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Crime Scene Management: Scene Specific Methods, 2nd Edition

Raul Sutton (Editor), Keith Trueman (Editor), Christopher Moran (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-119-18090-6
328 pages
October 2016
Crime Scene Management: Scene Specific Methods, 2nd Edition (1119180902) cover image

Description

Second edition of an established text on common procedures for the identification and processing of evidence at scenes of crime

 

  • Includes chapters on quality assurance and credibility of practices and processes
  • issues surrounding major and complex crime 
  • Forensic handling of mass fatalities
  • Crime scene reconstruction and impact on evidence recovery processes
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Table of Contents

Introduction and Use of this Text xi

List of Contributors xiv

About the Companion Website xv

PART I Crime Scene Principles 1

1 The Crime Scene Context 3
Raul Sutton

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 What is a crime? 4

1.3 The nature of the UK legal system 6

1.4 The legal system in England and Wales 7

1.5 Other courts 9

1.6 The judicial system in Northern Ireland 9

1.7 The Scottish legal system 11

1.8 Judicial processes that deal with causes of death 12

1.9 What constitutes evidence? 14

1.10 The chain of events in evidence gathering 15

1.11 The relationship between evidence gatherers and analysts 19

1.12 Health and safety considerations 20

Suggested further reading 21

2 First Officer Attending 22
Keith Trueman and Christopher Moran

2.1 Introduction 22

2.2 Response to incident report 23

2.3 Personnel involved in the investigative process 24

2.4 Recording and recovery of scientific evidence 25

2.5 Initial considerations of the First Officer Attending (FOA) 25

2.6 Dealing with the victim 27

2.7 Dealing with witnesses 28

2.8 Dealing with suspects 29

2.9 Dealing with the crime scene(s) 29

2.10 Documentation 35

2.11 Dealing with violent crime 35

2.12 Summary and conclusion 36

3 The Role of the Crime Scene Investigator 38
Keith Trueman and Christopher Moran

3.1 Introduction 38

3.2 Training the CSI 39

3.3 The responsibilities of a CSI 40

3.4 Forensic evidence 42

3.5 Request for CSI attendance at crime scenes 46

3.6 Actions when attending the crime scene 47

3.7 Initial scene assessment (including health and safety considerations) 48

3.8 Planning evidence recovery 51

3.9 Recording the evidence 52

3.10 The elimination process 58

3.11 Details of evidence recovered 58

3.12 Integrity, continuity and contamination 59

3.13 Packaging materials 64

3.14 Conclusion 68

PART II Evidence-gathering Techniques 71

4 Police Photography, Video Recording,3D Laser Scanning 73
Chris Crowe and Christopher Moran

4.1 Introduction 73

4.2 General guidelines 74

4.3 Equipment 75

4.4 Exposure 76

4.5 Image quality/size 80

4.6 Depth of field 81

4.7 White balance 83

4.8 Image data 83

4.9 Flash photography 84

4.10 Room interiors 85

4.11 Vehicles 85

4.12 Evidential items 85

4.13 Recording injuries to the person 86

4.14 Night photography 88

4.15 Footwear impressions 89

4.16 Fingerprints 90

4.17 Recording video evidence at crime scenes 92

4.18 The use of digital images in court 94

4.19 3D laser scanning of scenes 95

Suggested further reading 96

5 Fingerprints 97
David Charlton

5.1 Introduction 97

5.2 The nature of friction ridge skin 99

5.3 The structure of friction ridge skin 100

5.4 Friction ridge growth 100

5.5 Principles of friction ridge identification 102

5.6 Comparison methodology 103

5.7 Chemical composition of latent prints 105

5.8 Identification of common locations for prints 107

5.9 The use of powdering techniques to enhance latent finger marks 109

5.10 Chemical development techniques 112

5.11 Laboratory and scene applications 113

5.12 Fingerprints in bodily fluids 115

5.13 Scenes of fire 118

5.14 Optical methods to reveal fingerprints (laser and other light sources) 119

5.15 New and emerging techniques 122

5.16 Remote transmission 122

5.17 Chapter summary 123

Acknowledgements 125

Selected further reading 126

6 DNA-rich Evidence 128
Terry Bartlett and Sara Short

6.1 Introduction and historical background 128

