Wiley.com
Print this page Share

OLED Display Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-1-119-18731-8
312 pages
April 2017
OLED Display Fundamentals and Applications, 2nd Edition (1119187311) cover image

Description

This new edition specifically addresses the most recent and relevant developments in the design and manufacture of OLED displays

  • Provides knowledge of OLED fundamentals and related technologies for applications such as displays and solid state lighting along with processing and manufacturing technologies
  • Serves as a reference for people engaged in OLED research, manufacturing, applications and marketing
  • Includes coverage of white + color filter technology, which has become industry standard technology for large televisions
See More

Table of Contents

About the Author xi

Preface xiii

Series Editor’s Foreword to the Second Edition xv

1 Introduction 1

References 5

2 OLED Devices 7

2.1 OLED Definition 7

2.1.1 History of OLED Research and Development 7

2.1.2 Luminescent Effects in Nature 8

2.1.3 Difference Between OLED, LED, and Inorganic ELs 11

2.1.3.1 Inorganic EL 11

2.1.3.2 LED 11

2.2 Basic Device Structure 12

2.3 Basic Light Emission Mechanism 14

2.3.1 Potential Energy of Molecules 14

2.3.2 Highest Occupied and Lowest Unoccupied Molecular Orbitals (HOMO and LUMO) 15

2.3.3 Configuration of Two Electrons 17

2.3.4 Spin Function 20

2.3.5 Singlet and Triplet Excitons 20

2.3.6 Charge Injection from Electrodes 24

2.3.6.1 Charge Injection by Schottky Thermionic Emission 25

2.3.6.2 Tunneling Injection 28

2.3.6.3 Vacuum-Level Shift 28

2.3.7 Charge Transfer and Recombination 29

2.3.7.1 Charge Transfer Behavior 29

2.3.7.2 Space-Charge-Limited Current 29

2.3.7.3 Poole–Frenkel conduction 32

2.3.7.4 Recombination and Generation of Excitons 33

2.4 Emission Efficiency 36

2.4.1 Internal/External Quantum Efficiency 36

2.4.2 Energy Conversion and Quenching 37

2.4.2.1 Internal Conversion 37

2.4.2.2 Intersystem Crossing 37

2.4.2.3 Doping 38

2.4.2.4 Quenching 40

2.4.3 Outcoupling Efficiency of OLED Display 42

2.4.3.1 Light Output Distribution 42

2.4.3.2 Snell’s Law and Critical Angle 43

2.4.3.3 Loss Due to Light Extraction 44

2.4.3.4 Performance Enhancement by Molecular Alignment 45

2.5 Lifetime and Image Burning 46

2.5.1 Lifetime Definitions 46

2.5.2 Degradation Analysis and Design Optimization 47

2.5.3 Degradation Measurement and Mechanisms 50

2.5.3.1 Acceleration Factor and Temperature Contribution 50

2.5.3.2 Degradation Mechanism Variation 50

2.6 Technologies to Enhance the Device Performance 51

2.6.1 Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence 51

2.6.2 Other Types of Excited States 53

2.6.2.1 Excimer and Exciplex 53

2.6.2.2 Charge-Transfer Complex 53

2.6.3 Charge Generation Layer 54

References 56

3 OLED Manufacturing Process 61

3.1 Material Preparation 61

3.1.1 Basic Material Properties 61

3.1.1.1 Hole Injection Material 61

3.1.1.2 Hole Transportation Material 62

3.1.1.3 Emission Layer Material 62

3.1.1.4 Electron Transportation Material and Charge Blocking Material 63

3.1.2 Purification Process 67

3.2 Evaporation Process 68

3.2.1 Principle 68

