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Novel Nanoscale Hybrid Materials

ISBN: 978-1-119-15624-6
384 pages
February 2018
Novel Nanoscale Hybrid Materials (1119156246) cover image

Description

A comprehensive resource filled with strategic insights, tools, and techniques for the design and construction of hybrid materials

Hybrid materials represent the best of material properties being combined for the development for materials with properties otherwise unavailable for application requirements. Novel Nanoscale Hybrid Materials is a comprehensive resource that contains contributions from a wide range of noted scientists from various fields, working on the hybridization of nanomolecules in order to generate new materials with superior properties. The book focuses on the new directions and developments in design and application of new materials, incorporating organic/inorganic polymers, biopolymers, and nanoarchitecture approaches. 

This book delves deeply into the complexities that arise when characteristics of a molecule change on the nanoscale, overriding the properties of the individual nanomolecules and generating new properties and capabilities altogether. The main topics cover hybrids of carbon nanotubes and metal nanoparticles, semiconductor polymer/biopolymer hybrids, metal biopolymer hybrids, bioorganic/inorganic hybrids, and much more.

This important resource:

  • Addresses a cutting-edge field within nanomaterials by presenting a groundbreaking topics that address hybrid nanostructures
  • Includes contributions from an interdisciplinary group of chemists, physicists, materials scientists, chemical and biomedical engineers
  • Contains applications in a wide-range of fields—including biomedicine, energy, catalysis, green chemistry, graphene chemistry, and environmental science
  • Offers expert commentaries that explore potential future avenues of future research trends

Novel Nanoscale Hybrid Materials is an important resource for chemists, physicists, materials, chemical and biomedical engineers that offers the most recent developments and techniques in hybrid nanostructures. 

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Table of Contents

List of Contributors xiii

1 Silanols as Building Blocks for Nanomaterials 1
Masafumi Unno and Hisayuki Endo

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Synthesis and Applications of Silanols 2

1.2.1 Silanetriols and Disiloxanetetraols 2

1.2.2 Cyclotetrasiloxanetetraol (Cyclic Silanols, All ]cis Isomer) 5

1.2.3 Cyclotetrasiloxanetetraol (Cyclic Silanols, Other Isomers) 14

1.2.4 Cyclotrisiloxanetriol 15

1.3 Structures and Properties of Nanomaterials Obtained from Silanols 20

1.3.1 Structure of Laddersiloxanes 20

1.3.2 Thermal Property of Laddersiloxanes 23

1.3.3 Thermal Property of Other Silsesquioxanes 26

1.3.4 Refractive Indices of Silsesquioxanes 28

1.4 Summary and Outlook 29

References 29

2 Biomacromolecule ]Enabled Synthesis of Inorganic Materials 33
Kristina L. Roth and Tijana Z. Grove

2.1 Introduction 33

2.2 DNA 34

2.3 Proteins and Peptides 36

2.3.1 Cage Proteins 37

2.3.2 Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) 38

2.3.3 Engineered Peptides 40

2.3.4 Engineered Protein Scaffolds 42

2.4 Polysaccharides 44

2.5 Methods of Characterization 46

2.6 Conclusion 50

References 50

3 Multilayer Assemblies of Biopolymers: Synthesis, Properties, and Applications 57
Jun Chen, Veronika Kozlovskaya, Daniëlle Pretorius, and Eugenia Kharlampieva

