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Advanced Solutions in Power Systems: HVDC, FACTS, and Artificial Intelligence

Mircea Eremia (Editor), Chen-Ching Liu (Editor), Abdel-Aty Edris (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-119-17535-3
1072 pages
September 2016, Wiley-IEEE Press
Advanced Solutions in Power Systems: HVDC, FACTS, and Artificial Intelligence (1119175356) cover image

Description

Provides insight on both classical means and new trends in the application of power electronic and artificial intelligence techniques in power system operation and control

This book presents advanced solutions for power system controllability improvement, transmission capability enhancement and operation planning. The book is organized into three parts. The first part describes the CSC-HVDC and VSC-HVDC technologies, the second part presents the FACTS devices, and the third part refers to the artificial intelligence techniques. All technologies and tools approached in this book are essential for power system development to comply with the smart grid requirements.

  • Discusses detailed operating principles and diagrams, theory of modeling, control strategies and physical installations around the world of HVDC and FACTS systems
  • Covers a wide range of Artificial Intelligence techniques that are successfully applied for many power system problems, from planning and monitoring to operation and control
  • Each chapter is carefully edited, with drawings and illustrations that helps the reader to easily understand the principles of operation or application 

Advanced Solutions in Power Systems: HVDC, FACTS, and Artificial Intelligence is written for graduate students, researchers in transmission and distribution networks, and power system operation. This book also serves as a reference for professional software developers and practicing engineers.

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Table of Contents

CONTRIBUTORS xxi

FOREWORD xxiii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xxv

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1
Mircea Eremia, Chen-Ching Liu, and Abdel-Aty Edris

PART I HVDC TRANSMISSION
Mircea Eremia

CHAPTER 2 POWER SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES FOR HVDC AND FACTS SYSTEMS 11
Remus Teodorescu and Mircea Eremia

2.1 Power Semiconductor Overview 12

2.2 Converter Types 21

2.3 HVDC Evolution 23

2.4 FACTS Evolution 30

References 33

CHAPTER 3 CSC–HVDC TRANSMISSION 35
Mircea Eremia and Constantin Bulac

3.1 Structure and Configurations 35

3.2 Converter Bridge Modeling 47

3.3 Control of CSC–HVDC Transmission 59

3.4 Reactive Power and Harmonics 78

3.5 Load Flow in Mixed HVAC/HVDC-CSC Systems 91

3.6 Interaction Between AC and DC Systems 96

3.7 Comparison Between DC and AC Transmission 101

3.8 Application on a CSC–HVDC Link 109

Appendix 3.1 CSC–HVDC Systems in the World 118

References 123

CHAPTER 4 VSC–HVDC TRANSMISSION 125
Mircea Eremia, José Antonio Jardini, Guangfu Tang, and Lucian Toma

4.1 VSC Converter Structures 126

4.2 Modulation Techniques 151

4.3 DC/AC Converter Analysis 166

4.4 VSC Transmission Scheme and Operation 188

4.5 Multiterminal VSC–HVDC Systems and HVDC Grids 203

4.6 Load Flow and Stability Analysis 221

4.7 Comparison of CSC–HVDC Versus VSC–HVDC Transmission 246

4.8 Forward to Supergrid 249

Appendix 4.1 VSC–HVDC Projects Around the World 261

Appendix 4.2 Examples of VSC–HVDC One-Line Diagrams 263

References 263

PART II FACTS TECHNOLOGIES
Abdel-Aty Edris and Mircea Eremia

CHAPTER 5 STATIC VAr COMPENSATOR (SVC) 271
Mircea Eremia, Aniruddha Gole, and Lucian Toma

5.1 Generalities 271

5.2 Thyristor-Controlled Reactor 273

5.3 Thyristor-Switched Capacitor 284

5.4 Configurations of SVC 287

5.5 Control of SVC Operation 294

5.6 SVC Modeling 296

5.7 Placement of SVC 312

5.8 Applications of SVC 314

5.9 SVC Installations Worldwide 324

References 337

CHAPTER 6 SERIES CAPACITIVE COMPENSATION 339
Mircea Eremia and Stig Nilsson

6.1 Generalities 339

6.2 Mechanical Commutation-Based Series Devices 339

6.3 Static-Controlled Series Capacitive Compensation 342

6.4 Control Schemes for the TCSC 365

6.5 TCSC Modeling 370

6.6 Applications of TSSC/TCSC Installations 382

6.7 Series Capacitors Worldwide 387

Appendix 6.1 TCSC Systems Around the World 404

References 405

CHAPTER 7 PHASE SHIFTING TRANSFORMER: MECHANICAL AND STATIC DEVICES 409
Mylavarapu Ramamoorty and Lucian Toma

