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Hybrid Nanomaterials: Advances in Energy, Environment, and Polymer Nanocomposites

ISBN: 978-1-119-16034-2
544 pages
June 2017
Hybrid Nanomaterials: Advances in Energy, Environment, and Polymer Nanocomposites (1119160340) cover image


A hybrid material is defined as a material composed of an intimate mixture of inorganic components, organic components, or both types of components. In the last few years, a tremendous amount of attention has been given towards the development of materials for efficient energy harvesting; nanostructured hybrid materials have also been gaining significant advances to provide pollutant free drinking water, sensing of environmental pollutants, energy storage and conservation. Separately, intensive work on high performing polymer nanocomposites for applications in the automotive, aerospace and construction industries has been carried out, but the aggregation of many fillers, such as clay, LDH, CNT, graphene, represented a major barrier in their development. Only very recently has this problem been overcome by fabrication and applications of 3D hybrid nanomaterials as nanofillers in a variety of polymers.

This book, Hybrid Nanomaterials, examines all the recent developments in the research and specially covers the following subjects:

  • Hybrid nanostructured materials for development of advanced lithium batteries
  • High performing hybrid nanomaterials for supercapacitor applications
  • Nanohybrid materials in the development of solar energy applications
  • Application of hybrid nanomaterials in water purification
  • Advanced nanostructured materials in electromagnetic shielding of radiations
  • Preparation, properties and application of hybrid nanomaterials in sensing of environmental pollutants
  • Development of hybrid fillers/polymer nanocomposites for electronic applications
  • High performance hybrid filler reinforced epoxy nanocomposites
  • State-of-the-art overview of elastomer/hybrid filler nanocomposites
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Table of Contents

Preface xiii

1 Hybrid Nanostructured Materials for Advanced Lithium Batteries 1
Soumyadip Choudhury and Manfred Stamm

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Battery Requirements 4

1.3 Survey of Rechargeable Batteries 7

1.4 Advanced Materials for Electrodes 9

1.5 Future Battery Strategies 38

1.6 Limitations of Existing Strategies 59

1.7 Conclusions 62

Acknowledgments 63

References 63

2 High Performing Hybrid Nanomaterials for Supercapacitor Applications 79
Sanjit Saha, Milan Jana and Tapas Kuila

2.1 Introduction 80

2.2 Scope of the Chapter 82

2.3 Characterization of Hybrid Nanomaterials 82

2.4 Hybrid Nanomaterials as Electrodes for Supercapacitor 91

2.5 Applications of Supercapacitor 130

2.6 Conclusions 134

References 135

3 Nanohybrid Materials in the Development of Solar Energy Applications 147
Poulomi Roy

3.1 Introduction 147

3.2 Significance of Nanohybrid Materials 148

3.3 Synthetic Strategies 162

3.4 Application in Solar Energy Conversion 167

3.5 Summary 175

References 176

4 Hybrid Nanoadsorbents for Drinking Water Treatment: A Critical Review 199
Ashok K. Gupta, Partha S. Ghosal and Brajesh K. Dubey

4.1 Introduction 199

4.2 Status and Health Effects of Different Pollutants 201

4.3 Removal Technologies 203

4.4 Hybrid  Nanoadsorbent 208

4.5 Issues and Challenges 217

4.6 Conclusions 224

References 225

5 Advanced Nanostructured Materials in Electromagnetic Interference  Shielding 241
Suneel Kumar Srivastava and Vikas Mittal

5.1 Introduction 241

5.2 Theoretical Aspect of EMI Shielding 243

5.3 Experimental Methods in Measuring Shielding Effectiveness 247

5.4 Carbon Allotrope-Based Polymer Nanocomposites 248

Fillers-Based Polymer Nanocomposites 265

5.5 Intrinsically Conducting Polymer (ICP) Derived Nanocomposites 276

5.6 Summary 300

6 Preparation, Properties and the Application of Hybrid Nanomaterials in Sensing Environmental Pollutants 321
R. Ajay Rakkesh, D. Durgalakshmi and S. Balakumar