3.1 Introduction 57

3.2 Assembly of Biopolymer Multilayers 58

3.2.1 Biopolymers and Their Properties 58

3.2.2 Growth and Thickness of Biopolymer Multilayers 59

3.2.3 Stability in Solutions and Enzymatic Degradation of Biopolymer Multilayers 74

3.2.3.1 Enzymatic Degradation 75

3.2.3.2 pH and Salt Stability 78

3.2.4 Hydration and Swelling of Biopolymer Multilayers 81

3.3 Properties of Biopolymer Multilayers 83

3.3.1 Surface Properties of Biopolymer Multilayers and Their Interaction with Cells 83

3.3.2 Antibacterial Properties 84

3.3.3 Immunomodulatory Properties 85

3.3.4 Mechanical Properties of Biopolymer Multilayers 87

3.3.5 Other Properties 90

3.4 Applications 91

3.5 Conclusion and Outlook 95

Acknowledgments 96

References 96

4 Functionalization of P3HT ]Based Hybrid Materials for Photovoltaic Applications 107
Michèle Chevrier, Riccardo Di Ciuccio, Olivier Coulembier, Philippe Dubois, Sébastien Richeter, Ahmad Mehdi, and Sébastien Clément

4.1 Introduction 107

4.2 Design and Synthesis of Regioregular Poly(3 ]Hexylthiophene) 109

4.2.1 Metal ]Catalyzed Cross ]Coupling Reactions 114

4.2.1.1 Nickel ]Catalyzed Cross ]Coupling Reactions 114

4.2.1.2 Palladium ]Catalyzed Cross ]Coupling Reactions 121

4.2.2 Functionalization of P3HT 126

4.2.2.1 End ]Group Functionalization 127

4.2.2.2 Side ]Chain Functionalization 130

4.3 Morphology Control of P3HT/PCBM Blend by Functionalization 132

4.3.1 Introduction 132

4.3.2 End ]Group Functionalization 134

4.3.2.1 Fluorinated Chain Ends 135

4.3.2.2 Hydrophilic Chain Ends 139

4.3.2.3 Aromatic Chain Ends 139

4.3.2.4 Fullerene Chain Ends: Compatibilizer Case 141

4.3.3 Side ]Chain Functionalization 144

4.3.3.1 Thermal and Photo ]Cross ]Linking 144

4.3.3.2 Fullerene Side ]Functionalization on Polythiophene Block Copolymers 147

4.3.3.3 Cooperative Self ]Assembling 149

4.4 Polymer–Metal Oxide Hybrid Solar Cells 154

4.4.1 Anchoring Method 156

4.4.2 Surface Modification Using End ] and Side ]Chain ]Functionalized P3HT 158

4.4.2.1 End ]Group Functionalization 158

4.4.2.2 Side ]Chain Functionalization 161

4.5 Conclusion 163

Acknowledgments 164

References 164

5 Insights on Nanofiller Reinforced Polysiloxane Hybrids 179
Debarshi Dasgupta, Alok Sarkar, Dieter Wrobel, and Anubhav Saxena

5.1 Properties of Silicone (Polysiloxane) 179

5.2 Nanofiller Composition and Chemistry 183

5.2.1 Fumed Silica 183

5.2.2 Aerogel Silica 185

5.2.3 Carbon Black 187

5.3 Polymer [Poly(dimethylsiloxane)]–Filler Interaction 187

5.4 Polymer– Filler Versus Filler–Filler Interactions 190

5.5 PDMS Nanocomposite with Anisotropic Fillers 194

5.6 PDMS– Molecular Filler Nanocomposite 196

Acknowledgment 198

References 198

6 Nanophotonics with Hybrid Nanostructures: New Phenomena and New Possibilities 201
Noor Eldabagh, Jessica Czarnecki, and Jonathan J. Foley IV

