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Bio-pigmentation and Biotechnological Implementations

Om V. Singh (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-119-16614-6
312 pages
August 2017, Wiley-Blackwell
Bio-pigmentation and Biotechnological Implementations (1119166144) cover image

Description

Recent technological advances have provided unique opportunities for the exploration of alternatives to the industrial use of chemically produced synthetic colors. The most promising developments in this area have been in bio-pigmentation derived from microorganisms. This groundbreaking book reviews the current state of the science of bio-pigmentation, providing important insights into the molecular mechanisms of microbial biosynthesis of industrial pigments. Featuring contributions by leading researchers from both industry and academe, it explores the latest advances in the use of bio-pigments as safe, sustainable alternatives to chemically synthesized pigments, and provides extensive coverage the most promising sources of bio-pigments within the food, feed, and pharmaceutical industries.

•          Proposes microbial uniqueness of coloration in variety of food, feed and pharmaceuticals

•          Covers the basic science behind bio-pigmentation as well as the latest advances in the field

•          Describes detection strategies for screening and identifying color producing microorganisms under varying environmental conditions

•          Provides an exhaustive review of the literature on color producing extremophiles and offers fascinating insights into color production as a stress response in extremophiles

•          Explores microbial molecular mechanisms of color production, with special coverage of color production as secondary metabolites under environmental stress

Bio-pigmentation and Biotechnological Implementations is required reading for professionals and post-doctoral students of microbiology, applied microbiology, food microbiology, food science, and food biochemistry. It is a valuable working resource for scientists working in color-dependent food, feed, and pharmaceuticals.

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Table of Contents

List of Contributors xv

Introduction xvii

1 INTRODUCTION OF NATURAL PIGMENTS FROM MICROORGANISMS 1
Siyuan Wang, Fuchao Xu, and Jixun Zhan

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Microbial Pigments from Eukaryotic Sources 2

1.2.1 Pigments from Algae 2

1.2.2 Pigments from Fungi 4

1.2.3 Pigments from Yeasts 7

1.3 Natural Pigments from Prokaryotes 9

1.3.1 Natural Pigments from Cyanobacteria 9

1.3.2 Natural Pigments from Bacteria 10

1.4 Conclusion 16

References 16

2 ESTABLISHING NOVEL CELL FACTORIES PRODUCING NATURAL PIGMENTS IN EUROPE 23
Gerit Tolborg, Thomas Isbrandt, Thomas Ostenfeld Larsen, and Mhairi Workman