6.1 Introduction 321

6.2 Hybrid Nanomaterials: Smart Material for Sensing Environmental Pollutants 323

6.3 Synthesis Methods of Hybrid Nanomaterials 326

6.4 Basic Mechanism of Gas Sensors Using Hybrid Nanomaterials 330

6.5 Hybrid Nanomaterials-Based Conductometric Gas Sensors for Environmental Monitoring 331

6.6 Conclusion 342

References 342

7 Development of Hybrid Fillers/Polymer Nanocomposites for Electronic Applications 349
Mariatti Jaafar

7.1 Introduction 350

7.2 Factors Influencing the Properties of Filler/Polymer Composite 353

7.3 Hybridization of Fillers in Polymer Composites 355

7.4 Hybrid Fillers in Polymer Nanocomposites 358

7.5 Fabrication Methods of Hybrid Fillers/Polymer Composites 362

7.6 Applications of Hybrid Fillers/Polymer Composites 365

References 366

8 High Performance Hybrid Filler Reinforced Epoxy Nanocomposites 371
Suman Chhetri, Tapas Kuila and Suneel Kumar Srivastava

8.1 Introduction 372

8.2 Reinforcing Fillers 373

8.3 Necessity of Hybrid Filler Systems 376

8.4 Epoxy Resin 379

8.5 Preparation of Hybrid Filler/Epoxy Nanocomposites 380

8.6 Characterization of Hybrid Filler/Epoxy Polymer Composites 381

8.7 Properties of the Hybrid Filler/Epoxy Nanocomposites 383

8.8 Summary and Future Prospect 408

References 413

9 Recent Developments in Elastomer/Hybrid Filler Nanocomposites 423
Suneel Kumar Srivastava and Vikas Mittal

9.1 Introduction 423

9.2 Preparation Methods of Elastomer Nanocomposites 426

9.3 Hybrid Fillers in Elastomer Nanocomposites 427 9.4 Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Filler Incorporated Elastomer Nanocomposites 440

9.5 Dynamical Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMA) of Elastomer Nanocomposites 452

9.6 Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) of Hybrid Filler Incorporated Elastomer Nanocomposites 464

9.7 Differential Scanning Calorimetric (DSC) Analysis of Hybrid Filler Incorporated Elastomer Nanocomposites 468

9.8 Electrical Conductivity of Hybrid Filler Incorporated Elastomer Nanocomposites 476

9.9 Thermal Conductivity of Hybrid Filler Incorporated Elastomer Nanocomposites 477

9.10 Dielectric Properties of Hybrid Filler Incorporated Elastomer Nanocomposits 477

9.11 Shape Memory Property of Hybrid Filler Incorporated Elastomer Nanocomposites 478

9.12 Summary 478

Acknowledgment 479

References 479


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Author Information

Suneel Kumar Srivastava received MSc, DIIT and PhD from Lucknow University and the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur in 1976, 1979 and 1986 respectively. He is Professor in the Department of Chemistry and Acting Head in the School of Energy Science and Engineering of the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur. His research interests are in the fields of zero, one and two dimensional semiconducting and magnetic nanomaterials and their applications in energy and the environment, polymers and polymer blends. He has guided 16 PhD students and published about 135 research papers in referred journals.

Vikas Mittal received his BTech, MTech and PhD degree from Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, India, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Zurich, Switzerland respectively. He is currently the Department Deputy Chair and an Associate Professor of Chemical Engineering at the Petroleum Institute in Abu Dhabi. Dr. Mittal has earlier worked in Polymer Research section of BASF, Ludwigshafen, Germany. His main research interest is in the areas of polymer membranes, polymer processing and nanotechnology and graphene-based nanomaterials. He has published more than 80 articles in refereed journals and conference proceedings and has authored and edited more than 30 books of which 7 are with the Wiley-Scrivener imprint.

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