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Evaluating Public and Community Health Programs, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-1-119-15105-0
408 pages
November 2016, Jossey-Bass
Evaluating Public and Community Health Programs, 2nd Edition (1119151058) cover image

Description

A practical introduction to participatory program evaluation

Evaluating Public and Community Health Programs provides a comprehensive introduction to the theory and practice of evaluation, with a participatory model that brings stakeholders together for the good of the program. Linking community assessment, program implementation, and program evaluation, this book emphasizes practical, ongoing evaluation strategies that connect theory with application. This updated second edition includes new discussion on planning policy change programs using logic models and theory of change, plus expanded coverage of processes, outcomes, data collection, and more. Each chapter includes classroom activities and group discussion prompts, and the companion website provides worksheets, lecture slides, and a test bank for instructors. Mini cases help illustrate the real-world applications of the methods described, and expanded case studies allow students to dig deeper into practice and apply what they've learned.

Accurate and effective evaluation is the key to a successful program. This book provides a thorough introduction to all aspects of this critical function, with a wealth of opportunities to apply new concepts.

  • Learn evaluation strategies that involve all program stakeholders
  • Link theory to practice with new mini cases and examples
  • Understand the uses, processes, and approaches to evaluation
  • Discover how ongoing evaluation increases program effectiveness

Public and community health programs are a vital part of our social infrastructure, and the more effective they are, the more people they can serve. Proper planning is important, but continued evaluation is what keeps a program on track for the long term. Evaluating Public and Community Health Programs provides clear instruction and insightful discussion on the many facets of evaluation, with a central focus on real-world service.

