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Biobased and Environmentally Benign Coatings

ISBN: 978-1-119-18510-9
352 pages
March 2016
Biobased and Environmentally Benign Coatings (1119185106) cover image

Description

This book will have the recent information on the developments in the emerging field of environmental-friendly coatings. Crucial aspects associtaed with coating research will be presented in form of the indivudual chapters. Close attention will be paid to include essential aspects that are necessary to understand the porperties and applications of the novel materials. Different methods and techniques of synthesis and charcaterization will be detailed as individual chapters. It will also discuss the characterization techniques used in the area of such coatings. there will be chapters that descirbe the current status and future prospects. The topics will be selected so they are easy to understand and useful to new scholars as well as advanced learners. No book has been written on this subject so far.
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Table of Contents

Preface xi

1 Novel Bio-based Polymers for Coating Applications 1
Harjoyti Kalita, Deep Kalita, Samim Alam, Andrey Chernykh, Ihor Tarnavchyk, James Bahr, Satyabrata Samanta, Anurad Jayasooriyama, Shashi Fernando, Sermadurai Selvakumar, Dona Suranga Wickramaratne, Mukund Sibi, and Bret J. Chisholm

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Polymers Based on Plant Oils 3

1.2.1 Properties of Homopolymers and Their Surface Coatings 5

1.2.2 Properties of Copolymers and Their Surface Coatings 7

1.3 Polymers Based on Cardanol 9

1.4 Polymers Based on Eugenol 10

1.5 Conclusion 14

Acknowledgments 14

Disclaimer 14

References 15

2 Deposition of Environmentally Compliant Cerium-Containing Coatings and Primers on Copper-Containing Aluminium Aircraft Alloys 17
Stephan V. Kozhukharov

2.1 Importance and Indispensability of the Corrosion-Protective Coating Layers 17

2.1.1 Employment of Reliable Materials for the Aircraft Industry 17

2.1.2 Corrosion Phenomena, Basic Definitions and Concepts 20

2.1.3 Brief Summary 22

2.2 Introduction to the Cerium Conversion Primer Layers 23

2.2.1 Background and Basic Definitions 23

2.2.2 Deposition Methods 23

2.2.3 Technical Stages of CeCC Deposition 25

2.2.3.1 Preliminary Treatment Procedures 25

2.2.3.2 Deposition Process, Mechanisms and Factors 28

2.2.3.3 Posterior Sealing Procedures 37

2.2.4 Brief Summary 37

2.3 Elaboration of Hybrid and Composite Upper and Finishing Coating Layers 38

2.3.1 Advantages of the Hybrid Coatings Systems 38

2.3.2 Technological Bases of the Sol–Gel Approach 43

2.3.3 Hybrid Nanocomposite Primer Coatings: Basic Concepts 46

2.3.4 Corrosion Inhibitors as Self-Healing Coating Ingredients 47

2.3.4.1 Rare Earth Salts as Corrosion Inhibitors 47

2.3.4.2 Organic Compounds as Corrosion Inhibitors 52

2.3.5 Technological Features of the Production of Hybrid Nanocomposite Primer Coatings 53

2.3.6 Alternatives for the Inhibitor Containing Self-Healing Coatings 54

2.3.6.1 Coatings with Recuperative Microcapsules 54

2.3.6.2 Exterior Ice-Phobic and UV Protective Finishes 55

2.3.7 Brief Summary 57

Acknowledgment 58

References 58

3 Ferrites as Non-toxic Pigments for Eco-friendly Corrosion Protection Coatings 71
D.O. Grigoriev, T. Vakhitov, and S.N. Stepin

3.1 Introduction 71

3.2 Crystalline Structure, Physicochemical Properties, and Inhibition Mechanism of Ferrites 72

3.3 Methods for the Preparation of Ferrites 76

3.3.1 Ceramic Method 76

3.3.2 Ceramic Method with Utilizing Industrial Wastes 78

3.3.3 Other Methods of Ferrites Preparation 79

3.4 Novel Types of Ferrite Pigments 81

3.5 Ferrite-Based Multifunctional Coatings 83

3.6 Conclusion 84

Acknowledgement 84

References 84

4 Application of Coatings and Films in Fruits and Vegetables 87
R.K. Dhall

4.1 Introduction 87

4.2 Coatings versus Films 88

4.3 Structural Matrix: Hydrocolloids and Lipids 88

4.4 Application of Hydrocolloids Coatings 89

4.5 Application of Lipid Coatings 91

4.6 Application of Composite Coatings 91

4.7 Addition of Active Compounds 93

4.7.1 Antimicrobial Coatings 93

4.7.2 Antioxidant Coatings 95

4.7.3 Texture Enhances 96

4.7.4 Nutraceutical Coatings 97

4.8 Nanotechnology 97

4.9 Commercial Application of Edible Coatings 98

4.10 Problems Associated with Edible Coatings 98

4.11 Regulatory Status and Food Safety Issues 104

4.12 Conclusions 105

References 106

5 Development of Novel Biobased Epoxy Films with Aliphatic and Aromatic Amine Hardeners for the Partial Replacement of Bisphenol A in Primer Coatings 121
Rafael S. Peres, Carlos A. Ferreira, Carlos Alemán, and Elaine Armelin