3.2.2 Evaporation Sources 72

3.2.2.1 Resistive Heating Method 72

3.2.2.2 Electron Beam Evaporation 75

3.2.2.3 Monitoring Thickness Using a Quartz Oscillator 76

3.3 Encapsulation 79

3.3.1 Dark Spot and Edge Growth Defects 79

3.3.2 Light Emission from the Bottom and Top of the OLED Device 80

3.3.3 Bottom Emission and perimeter sealing 81

3.3.4 Top Emission 82

3.3.5 Encapsulation Technologies and Measurement 83

3.3.5.1 Thin-Film Encapsulation 84

3.3.5.2 Face Sealing Encapsulation 87

3.3.5.3 Frit Encapsulation 88

3.3.5.4 WVTR Measurement 88

3.4 Problem Analysis 91

3.4.1 Ionization Potential Measurement 91

3.4.2 Electron Affinity Measurement 92

3.4.3 HPLC Analysis 93

3.4.4 Cyclic Voltammetry 94

References 96

4 OLED Display Module 99

4.1 Comparison Between OLED and LCD Modules 99

4.2 Basic Display Design and Related Characteristics 101

4.2.1 Luminous Intensity, Luminance, and Illuminance 101

4.2.1.1 Luminous Intensity 101

4.2.1.2 Luminance 102

4.2.1.3 Illuminance 103

4.2.1.4 Metrics Summary 104

4.2.1.5 Helmholtz–Kohlrausch Effect 106

4.2.2 OLED Current Efficiencies and Power Efficacies 106

4.2.3 Color Reproduction 109

4.2.4 Uniform Color Space 115

4.2.5 White Point Determination 116

4.2.6 Color Boost 119

4.2.7 Viewing Condition 120

4.3 Passive-Matrix OLED Display 121

4.3.1 Structure 121

4.3.2 Pixel Driving 122

4.4 Active-Matrix OLED Display 125

4.4.1 OLED Module Components 125

4.4.2 Two-Transistor One-Capacitor (2T1C) Driving Circuit 127

4.4.3 Ambient Performance 136

4.4.3.1 Living Room Contrast Ratio 136

4.4.3.2 Chroma Reduction Due to Ambient Light 137

4.4.4 Subpixel Rendering 138

References 139

5 OLED Color Patterning Technologies 143

5.1 Color-Patterning Technologies 143

5.1.1 Shadow Mask Patterning 143

5.1.1.1 Shadow Mask Process 143

5.1.1.2 Blue Common Layer 146

5.1.1.3 Polychromatic Pixel 147

5.1.2 White+Color Filter Patterning 148

5.1.3 Color Conversion Medium (CCM) Patterning 149

5.1.4 Laser-Induced Thermal Imaging (LITI) Method 149

5.1.5 Radiation-Induced Sublimation Transfer (RIST) Method 151

5.1.6 Dual-Plate OLED Display (DOD) Method 152

5.1.7 Other Methods 153

5.2 Solution-Processed Materials and Technologies 153

5.3 Next-Generation OLED Manufacturing Tools 158

5.3.1 Vapor Injection Source Technology (VIST) Deposition 158

5.3.2 Hot-Wall Method 163

5.3.3 Organic Vapor-Phase Deposition (OVPD) Method 164

References 165

6 TFT and Driving for Active-Matrix Display 167

6.1 TFT Structure 167

6.2 TFT Process 169

6.2.1 Low-Temperature Polysilicon Process Overview 169

6.2.2 Thin-Film Formation 172

6.2.3 Patterning Technique 173

6.2.4 Excimer Laser Crystallization 177

6.3 MOSFET Basics 180

6.4 LTPS-TFT-Driven OLED Display Design 183

6.4.1 OFF Current 183

6.4.2 Driver TFT Size Restriction 184

6.4.3 Restriction Due to Voltage Drop 185

6.4.4 LTPS-TFT Pixel Compensation Circuit 190

6.4.4.1 Voltage Programming 190

6.4.4.2 Current Programming 192

6.4.4.3 External Compensation Method 193

6.4.4.4 Digital Driving 194

6.4.5 Circuit Integration by LTPS-TFT 197

6.5 TFT Technologies for OLED Displays 200

6.5.1 Selective Annealing Method 200