7.1 Introduction 409

7.2 Mechanical Phase Shifting Transformer 410

7.3 Thyristor-Controlled Phase Shifting Transformer 428

7.4 Applications of the Phase Shifting Transformers 439

7.5 Phase Shifting Transformer Projects Around the World 450

References 456

CHAPTER 8 STATIC SYNCHRONOUS COMPENSATOR – STATCOM 459
Rafael Mihalic, Mircea Eremia, and Bostjan Blazic

8.1 Principles and Topologies of Voltage Source Converter 459

8.2 STATCOM Operation 473

8.3 STATCOM Modeling 476

8.4 STATCOM Applications 506

8.5 STATCOM Installations in Operation 515

References 524

CHAPTER 9 STATIC SYNCHRONOUS SERIES COMPENSATOR (SSSC) 527
Laszlo Gyugyi, Abded-Aty Edris, and Mircea Eremia

9.1 Introduction 527

9.2 Architecture and Operating Principles 528

9.3 Comparison of SSSC with Other Technologies 533

9.4 Components of an SSSC 540

9.5 SSSC Modeling 546

9.6 Applications 551

9.7 SSSC Installation 552

References 556

CHAPTER 10 UNIFIED POWER FLOW CONTROLLER (UPFC) 559
Laszlo Gyugyi

10.1 Introduction 559

10.2 Basic Characteristics of the UPFC 567

10.3 UPFC Versus Conventional Power Flow Controllers 571

10.4 UPFC Control System 575

10.5 Equipment Structural and Rating Considerations 584

10.6 Protection Considerations 596

10.7 Application Example: UPFC at AEP’s INEZ Station 600

10.8 Modeling of the UPFC Device 613

References 627

CHAPTER 11 INTERLINE POWER FLOW CONTROLLER (IPFC) 629
Laszlo Gyugyi

11.1 Generalities 629

11.2 Basic Operating Principles and Characteristics of the IPFC 630

11.3 Generalized Interline Power Flow Controller for Multiline Systems 636

11.4 Basic Control System 638

11.5 Equipment Structural and Rating Considerations 640

11.6 Protection Considerations 642

11.7 Application Example: IPFC at NYPA’s Marcy Substation 643

References 649

CHAPTER 12 SEN TRANSFORMER: A POWER REGULATING TRANSFORMER 651
Kalyan K. Sen

12.1 Background 651

12.2 The Sen Transformer Concept 656

References 679

CHAPTER 13 MEDIUM VOLTAGE POWER ELECTRONICS DEVICES FOR DISTRIBUTION GRIDS 681
Ion Etxeberria-Otadui, David Frey, Seddik Bacha, and Bertrand Raison

13.1 Introduction 681

13.2 High Power Switching Valves: Association of Semiconductor Components 683

13.3 Topologies Used in High Power Converters 694

13.4 Power Electronic Converter Control 697

References 717

PART III ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE TECHNIQUES
Chen-Ching Liu and Mircea Eremia

CHAPTER 14 ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE AND COMPUTATIONAL INTELLIGENCE: A CHALLENGE FOR POWER SYSTEM ENGINEERS 721
Chen-Ching Liu, Alexandru Stefanov, and Junho Hong

References 729

CHAPTER 15 EXPERT SYSTEMS 731
Mircea Eremia, Kevin Tomsovic, and Gheorghe Cârținã

15.1 Fundamental Concepts 731

15.2 Architecture of Expert Systems 735

15.3 Expert Systems Application 745

References 753

CHAPTER 16 NEURAL NETWORKS 755
Dagmar Niebur, Ganesh Kumar Venayagamoorthy, and Ekrem Gursoy