2.1 Introduction 23

2.2 Colorants 25

2.2.1 Classification of Colorants 25

2.2.2 Monascus Pigments 26

2.2.3 Biosynthesis of Monascus Pigments 29

2.2.4 Derivatives of Monascus Pigments 31

2.3 Screening for Monascus Pigment-Producing Cell Factories for the European Market 32

2.3.1 Cell Factory Selection and Identification 32

2.3.2 From Single Pigment Producers to High-Performance Cell Factories 33

2.4 Assessment of the Color Yield 34

2.4.1 Pigment Purification and Quantification 34

2.4.2 Detection and Identification 37

2.4.3 Quantification 38

2.4.4 CIELAB 41

2.5 Optimizing Cellular Performance: Growth and Pigment Production 41

2.5.1 Assessment of Classical Physiological Parameters 42

2.5.2 Media Composition 42

2.5.3 Cultivation Parameters 44

2.5.4 Type of Cultivation 46

2.5.5 Metabolic Engineering 48

2.6 Pigment Properties 50

2.7 Conclusion 51

References 51

3 COLOR-PRODUCING EXTREMOPHILES 61
Eva García-López, Alberto Alcazar, Ana Maria Moreno, and Cristina Cid

3.1 Introduction 61

3.2 Color-Producing Extremophiles 62

3.2.1 Thermophiles and Hyperthermophiles 63

3.2.2 Psychrophiles and Psychrotolerants 63

3.2.3 Alkaliphiles 66

3.2.4 Acidophiles 66

3.2.5 Piezophiles and Piezotolerants 66

3.2.6 Halophiles and Halotolerants 67

3.2.7 Radiophiles 67

3.3 Microbial Pigments 68

3.3.1 Chlorophylls and Bacteriochlorophylls 68

3.3.2 Carotenoids and Phycobilins 69

3.3.3 Violacein 70

3.3.4 Prodigiosin 70

3.3.5 Pyocyanin 70

3.3.6 Azaphilones 70

3.3.7 Bacteriorhodopsin 71

3.3.8 Cytochromes 71

3.3.9 Other 72

3.4 Biotechnological Applications of Microbial Pigments from Extremophiles 73

3.4.1 Applications in the Food Industry 74

3.4.2 Applications in the Pharmaceutical Industry 77

3.4.3 Applications in the Textile Industry 78

3.4.4 Applications as Laboratory Tools 78

3.4.5 Applications in Bioremediation 79

3.4.6 Development of Microbial Fuel Cells 79

3.4.7 Biotechnological Production of Natural Pigments 80

3.5 Conclusion 80

Acknowledgments 80

References 80

4 CURRENT CAROTENOID PRODUCTION USING MICROORGANISMS 87
Laurent Dufossé

4.1 Introduction 87

4.2 β-carotene 88

4.2.1 B. trispora 88

4.2.2 Phycomyces blakesleeanus 90

4.2.3 Mucor circinelloides 91

4.2.4 Applications 91

4.3 Lycopene 91

4.3.1 B. trispora 92

4.3.2 Fusarium sporotrichioides 93

4.4 Astaxanthin 93

4.4.1 X. dendrorhous, Formerly Phaffia rhodozyma 94

4.4.2 Agrobacterium aurantiacum and Other Bacteria 95

4.4.3 Advantages over Other Carotenoids 95

4.4.4 Astaxanthin for Salmon and Trout Feeds 96

4.4.5 Astaxanthin for Humans 97

4.5 Zeaxanthin 97

4.6 Canthaxanthin 98

4.7 Torulene and Thorularhodin 99

4.8 Prospects for Carotenoid Production by Genetically Modified Microorganisms 99

4.8.1 Escherichia coli and Other Hosts 99

4.8.2 Directed Evolution and Combinatorial Biosynthesis 101

4.9 Conclusion 102

References 104

5 C50 CAROTENOIDS: OCCURRENCE, BIOSYNTHESIS, GLYCOSYLATION, AND METABOLIC ENGINEERING FOR THEIR OVERPRODUCTION 107
Sabine A.E. Heider, Nadja A. Henke, Petra Peters-Wendisch, and Volker F. Wendisch

5.1 Introduction 107

5.2 Occurrence and Biological Function of C50 Carotenoids 108

5.3 Biosynthesis of C50 Carotenoids 110

5.4 Glycosylation of C50 Carotenoids 114

5.5 Overproduction of C50 Carotenoids by Metabolic Engineering 115

5.6 Conclusion 118

Acknowledgments 119

References 119

6 BIOPIGMENTS AND MICROBIAL BIOSYNTHESIS OF ��-CAROTENOIDS 127
Rosemary C. Nwabuogu, Jennifer Lau, and Om V. Singh

6.1 Introduction 127

6.2 Characterization of Biological Pigments 129

6.2.1 Tetrapyrrole Derivatives 129

6.2.2 N-heterocyclic Derivatives 130

6.2.3 Isoprenoid Derivatives 131

6.2.4 Benzopran Derivatives 132

6.2.5 Quinones 132

6.2.6 Melanins 133

6.3 Biosynthetic Routes of β-carotene 133

6.3.1 Fermentation of β-carotene 138

6.4 Molecular Regulation of β-carotene Biosynthesis 146

6.5 Commercialization of β-carotene 147

6.6 Conclusion 151

References 151

7 BIOTECHNOLOGICAL PRODUCTION OF MELANINS WITH MICROORGANISMS 161
Guillermo Gosset

7.1 Introduction 161

7.2 Microbial Production of Melanins 163

7.3 Production of Melanins with Engineered Microorganisms 165

7.4 Conclusion 169

References 170

8 BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR MECHANISMS OF MONASCUS PIGMENTS 173
Changlu Wang, Di Chen, and Jiancheng Qi