5.1 Introduction 121

5.2 Recent Advances on Vegetable Oils Chemistry 123

5.3 Control of the Epoxidation Reaction of Vegetable Oils 125

5.4 Spectroscopy Characterization of Epoxidized Linseed Oil Cured with Amine Hardeners 128

5.5 Thermal Properties of Epoxidized Linseed Oil Cured with Amine Hardeners 134

5.6 Swelling, Wettability and Morphology of New Epoxy Films 136

5.7 Mechanical Properties of Epoxidized Linseed Oil Cured with Amine Hardeners 139

5.8 Applications of Vegetable Oils in Coatings 140

5.9 Conclusions 142

Acknowledgments 142

References 143

6 Silica-Based Sol–Gel Coatings: A Critical Perspective from a Practical Viewpoint 149
Rosaria Ciriminna, Alexandra Fidalgo, Giovanni Palmisano, Laura M. Ilharco, and Mario Pagliaro

6.1 Introduction: Need of Practical Perspective 149

6.2 A Green, Simple Technology 151

6.3 The Market 152

6.4 Conclusions 157

Acknowledgements 157

References 158

7 Fatty Acid-Based Waterborne Coatings 161
Mónica Moreno, Monika Goikoetxea, and María J. Barandiaran

7.1 Introduction 161

7.2 Fatty Acids as Raw Materials 163

7.2.1 Chemical Modification of Fatty Acids for Free Radical Polymerization 164

7.3 Polymerization of Fatty Acid-Based Monomers in Aqueous Media 167

7.3.1 Emulsion Polymerization 167

7.3.2 Miniemulsion Polymerization 170

7.3.3 Effect of Preserving Alkyl Double Bonds 172

7.3.3.1 Kinetics and Microstructural Properties 172

7.3.3.2 Auto-Oxidative Curing and Mechanical Properties 174

7.3.3.3 Effect of Incorporating α-MBL as Comonomer 175

7.4 Incorporation of Fatty Acid Derivatives in Waterborne Coatings 176

7.5 Conclusion 178

References 179

8 Environmentally Friendly Coatings 183
Xiaofeng Ren, Lei Meng, and Mark Soucek

8.1 Waterborne Coatings 183

8.1.1 Introduction of Waterborne Coatings 183

8.1.2 History of Waterborne Coatings 184

8.1.3 Category of Waterborne Coatings 186

8.1.3.1 Water-Reducible Coatings 187

8.1.3.2 Latex Coatings 187

8.1.3.3 Emulsion Coatings 188

8.1.4 Development and Prospect of Waterborne Coatings 192

8.1.4.1 Development of Resins Used in Waterborne Systems 192

8.1.4.2 Combination of Waterborne with Other Techniques 194

8.2 Seed Oil-Based Coatings 195

8.2.1 Seed Oils 195

8.2.2 Seed Oil-Based Coatings from Copolymerization with Vinyl Monomers 198

8.2.2.1 Seed Oil-Based Reactive Diluents for Coating Applications 198

8.2.3 Seed Oil-Based Epoxy for UV-Curable Coatings 201

8.2.4 Seed Oil-Based Polyurethanes 205

8.2.5 Seed Oil-Based Thiol-ene Chemistry in UV-Curable Coatings 206

8.2.6 Seed Oil-Based Organic–Inorganic Coatings 209

8.2.7 Seed Oil-Based Alkyd Coatings 211

8.2.7.1 Introduction of Alkyds 211

8.2.7.2 Modified Alkyds for Coatings 213

8.3 Conclusion 219

References 219

9 Low-Temperature Aqueous Coatings for Solar Thermal Absorber  Applications 225
Saleh Khamlich and Malik Maaza

9.1 Introduction 225

9.2 Samples Preparation 228

9.3 Structural and Morphological Investigations

of α-Cr2O3 Monodispersed Meso-Spherical Particles 228

9.3.1 Raman Spectroscopic Study 228

9.3.2 Attenuated Total Reflection Study 229

9.3.3 Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) and Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Analysis (EDX) 230

