviral paramyxoviruses studies in Asia 78

3.12.2 Multiviral paramyxoviruses studies in Africa 78

3.12.3 Multiviral paramyxoviruses studies in Madagascar and islands of the Southwest Indian Ocean 79

3.12.4 Multiviral paramyxoviruses studies in Oceania 79

3.13 Conclusions 80

References 82

4 FILOVIRUSES AND BATS 89

4.1 Filoviruses 89

4.1.1 History of filovirus infection 90

4.1.2 Filovirus disease 91

4.1.3 The roles of viral proteins 91

4.2 Marburg Virus 96

4.2.1 Marburg virus in humans and bats 96

4.2.2 Experimental infection of bats with Marburg virus 98

4.3 Ebola Virus 99

4.3.1 Ebola virus in humans and bats 99

4.3.2 Ebola virus and bats prior to the 2014 outbreak 99

4.3.3 EBOV incidence in bats during and after the

2014 outbreak 100

4.4 Lloviu and Related Filoviruses in Bats 101

4.5 Seasonality of Filovirus Infection in Bats 101

4.6 Factors Affecting Zoonotic Infection by Filoviruses 102

4.7 Filoviruses in Animals Other Than Bats 103

4.8 Conclusions 104

References 106

5 BATS AND CORONAVIRUSES 111

5.1 Introduction 111

5.2 SARS Coronavirus 114

5.2.1 The history of SARS 114

5.2.2 SARS pathology 115

5.2.3 Viral and cellular proteins and their role in entry into the host cells 116

5.2.4 SARS in civits and raccoon dogs 118

5.2.5 Relatedness of bat SARS ]like CoV to SARS ]CoV 119

5.3 MERS Coronavirus 122

5.3.1 MERS pathology 122

5.3.2 Viral and cellular proteins and their role in entry into the host cells 123

5.3.3 MERS ]CoV and spillover from domestic livestock 124

5.3.4 Relatedness of bat ]CoV to MERS ]CoV 126

5.3.5 Transmission of MERS ]CoV 130

5.4 Other Coronaviruses of Bats 131

5.5 Conclusions 133

References 134

6 OTHER RNA VIRUSES AND BATS 139

6.1 Introduction 139

6.2 Baltimore Class III Viruses and Bats 139

6.2.1 Orbiviruses 140

6.2.2 Rotaviruses 140

6.2.3 Pteropine orthomyxovirus group 140

6.2.4 Mammalian orthoreoviruses 154

6.3 Baltimore Class IV Viruses 156

6.3.1 Astroviruses 156

6.3.2 Flaviviruses 158

6.3.3 Hepeviruses 164

6.3.4 Picornaviruses 164

6.4 Baltimore Class V Viruses 165

6.4.1 Bunyaviridae 165

6.4.2 Orthomyxoviruses 168

6.4.3 Arenaviridae 170

6.5 Large, Multi ]Virus Studies 171

6.6 Conclusions 171

References 174

7 BALTIMORE CLASS I AND CLASS II DNA VIRUSES OF BATS 181

7.1 Introduction to Double ] and Single ] Stranded DNA Viruses 181

7.2 Baltimore Class I Viruses 181

7.2.1 Poxviruses 190

7.2.2 Adenoviruses 191

7.2.3 Herpesviruses 192

7.2.4 Papillomaviruses 194

7.2.5 Polyomaviruses 194

7.3 Baltimore Class II Viruses 196

7.3.1 Parvoviruses 196

7.3.2 Dependoviruses 197

7.3.3 Circular replication ]associated protein encoding single ]stranded DNA viruses 197

7.4 Conclusions 199

References 201

8 REVERSE ]TRANSCRIBING BAT VIRUSES AND LARGE ]SCALE BAT VIROME STUDIES 205

8.1 Baltimore Class VI Retroviruses 205

8.1.1 Exogenous and endogenous retroviruses and their life ]cycles 205

8.1.2 Viral polyproteins 208

8.1.3 Retroviral genera 209

8.1.4 Endogenous gammaretroviruses of bats and other mammals 209

8.1.5 Betaretroviruses of bats and other mammals 210

8.2 Evidence of Ancient Endogenous Virus Genomic Elements in Bat Chromosomes 211

8.2.1 Endogenous bornavirus genomic elements in bat chromosomes 212

8.2.2 Endogenous Ebola and Marburg virus genomic elements in bat chromosomes 212

8.3 Hepadnaviruses – Baltimore Class VII Reverse ]Transcribing DNA Viruses 213

8.3.1 Human hepatitis B virus 213

8.3.2 Orthohepadnaviruses and bats 214

8.4 Large ]Scale Bat Virome Studies 215

8.4.1 Bat virome studies in North America 215

8.4.2 Bat virome studies in Europe 215

8.4.3 Bat virome studies in Asia and Southeast Asia 216

8.4.4 Bat virome studies in Oceania 217

8.5 Conclusions 217

References 218

III Bacterial Infections of Bats 221

9 ARTHROPOD ]BORNE BACTERIAL INFECTIONS OF BATS 223

9.1 Introduction 223

9.2 Bartonella 226

9.2.1 Bartonella in bats from Asia 226

9.2.2 Bartonella in bats from Africa 226

9.2.3 Bartonella in bats from Europe 228

9.2.4 Bartonella in bats from the Americas 228

9.3 Borrelia 229

9.4 Rickettsia 230

9.4.1 Rickettsia and human disease 230

9.4.2 Rickesttsia and bats 231

9.5 Bat Ectoparasites As Bacterial Vectors 231

9.5.1 Bacteria from bat flies 231

9.5.2 Bacteria from bat ticks 232

9.6 Conclusions 234

References 235

10 OTHER BACTERIA AND BATS 239

10.1 Introduction 239

10.2 Leptospira 245

10.2.1 Leptospira in South America 245

10.2.2 Leptospira in Africa 246

10.2.3 Leptospira in islands of the Indian Ocean 246

10.2.4 Leptospira in Australia 247

10.3 Yersinia 248

10.4 Pasteurella 249