6.1 Introduction 202

6.2 Theoretical Nanophotonics 204

6.2.1 Mie Theory for Spherical Nanostructures 205

6.2.2 Transfer Matrix Methods for Planar Structures 208

6.2.3 The Finite ]Difference Time ]Domain Method 214

6.2.4 The Discrete Dipole Approximation 215

6.3 Hybrid Nanostructures 216

6.3.1 Emergent Electrodynamics Phenomena: Inhomogeneous Surface Plasmon Polaritons 216

6.3.2 Advancing Imaging Beyond the Diffraction Limit with ISPPs 220

6.3.3 Emergent Material ]Dependent Optical Response in Hybrid Nanostructures 222

6.3.4 Perspective on the Horizon of Health Applications of Hybrid Nanostructures 228

6.3.5 Photodynamic Therapy 228

6.3.6 In Vivo Light Sources 231

6.4 Concluding Remarks 233

References 233

7 Drug Delivery Vehicles from Stimuli ]Responsive Block Copolymers 239
Prajakta Kulkarni and Sanku Mallik

7.1 Introduction 239

7.2 Block Copolymers for Drug Delivery 241

7.3 Polymeric Nanoparticles 241

7.3.1 Micelles 241

7.3.2 Hydrogels 243

7.3.3 Polymersomes 244

7.4 Stimuli ] Responsive Drug Delivery 245

7.4.1 Physical/External Stimuli ]Responsive Polymers 246

7.4.1.1 Temperature 246

7.4.1.2 Electro ]Responsive Polymers 247

7.4.1.3 Light ]Responsive Polymers 247

7.4.1.4 Ultrasound ]Responsive Polymers 248

7.4.2 Chemical/Internal Stimuli ]Responsive Polymers 248

7.4.2.1 PH ]Responsive Polymers 248

7.4.2.2 Ionic Strength ]Responsive Polymers 251

7.4.2.3 Enzyme ]Responsive Polymers 251

7.4.2.4 Reduction ]Sensitive Polymers 251

7.5 Challenges and Prospects 252

7.6 Summary 252

References 253

8 Mechanical Properties of Rubber ]Toughened Epoxy Nanocomposites 263
B. Zewde, I. J. Zvonkina, A. Bagasao, K. Cassimere, K. Holloway, A. Karim, and D. Raghavan

8.1 Introduction 263

8.2 Epoxy Resins 265

8.3 Rubber ] Toughened Epoxy Resin 266

8.4 Nanoparticle Filled Epoxy Nanocomposites 269

8.5 Carbon Nanotubes 270

8.6 Rubber ]Toughened CNT Filled Epoxy Nanocomposites 275

8.7 Nanoclay Filled Epoxy Nanocomposites 277

8.8 Rubber ]Toughened Nanoclay Filled Epoxy Nanocomposites 282

8.9 Silicon Dioxide Nanoparticles 284

8.10 Rubber ]Toughened Nanosilica Filled Epoxy Nanocomposites 286

8.11 Conclusions 289

Acknowledgments 280

References 280

9 Metal Complexes in Reverse Micelles 301
Marc A. Walters

9.1 Introduction 301

9.2 Location of Metal Complex Probes in the RM Core 302

9.3 Metal Complexes in Confinement 304

9.3.1 Substitution Reactions and Physical Methods 304

9.3.2 Redox Reactions in Reverse Micelles 309

9.3.3 Metal Ion Binding 311

9.4 Conclusions 320

References 320

10 Heterogenized Catalysis on Metals Impregnated Mesoporous Silica 323
Fatima Abi Ghaida, Sébastien Clément, and Ahmad Mehdi

10.1 Introduction 323

10.2 Mesoporous Silica in Catalysis 327

10.3 Modified Mesoporous Silica 329

10.4 Recent Advances in SBA Applied to Catalysis 332

10.5 Conclusion 341

References 342

Index

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Author Information

Bhanu P. S. Chauhan is a Professor and the Chairperson of the Department of Chemistry at William Paterson University, where he heads the Engineered Nanomaterials Laboratory. He obtained his PhD under the guidance of Professor Robert Corriu from Montpellier University II, France and received postdoctoral training in the groups of Professor Masato Tanaka (National Institute of Materials and Chemical Research in Japan) and Professor Phil Boudjouk (North Dakota State University). He has held the position of Assistant Professor at Catholic University of America and City University of New York-CSI, where he also attained the rank of Associate Professor. He joined William Paterson University (WPU) in 2007. His research area is in the field of nanomaterials synthesis and application in areas such as green catalysis, hybrid materials for new optical and data storage, and nanostructure-based drug delivery vehicles. 

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