8.1 Introduction 173

8.2 Monascus Pigments 174

8.3 The Properties of Monascus Pigments 176

8.3.1 Solubility 176

8.3.2 Stability 177

8.3.3 Safety 177

8.4 Functional Properties of Monascus Pigments 177

8.4.1 Antimicrobial Activities 178

8.4.2 Anti-inflammatory Activities 178

8.4.3 Anti-obesity Activities 178

8.4.4 Anticancer Activities 178

8.5 Biosynthetic Pathway of Monascus Pigments 179

8.6 Biosynthetic Pathway of Related Genes 181

8.7 Factors Affecting Monascus Pigment Production 184

8.7.1 Solid-State Fermentation 185

8.7.2 Submerged Fermentation 186

8.7.3 Carbon Source 186

8.7.4 Nitrogen Source 187

8.7.5 Temperature 187

8.7.6 Light 187

Referencess 187

9 DIVERSITY AND APPLICATIONS OF VERSATILE PIGMENTS PRODUCED BY MONASCUS SP 193
Sunil H. Koli, Rahul K. Suryawanshi, Bipinchandra K. Salunke, and Satish V. Patil

9.1 Introduction 193

9.2 Pigment-Producing Monascus Strains 195

9.3 Various Types of Monascus Pigments 199

9.4 Extraction and Purification of Monascus Pigments 203

9.5 Detection and Purification 204

9.5.1 UV-Vis Spectrophotometric Methods 204

9.5.2 Column Chromatography 204

9.5.3 Thin-Layer Chromatography 205

9.5.4 High-Performance Liquid Chromatography 205

9.6 Applications 206

9.6.1 Food Colorants 206

9.6.2 Biological Role 206

9.7 Conclusion 209

References 209

10 MICROBIAL PIGMENT PRODUCTION UTILIZING AGRO-INDUSTRIAL WASTE AND ITS APPLICATIONS 215
Chidambaram Kulandaisamy Venil, Nur Zulaikha Binti Yusof, Claira Arul Aruldass, and Wan Azlina Ahmad

10.1 Introduction 215

10.2 Agro-industrial Waste Generation: A Scenario 216

10.3 Microbial Pigments 216

10.4 Production of Microbial Pigments Utilizing Agro-industrial Waste from Different Industries 223

10.5 Case Study: Production of Violacein by Chromobacterium violaceum Grown in Agricultural Wastes 225

10.5.1 Introduction 225

10.5.2 Materials and Methods 226

10.5.3 Results and Discussion 229

10.6 Conclusion 235

Acknowledgments 235

References 235

11 MICROBIAL PIGMENTS: POTENTIAL FUNCTIONS AND PROSPECTS 241

P. Akilandeswari and B.V. Pradeep

11.1 Introduction 241

11.1.1 Pigments 242

11.1.2 Types of Pigments 242

11.1.3 Microbial Pigments 242

11.1.4 Use of Pigments 243

11.1.5 Advantages of Natural Pigments 243

11.1.6 Disadvantages of Synthetic Dyes 243

11.2 Potential Sources of Microbial Pigments 244

11.2.1 Actinomycetes 244

11.2.2 Bacteria 245

11.2.3 Fungi 245

11.3 Physical Factors Influencing Microbial Pigments 246

11.4 Chemical Factors Influencing Microbial Pigments 247

11.5 Fermentation Practices in Pigment Production 248

11.5.1 Solid-State Fermentation 248

11.5.2 Submerged Fermentation 248

11.6 Characterization and Purification Analysis 249

11.7 Biocolors from Microbes and their Potential Functions 250

11.7.1 Pharmaceutical Industry 250

11.7.2 Food Colorants 255

11.7.3 Textile Dyeing 256

References 257

12 THE MICROBIAL WORLD OF BIOCOLOR PRODUCTION 263
Roshan Gul, Raman Kumar, and Anil K. Sharma

12.1 Introduction 263

12.2 Pigments Produced by Microorganisms 265

12.3 Classification of Pigments 265

12.3.1 Riboflavin 265

12.3.2 β-carotene 265

12.3.3 Canthaxanthin 268

12.3.4 Carotenoids 268

12.3.5 Prodigiosin 268

12.3.6 Phycocyanin 268

12.3.7 Violacein 268

12.3.8 Astaxanthin 268

12.4 Benefits and Applications of Microbial Pigments 269

12.5 Conclusion 272

References 273

Index 279

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Author Information

Om V. Singh, PhD, is an Associate Professor of Microbiology at the University of Pittsburgh, Bradford, PA, USA. Dr. Singh's work in the field of microbiology and proteomics has focused on topics in environmental microbiology, bioenergy, stress proteins, and diversity of extremophiles, all areas in which he has published extensively over the decade.

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