6.2 The structure and properties of DNA 129

6.3 DNA analysis 130

6.4 Types of DNA testing 130

6.5 Biological evidence 134

6.6 Procedures for collection of biological evidence: general considerations 136

6.7 Limitations of DNA evidence 147

6.8 Elimination and reference samples 148

6.9 Summary 148

References 149

7 Blood Pattern Analysis 151
Raul Sutton and Terry Bartlett

7.1 Introduction 151

7.2 History of the development of blood spatter as a scientific discipline 152

7.3 Composition of blood 153

7.4 Physical properties of blood 154

7.5 Causes of bleeding 156

7.6 Blood dynamics 157

7.7 Drop-surface impact and droplet pattern 157

7.8 Determination of area of origin of spatter 161

7.9 Cast-off patterns 162

7.10 Arterial damage patterns 163

7.11 Non-spatter patterns 166

7.12 Physiologically altered bloodstains 169

7.13 Volume bloodstains 173

7.14 Composite patterns 175

7.15 Investigative transfer and contamination issues 176

7.16 Recording traces 176

7.17 Summary 178

Suggested further reading 178

8 Physical Evidence 180
Craig Williams

8.1 Introduction 180

8.2 Tool marks 180

8.3 Clothing 182

8.4 Fibres 183

8.5 Footwear impressions 186

8.6 Glass fragments 188

8.7 Glass fragmentation 190

8.8 Soils 192

8.9 Firearms 193

8.10 Scene recovery of firearms 197

8.11 Gunshot residues (GSR) 199

8.12 Drugs of abuse (DOA) 200

8.13 The crime scene characteristics of various DOA 202

8.14 Presumptive tests for drugs 203

8.15 Amateur explosives 206

8.16 Summary 206

Suggested further reading 207

PART III Specialised Scenes and Report Writing 209

9 Fire Scene Examination 211
Chris Perry and Mark McCabe

9.1 Introduction 211

9.2 The nature of fire 212

9.3 The oxygen demand of fuels 214

9.4 Flame and fire classifications; fire development 217

9.5 Types of evidence specific to fire scenes 219

9.6 Locating the origin of the fire 220

9.7 Fire cause determination and evidence-gathering methods 223

9.8 Methods for ascertaining whether a crime has been committed 226

9.9 Health and safety considerations 228

9.10 Summary 229

Suggested further reading 230

10 Examination of Recovered Stolen Motor Vehicles 231
Keith Trueman

10.1 Introduction 231

10.2 What is a motor vehicle? 233

10.3 The definition of an auto crime 233

10.4 Auto crime scene examinations 237

10.5 Requests to attend an auto crime scene 238

10.6 The examination process 241

10.7 Conclusion 251

11 Managing Complex Scenes and Multiple or Mass Fatality Scenes 252
Christopher Moran and Derek Forest

11.1 Introduction 252

11.2 Self-briefing 254

11.3 Communication 255

11.4 Establishing priorities 255

11.5 Avoidance of contamination 256

11.6 The forensic strategy 257

11.7 ‘Defence’ case review meeting 259

11.8 Incident debrief 259

11.9 Introduction to mass fatality incidents 260

11.10 The range and nature of mass fatality incidents 261

11.11 The type of investigation conducted 261

11.12 Sequence of events in managing disaster victim identification scenes 262

11.13 Recovery of mortal remains 264

Suggested further reading 266

12 Preparing Reports and Statements 267
Keith Trueman

12.1 Introduction 267

12.2 Documentation at the crime scene 268

12.3 Photography 269

12.4 Plans, sketches and diagrams 269

12.5 The exhibit label 271

12.6 Handling the evidence 275

12.7 Statements of evidence 278

12.8 Criminal Justice Act 1967, section 9 278

12.9 Crime scene examination statements 279

12.10 Conclusion 281

13 Quality Assurance in Crime Scene Investigation 283
Christopher Moran

13.1 Introduction 283

13.2 Informal aspects of quality assurance 284

13.3 The development of formal quality assurance 284

13.4 The role of the Forensic Science Regulator 285

13.5 Responsibility for measuring quality assurance 286

13.6 The accreditation process 287

13.7 Organisational requirements for accreditation 288

13.8 Personnel requirements for accreditation 288

13.9 Resource requirements for accreditation 289

13.10 Process requirements for accreditation 289

13.11 Management requirements for accreditation 290

13.12 Maintaining accreditation 290

Suggested further reading 292

Appendices 293

Index 303

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