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Table of Contents

Preface xiii

Acknowledgments xv

1 AN INTRODUCTION TO PUBLIC AND COMMUNITY HEALTH EVALUATION 1

Overview of Evaluation 3

Levels of Evaluation 5

Preassessment Evaluations 6

The Participatory Approach to Evaluation 8

The Participatory Model for Evaluation 10

The Precursors to Program Evaluation 12

Cultural Considerations in Evaluation 17

Summary 21

Discussion Questions and Activities 22

Key Terms 22

2 THE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT: AN OVERVIEW 23

Theoretical Considerations 26

The Ecological Model 29

Data Collection 31

Data Sources 42

Reviewing the Scientific Literature 49

The Report 50

Stakeholders’ Participation in Community Assessments 52

Summary 53

Discussion Questions and Activities 54

Key Terms 54

3 DEVELOPING INITIATIVES: AN OVERVIEW 55

The Organization’s Mission 58

Planning the Initiative 59

Incorporate Theory 60

Goals and Objectives 64

The Initiative’s Activities 71

Use Existing Evidence-Based Programs 75

The Program’s Theory of Change 77

The Logic Model Depicting the Theory of Change 77

Criteria for Successful Initiatives 81

Stakeholders’ Participation in Planning and Developing Initiatives 82

Summary 82

Discussion Questions and Activities 83

Key Terms 84

4 PLANNING FOR EVALUATION: PURPOSE AND PROCESSES 85

The Timing of the Evaluation 86

The Purpose of Evaluation 87

The Contract for Evaluation 90

The Evaluation Team 91

Evaluation Standards 93

Managing the Evaluation Process 94

Factors That Influence the Evaluation Process 100

Planning for Ethical Program Evaluation 103

Involving Stakeholders 104

Creating and Maintaining Effective Partnerships 105

Summary 109

Discussion Questions and Activities 110

Key Terms 110

5 DESIGNING THE EVALUATION: PART 1: DESCRIBING THE PROGRAM OR POLICY 111

The Context of the Initiative 114

The Social, Political, and Economic Environment 116

The Organizational Structure and Resources 117

The Initiative and Its Relationship to the Organization 118

The Stage of Development of the Initiative 118

Data Access and Availability 119

The Program Initiative 119

The Policy Initiatives 125

Summary 131

Discussion Questions and Activities 132

Key Terms 132

6 DESIGNING THE EVALUATION: PART 2A: PROCESS EVALUATION 133

Purposes of Process Evaluation 135

Key Issues in Process Evaluation 137

Selecting Questions for Process Evaluation 146

Resources for Evaluation 152

Measuring Resources, Processes, and Outputs 153

Tools for Process Evaluation 155

Ethical and Cultural Considerations 157

Summary 168

Discussion Questions and Activities 169

Key Terms 169

7 DESIGNING THE EVALUATION: PART 2B: OUTCOME EVALUATION 171

The Relationship Between Process and Outcome Evaluation 172

Sorting and Selecting Evaluation Questions 176

Summary 191

Discussion Questions and Activities 192

Key Terms 192

8 COLLECTING THE DATA: QUANTITATIVE 193

Quantitative Data 194

Factors Influencing Data Collection 195

Using Surveys 200

Designing Survey Instruments 206

Pilot Testing 209

Triangulation 210

Institutional Review and Ethics Boards 211

The Data Collection Team 212

Managing and Storing Data 213

Stakeholder Involvement 213

Summary 214

Discussion Questions and Activities 215

Key Terms 215

9 COLLECTING THE DATA: QUALITATIVE 217

Qualitative Data 218

Ensuring Validity and Reliability 219

Interview-Format Approaches 221

Document and Record Review 231

Observational Approaches 233

Case Reviews 235

Digital Approaches 236

Geographic Information Systems 237

Training Data Collectors 238

Managing and Storing Qualitative Data 239

Stakeholder Involvement 239

The Data Collection Team 240

Summary 241

Discussion Questions and Activities 242

Key Terms 242

10 ANALYZING AND INTERPRETING QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DATA: QUANTITATIVE (PART 1) 243

Analyzing and Reporting Quantitative Data 244

Reaching Conclusions 249

Stakeholder Involvement 250

Summary 257

Discussion Questions and Activities 257

QUALITATIVE (PART 2) 258

Analyzing Qualitative Data 258

Interpreting the Data and Reaching Conclusions 264

The Role of Stakeholders 267

Summary 268

Discussion Questions and Activities 269

Key Terms 269

11 REPORTING EVALUATION FINDINGS 271

The Content of the Report 274

The Audience for the Report 280

The Timing of the Report 281

The Format of the Report 282

Summary 286

Discussion Questions and Activities 287

Key Terms 287

12 CASE STUDY: THE COMMUNITY ASSESSMENT 289

Background 289

Establish a Team 289

Determine the Availability of Data 291

Decide on the Data-Collection Approaches and Methods 292

Training 293

Resource Procurement 294

Analysis and Interpretation of the Data 294

Summary of Findings 294

The Intervention 295

Design the Evaluation 298

Collect the Data 306

Analyze and Interpret the Data 310

Report the Results 313

Discussion Questions and Activities 315

13 CASE STUDY: PROCESS EVALUATION 317

Background 317

Theoretical Framework 318

Community Assessment Findings 319

The Evaluation Plan 326

Answering the Evaluation Question 328

Reporting the Results 338

Discussion Questions and Activities 340

A MODEL AGREEMENT BETWEEN EVALUATION CONSULTANT AND TEAM MEMBERS 341

B MODEL PREAMBLE FOR ADULT INDIVIDUAL INTERVIEWS 345

C MODEL DEMOGRAPHIC SHEET 347

D MODEL FIELD NOTES REPORT 349

E MODEL INTERVIEW REFUSAL REPORT 351

F DATA COLLECTION TRAINING MANUAL TEMPLATE 353

Conducting the Interview 355

G GUIDELINES FOR COMPLETING AN EVALUATION REPORT 363

Methodology 364

REFERENCES 367

INDEX 373

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Author Information

MURIEL J. HARRIS, PHD, MPH, Associate Professor, Department of Health Promotion and Behavioral Sciences, University of Louisville.

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