Fault Zone Dynamic Processes: Evolution of Fault Properties During Seismic Rupture
July 2017, American Geophysical Union
Why do earthquakes happen? What properties control the dynamic rupture and what are the processes at play? Chapters in the present volume capture the current state of the art by displaying an overview of the existing knowledge on the physics of dynamic faulting and promote multidisciplinary contributions on the observational and experimental fault fabric and mechanics, the evolution of fault zone physical and chemical properties, dynamic rupture processes and physically, and observationally, consistent numerical modeling of fault zone during seismic rupture.
This volume examines questions such as:
- What are the dynamics processes recorded in fault gouge?
- What can we learn on rupture dynamic from laboratory experiments?
- How on-fault and off-fault properties affect seismic ruptures? How do they evolve trough time?
- Insights from physically, and observationally, consistent numerical modeling
Fault Zone Dynamic Processes: Evolution of Fault Properties During Seismic Rupture is a valuable contribution for Earth’s scientists, researchers and students interested in the earthquakes processes and properties of on-fault and off-fault zones. Its multidisciplinary content is relevant to a broad audience: structural geologist, experimentalists, rocks mechanicians, seismologist, geophysicists and modelers.
Part I: Structural Evidences of Coseismic Slip 1
1 Incipient Pulverization at Shallow Burial Depths Along the San Jacinto Fault, Southern California
James J. Whearty, Thomas K. Rockwell, and Gary H. Girty 3
2 Seismic Rupture Parameters Deduced From a Pliocene ]Pleistocene Fault Pseudotachylyte in Taiwan
Caitlyn S. Korren, Eric C. Ferre, En -Chao Yeh, Yu ]Min Chou, and Hao ]Tsu Chu 21
3 Fluid Inclusion Evidence of Coseismic Fluid Flow Induced by Dynamic Rupture
Thomas M. Mitchell, Jose M. Cembrano, Kazuna Fujita, Kenichi Hoshino, Daniel R. Faulkner, Pamela Perez Flores, Gloria Arancibia, Marieke Rempe, and Rodrigo Gomila 37
4 Coseismic Damage Generation and Pulverization in Fault Zones: Insights From Dynamic Split ]Hopkinson Pressure Bar Experiments
Franciscus M. Aben, Mai -Linh Doan, Jean ]Pierre Gratier, and François Renard 47
5 “Coseismic Foliations” in Gouge and Cataclasite: Experimental Observations and Consequences for Interpreting the Fault Rock Record
Steven A. F. Smith, James R. Griffiths, Michele Fondriest, and Giulio Di Toro 81
Part II: Fault Properties During Dynamic Rupture 103
6 The Transition From Frictional Sliding to Shear Melting in Laboratory Stick ]Slip Experiments
David A. Lockner, Brian D. Kilgore, Nicholas M. Beeler, and Diane E. Moore 105
7 Powder Rolling as a Mechanism of Dynamic Fault Weakening
Xiaofeng Chen, Andrew S. Elwood Madden, and Ze’ev Reches 133
8 Earthquake Source Properties From Instrumented Laboratory Stick ]Slip
Brian D. Kilgore, Art McGarr, Nicholas M. Beeler, and David A. Lockner 151
9 Dynamic Weakening and the Depth Dependence of Earthquake Faulting
Nicolas Brantut and John D. Platt 171
Part III: Influence of Fault Properties on Coseismic Rupture 195
10 Scaling of Fault Roughness and Implications for Earthquake Mechanics
François Renard and Thibault Candela 197
11 Fault Branching and Long ]Term Earthquake Rupture Scenario for Strike ]Slip Earthquakes
Yann Klinger, Jin -Hyuck Choi, and Amaury Vallage 217
12 Influence of Fault Strength on Precursory Processes During Laboratory Earthquakes
François. X. Passelègue, Soumaya Latour, Alexandre Schubnel, Stefan Nielsen, Harsha S. Bhat, and Raúl Madariaga 229
13 Upper Limit on Damage Zone Thickness Controlled by Seismogenic Depth
Jean Paul Ampuero and Xiaolin Mao 243
14 Effect of Brittle Off ]Fault Damage on Earthquake Rupture Dynamics
Marion Y. Thomas, Harsha S. Bhat, and Yann Klinger 255