6.5.1.1 Sequential Lateral Solidification (SLS) Method 200

6.5.1.2 Selective Annealing by Microlens Array 200

6.5.2 Microcrystalline and Superamorphous Silicon 202

6.5.3 Solid-Phase Crystallization 205

6.5.3.1 MIC and MILC Methods 205

6.5.3.2 AMFC Method 205

6.5.4 Oxide Semiconductors 207

References 210

7 OLED Television Applications 215

7.1 Performance Target 215

7.2 Scalability Concept 217

7.2.1 Relationship between Defect Density and Production Yield 217

7.2.1.1 Purpose of Yield Simulation 217

7.2.1.2 Defective Pixel Number Estimation Using the Poisson Equation 217

7.2.2 Scalable Technology 217

7.2.2.1 Scalability 218

7.3 Murdoch’s Algorithm to Achieve Low Power and Wide Color Gamut 219

7.3.1 A Method for Achieving Both Low Power and Wide Color Gamut 219

7.3.2 RGBW Driving Algorithm 221

7.4 An Approach to Achieve 100% NTSC Color Gamut With Low Power Consumption Using White + Color Filter 224

7.4.1 Consideration of Performance Difference between W-RGB and W-RGBW Method 224

7.4.1.1 Issues of White+Color Filter Method for Large Displays 224

7.4.1.2 Analysis of W-RGBW Approach to Circumvent Its Trade-off Situation 224

7.4.1.3 Design of a Prototype to Demonstrate That Low Power Consumption Can Be Achieved with Large Color Gamut 229

7.4.1.4 Product-Level Performance Demonstration by the Combination of Scalable Technologies 230

References 233

8 New OLED Applications 235

8.1 Flexible Display/Wearable Displays 235

8.1.1 Flexible Display Applications 235

8.1.2 Flexible Display Substrates 235

8.1.3 Laser Liftoff Process 236

8.1.4 Barrier Technology for Flexible Displays 240

8.1.5 Organic TFTs for Flexible Displays 241

8.1.5.1 Organic Semiconductor Materials 242

8.1.5.2 Organic TFT Device Structure and Processing 243

8.1.5.3 Organic TFT Characteristics 245

8.2 Transparent Displays 245

8.3 Tiled Display 247

8.3.1 Passive-Matrix Tiling 247

8.3.2 Active-Matrix Tiling 248

References 252

9 OLED Lighting 255

9.1 Performance Improvement of OLED Lighting 255

9.2 Color Rendering Index 257

9.3 OLED Lighting Requirement 259

9.3.1 Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) 260

9.3.2 Other Requirements 262

9.4 Light Extraction Enhancement of OLED Lighting 262

9.4.1 Various Light Absorption Mechanisms 262

9.4.2 Microlens Array Structure 266

9.4.3 Diffusion Structure 266

9.4.4 Diffraction Structure 268

9.4.5 Reduction of Plasmon Absorption 268

9.4.5.1 Plasmonic Loss Mechanism 268

9.5 Color Tunable OLED Lighting 269

9.6 OLED Lighting Design 272

9.6.1 Resistance Reduction 272

9.6.2 Current Reduction 272

9.7 Roll-to-Roll OLED Lighting Manufacturing 273

References 275

Appendix 277

Index 281

See More

Author Information

Takatoshi Tsujimura is General Manager of the Konica Minolta Inc. He received an SID award for the development of the world's largest 20-inch OLED prototype and also received SID Fellow award for the development of 100% NTSC white + color filter technology. He has worked for Kodak and IBM and is an SID executive. Dr. Tsujimura was selected as one of the "10 best engineers/researchers in the 10 best Japanese companies" by Nikkei Electronics magazine.

See More

Related Titles

Back to Top