10.5 Mycoplasma 250

10.6 Waddlia 250

10.7 Rickettsia and Similar Bacteria 251

10.8 Bat Gastrointestinal Tract Bacteria 251

10.8.1 Gastrointestinal bacteria in bats of Southeast Asia and Oceania 251

10.8.2 Gastrointestinal bacteria in bats of Madagascar 252

10.8.3 Gastrointestinal bacteria in bats of the Americas 253

10.9 Large ]Scale Studies of Other Bat Bacteria 254

10.10 Bacterial Species Beneficial to Bats 255

10.11 Conclusions 256

References 257

IV Protist Infections of Bats 261

11 APICOMPLEXANS AND BATS 263

11.1 Introduction to Apicomplexa and Coccidea 263

11.2 Order Haemosporida 269

11.2.1 Invertebrate hosts of Haemosporida 269

11.2.2 Bat hosts of Haemosporida 270

11.3 Order Piroplasmida 272

11.3.1 Babesia species and bats 272

11.3.2 Other Piroplasmida in bats 272

11.4 Order Eimeriida 273

11.4.1 Toxoplasma gondii and bats 273

11.4.2 Eimeria species and bats 276

11.5 Order Adeleida, Crytoporidium Species, and Bats 277

11.6 Conclusions 278

References 280

12 KINETOPLASTIDS AND BATS 285

12.1 Kinetoplastids 285

12.2 Trypanosomes 289

12.2.1 Life cycles of trypanosomes 289

12.2.2 Trypanosomes and disease 290

12.2.3 Trypanosomes infecting bats throughout the world 290

12.2.4 Trypanosoma cruzi 293

12.3 Leishmania 295

12.3.1 Leishmania and disease 295

12.3.2 Leishmania and bats 296

12.4 Conclusions 297

References 298

V Fungal Infections of Bats 303

13 WHITE ]NOSE SYNDROME AND BATS 305

13.1 Introduction to Pseudogymnoascus destructans 305

13.2 White ]Nose Syndrome 306

13.2.1 Arousal, loss of fat reserves, and dehydration 308

13.2.2 The role of torpor in WNS disease dynamics 309

13.2.3 WNS and wing damage 310

13.3 The Geographical Distribution of White ]Nose Syndrome 311

13.3.1 WNS in North America 311

13.3.2 WNS in Europe 312

13.3.3 WNS in Eastern Asia 313

13.4 The Effects of White ]Nose Syndrome on Selected North American Bat Populations 313

13.4.1 WNS and Myotis lucifugus 313

13.4.2 WNS and Myotis sodalis 314

13.5 The Bat Immune Response to White ]Nose Syndrome 315

13.5.1 Leukocyte counts 315

13.5.2 Antifungal activity in the plasma 315

13.5.3 T helper cell activity in infected bats 315

13.5.4 Inflammatory activity in infected bats 315

13.5.5 Differences in the immune response to WNS in European and North American bats 316

13.5.6 Immune ]mediated pathology in WNS 317

13.6 Antifungal Agents 317

13.6.1 Antifungal compounds 317

13.6.2 Antifungal agents derived from bacteria 318

13.6.3 Antifungal agents derived from fungi 318

13.7 The Mycobiome of White ]Nose Syndrome ]Infected Hibernacula 319

13.8 Recovery and Recolonization 320

References 321

14 HISTOPLASMA CAPSULATUM AND OTHER FUNGI AND BATS 327

14.1 Fungal Species and Bats 327

14.1.1 Histoplasma capsulatum 327

14.1.2 Blastomyces dermatitidis 336

14.1.3 Pneumocystis 337

14.1.4 Coccidioides 337

14.1.5 Encephalitozoon 337

14.1.6 Other fungi of bats 338

14.2 Broad Surveys of Fungi in Bats 338

14.2.1 Asia 338

14.2.2 Europe 338

14.2.3 The Americas 339

14.2.4 Fungi inhabiting bat external surfaces 340

14.3 Experimental Infection of Bats with Fungi 341

14.4 Immune Response to Fungi 341

14.5 Yeast in Bats 342

14.5.1 Candida 342

14.5.2 Malassezia 342

14.5.3 Yeasts in Japan 342

14.6 Conclusions 343

References 344

VI Zoonotic Disease Transmission and Bats 349

15 ZOONOTIC TRANSMISSION OF DISEASE BY BATS AND OTHER ANIMALS 351

15.1 Introduction 351

15.2 Zoonotic Transmission of Infection by Bats 353

15.2.1 Direct or indirect zoonotic transmission by bats to humans 354

15.2.2 Transmission and persistence of viruses within and among bat species over large geographical ranges 354

15.2.3 Seasonal changes contributing to zoonotic transmission from bats 355

15.3 Zoonotic Transmission of Infection by other Animal Species 356

15.3.1 Zoonotic transmission by rodents 357

15.3.2 Zoonotic transmission by companion animals 359

15.3.3 Zoonotic transmission by selected agricultural animals 360

15.4 Factors that Increase the Risk of Zoonotic Infection by Bats 362

15.4.1 Increasing urbanization of bats 362

15.4.2 Human activities that increase contact with bats, including the bushmeat trade 362

15.5 Strategies to Prevent Zoonotic Transmission from Bats to Humans or other Animals 363

15.6 Conclusions 364

References 366

Index 371

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Author Information

About the Author
Lisa A. Beltz
is an Associate Professor of Natural Sciences at Malone University in Canton, Ohio, USA.

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