16.1 Introduction 755

16.2 Neural Network Architectures 755

16.3 Adaptive Critic Designs 759

16.4 Independent Component Analysis 760

16.5 Learning Algorithms: The Determination of Weights 760

16.6 Examples of Neural Network Applications for Power System Monitoring and Control 763

References 781

CHAPTER 17 FUZZY SYSTEMS 785
Germano Lambert-Torres, Luiz Eduardo Borges da Silva, Carlos Henrique Valerio de Moraes, and Yvo Marcelo Chiaradia Masselli

17.1 Introduction 785

17.2 Fundamental Notions 787

17.3 Fuzzy Logic 797

17.4 Fuzzy Model 801

17.5 An Application of Fuzzy Logic in Control System 811

17.6 Final Remarks 816

Acknowledgments 817

References 817

CHAPTER 18 DECISION TREES 819
Constantin Bulac and Adrian Bulac

18.1 Introduction 819

18.2 Decision Trees 820

18.3 Oblique Decision Trees 829

18.4 Applications of Decision Trees in Power Systems 833

18.5 Case Study 836

References 843

CHAPTER 19 GENETIC ALGORITHMS 845
Anastasios Bakirtzis and Spyros Kazarlis

19.1 Introduction to Evolutionary Computation 845

19.2 Genetic Algorithms 859

19.3 On The Optimal Location and Operation of FACTS Devices by Genetic Algorithms 897

References 898

CHAPTER 20 MULTIAGENT SYSTEMS 903
Nan-Peng Yu and Chen-Ching Liu

20.1 Overview 903

20.2 Multiagent Technology Overview 909

20.3 Applications of Multiagent Systems in Power Engineering 917

20.4 Electricity Markets Modeling and Simulation with Multiagent Systems 920

References 927

CHAPTER 21 HEURISTIC OPTIMIZATION TECHNIQUES 931
Kwang Y. Lee, Malihe M. Farsangi, Jong-Bae Park, and John G. Vlachogiannis

21.1 Introduction 931

21.2 Evolutionary Algorithms for Reactive Power Planning 932

21.3 Genetic Algorithm for Generation Planning 943

21.4 Particle Swarm Optimization for Economic Dispatch 951

21.5 Ant Colony System for Constrained Load Flow Problem 961

21.6 Immune Algorithm for Damping of Interarea Oscillation 968

21.7 Simulated Annealing and Tabu Search for Optimal Allocation of Static VAr Compensators 974

21.8 Conclusions 980

References 981

CHAPTER 22 UNSUPERVISED LEARNING AND HYBRID METHODS 985
Nikos Hatziargyriou and Manolis Voumvoulakis

22.1 Generalities 985

22.2 Supervised Learning Methods 988

22.3 Unsupervised Learning Methods 996

22.4 Som Variants 1000

22.5 Combined Use of Unsupervised with Supervised Learning Methods 1007

22.6 Applications to Power Systems 1007

References 1030

INDEX 1033

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Author Information

Mircea Eremia is Professor Emeritus in the Electrical Power Systems Department of the University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania. Dr. Eremia is author and co-author of over 180 journals and conference papers as well as 11 books in power systems. He was an active member of IEEE and CIGRE by participating in various working groups related to applications of power electronics and artificial intelligence techniques. In 2013, Dr. Eremia and Mohammad Shahidehpour published the Handbook of Electrical Power System Dynamics: Modeling, Stability, and Control with the Wiley-IEEE press.

Chen-Ching Liu is Boeing Distinguished Professor of Electrical Engineering at Washington State University, Pullman, WA, USA, and Visiting Professor of University College Dublin, Ireland, in the School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering. He obtained his Bachelor of Science and Master of Science degrees, both in electrical engineering, from National Taiwan University, Taiwan, in 1976 and 1978, and a PhD degree from the University of California, Berkeley, USA.

Abdel-Aty Edris is the Senior Director and Executive Adviser at Quanta Technology and Adjunct Professor at Santa Clara University, USA. He received his BS from Cairo University, MS from Ain-Shams University, and PhD from Chalmers University of Technology. Dr. Edris is a leading expert in the design and operation of FACTS devices.

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