9.4 Growth Mechanism 231

9.4.1 Development of a Mathematical Model [Lifshitz–Slyozov–Wagner (LSW) Model] 232

9.4.1.1 Basic Assumptions 232

9.4.1.2 Mathematical Formulation 233

9.5 Potential Applications in Solar Absorbers 238

9.5.1 Diffuse Reflectance and the Infrared Emissivity (ε) Study of α-Cr2O3 Meso-spherical Particles 239

9.6 Conclusions 240

Acknowledgements 240

References 241

10 Eco-Friendly Recycled Pharmaceutical Inhibitor/Waste Particle Containing Hybrid Coatings for Corrosion Protection 245
Victoria Bustos, Liseth Concha, Carmina Menchaca-Campos, Jorge Uruchurtu, Mario A. Romero, Marcos Esparza, Alba Covelo, Miguel Hernandez, and Estela Sarmiento

10.1 Introduction 245

10.1.1 Recycled Pharmaceutical Inhibitors 246

10.1.2 Hybrid Coatings 247

10.2 Hybrid Coating Preparation 247

10.2.1 Recycled Pharmaceutical Inhibitors 247

10.2.2 Mesoporous Particles 248

10.2.3 Hybrid Coating 248

10.2.3.1 Characterization 248

10.3 Hybrid Coatings Performance 249

10.3.1 Materials Characterization 249

10.3.2 Electrochemical Inhibitor Evaluation 249

10.3.2.1 Potentiodynamic  Polarization 250

10.3.2.2 Electrochemical Impedance 251

10.3.3 Electrochemical Hybrid Coating Evaluation 253

10.4 Conclusions 254

Acknowledgment 255

References 255

11 Chemical Interaction of Modified Zinc–Phosphate Green Pigment on Waterborne Coatings in Steel 257
Miguel Hernandez, Alba Covelo, and Jorge Uruchurtu

11.1 Introduction 257

11.2 Cathodic Delamination of Coatings 258

11.3 Modified Zinc–Phosphate Pigment 260

11.4 Conclusions 263

Acknowledgement 263

References 263

12 Development of Soybean Oil-Based Polyols and Their Applications in Urethane and Melamine-Cured Thermoset Coatings 265
Senthilkumar Rengasamy and Vijay Mannari

12.1 Introduction 265

12.2 Experimental 266

12.2.1 Raw Materials 266

12.2.2 Standard Testing Methods 267

12.2.3 Coating Composition and Sample Preparation 267

12.2.4 Synthesis of ESO-Based Phosphate Ester Polyol (ESO–Polyol) 267

12.2.5 Synthesis of Epoxidized Soybean Oil Monoglyceride (EMG) 267

12.2.6 Synthesis of EMG-Based Phosphate Ester Polyol (EMG Polyol) 268

12.2.7 Synthesis of EMG-Based Phthalic Acid Ester Polyol (EMG–PEP) 269

12.3 Results and Discussion 270

12.3.1 Characterization of Polyols 270

12.3.2 Proton NMR Characterization 271

12.3.3 FTIR Characterization 271

12.3.4 Urethane and Melamine-Cured Film Properties 273

12.4 Conclusion 275

Acknowledgements 276

References 276

13 Powder Coatings from Recycled Polymers and Renewable Resources 279
Martino Colonna, Claudio Gioia, Annamaria Celli, and Alessandro Minesso

13.1 Introduction 279

13.2 Powder Coating as a Green Approach to Coatings 280

13.3 The Use of Materials from Renewable Resources in Powder Coating Applications 283

13.4 The Use of Recycled Polymers for the Preparation of Coatings 286

13.5 Powder Coatings from the Combined Chemical Recycle of Polymers and the Use of Renewable Resources 289

13.5.1 Depolymerization of PET with Isosorbide 292

13.5.1.1 Catalysts Used for the Depolymerization of PET with Isosorbide 292

13.5.1.2 Depolymerization Process 292

13.5.1.3 Polycondensation after Glycolysis with Isosorbide 293

13.5.2 Coatings Application Tests 293

13.5.2.1 Blooming Resistance 294

13.5.2.2 Effect of Overbaking 295

13.5.2.3 Effect of Ageing 296

13.5.2.4 Solvent Resistance 296

13.5.3.5 Boiling Water Resistance Tests 297

13.6 Conclusions 297

References 298

14 Th e Synthesis and Applications of Non-isocyanate Based Polyurethanes as Environmentally Friendly “Green” Coatings 301

Peter Zarras, Paul A. Goodman, Alfred J. Baca, Joshua E. Baca, and Shelley Vang

14.1 Introduction to Isocyanate-based Polyurethane Chemistry 301

14.2 Synthesis of Isocyanates 302

14.3 Toxicological Properties of Isocyanates 303

14.4 Synthesis of Phosgene-free Precursors 304

14.5 Non-isocyanate-based Polyurethanes (NIPU) 305

14.5.1 Polycondensation Reaction 306

14.5.2 Polyaddition Reaction 308

14.5.3 Additional Polymerization Reactions Leading to Non-isocyanate Polyurethanes (NIPU) 309

14.6 Applications of Non-isocyanate Polyurethanes (NIPU) 310

14.7 Conclusions 311

Acknowledgements 311

References 311

 

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