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Introduction to Petroleum Engineering

ISBN: 978-1-119-19344-9
352 pages
October 2016
Introduction to Petroleum Engineering (1119193443) cover image

Description

Presents key concepts and terminology for a multidisciplinary range of topics in petroleum engineering
  • Places oil and gas production in the global energy context
  • Introduces all of the key concepts that are needed to understand oil and gas production from exploration through abandonment
  • Reviews fundamental terminology and concepts from geology, geophysics, petrophysics, drilling, production and reservoir engineering
  • Includes many worked practical examples within each chapter and exercises at the end of each chapter highlight and reinforce material in the chapter
  • Includes a solutions manual for academic adopters
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Table of Contents

About the Authors xiii

Preface xv

About the Companion Website xvi

1 Introduction 1

1.1 What is Petroleum Engineering? 1

1.1.1 Alternative Energy Opportunities 3

1.1.2 Oil and Gas Units 3

1.1.3 Production Performance Ratios 4

1.1.4 Classification of Oil and Gas 4

1.2 Life Cycle of a Reservoir 6

1.3 Reservoir Management 9

1.3.1 Recovery Efficiency 9

1.4 Petroleum Economics 11

1.4.1 The Price of Oil 14

1.4.2 How Does Oil Price Affect Oil Recovery? 14

1.4.3 How High Can Oil Prices Go? 15

1.5 Petroleum and the Environment 16

1.5.1 Anthropogenic Climate Change 16

1.5.2 Environmental Issues 19

1.6 Activities 20

1.6.1 Further Reading 20

1.6.2 True/False 21

1.6.3 Exercises 21

2 The Future of Energy 23

2.1 Global Oil and Gas Production and Consumption 23

2.2 Resources and Reserves 24

2.2.1 Reserves 27

2.3 Oil and Gas Resources 29

2.3.1 Coal Gas 29

2.3.2 Gas Hydrates 31

2.3.3 Tight Gas Sands, Shale Gas, and Shale Oil 31

2.3.4 Tar Sands 33

2.4 Global Distribution of Oil and Gas Reserves 34

2.5 Peak Oil 36

2.5.1 World Oil Production Rate Peak 37

2.5.2 World Per Capita Oil Production Rate Peak 37

2.6 Future Energy Options 39

2.6.1 Goldilocks Policy for Energy Transition 39

2.7 Activities 42

2.7.1 Further Reading 42

2.7.2 True/False 42

2.7.3 Exercises 42

3 Properties of Reservoir Fluids 45

3.1 Origin 45

3.2 Classification 47

3.3 Definitions 51

3.4 Gas Properties 54

3.5 Oil Properties 55

3.6 Water Properties 60

3.7 Sources of Fluid Data 61

3.7.1 Constant Composition Expansion 61

3.7.2 Differential Liberation 62

3.7.3 Separator Test 62

3.8 Applications of Fluid Properties 63

3.9 Activities 64

3.9.1 Further Reading 64

3.9.2 True/False 64

3.9.3 Exercises 64

4 Properties of Reservoir Rock 67

4.1 Porosity 67

4.1.1 Compressibility of Pore Volume 69

4.1.2 Saturation 70

4.1.3 Volumetric Analysis 71

4.2 Permeability 71

4.2.1 Pressure Dependence of Permeability 73

4.2.2 Superficial Velocity and Interstitial Velocity 74

4.2.3 Radial Flow of Liquids 74

4.2.4 Radial Flow of Gases 75

4.3 Reservoir Heterogeneity and Permeability 76

4.3.1 Parallel Configuration 76

4.3.2 Series Configuration 76

4.3.3 Dykstra–Parsons Coefficient 77

4.4 Directional Permeability 79

4.5 Activities 80

4.5.1 Further Reading 80

4.5.2 True/False 80

4.5.3 Exercises 80

5 Multiphase Flow 83

5.1 Interfacial Tension, Wettability, and Capillary Pressure 83

5.2 Fluid Distribution and Capillary Pressure 86

5.3 Relative Permeability 88

5.4 Mobility and Fractional Flow 90

5.5 One -dimensional Water-oil Displacement 91

5.6 Well Productivity 95

5.7 Activities 97

5.7.1 Further Reading 97

5.7.2 True/False 97

5.7.3 Exercises 98

6 Petroleum Geology 101

6.1 Geologic History of the Earth 101

6.1.1 Formation of the Rocky Mountains 106

6.2 Rocks and Formations 107

6.2.1 Formations 108

6.3 Sedimentary Basins and Traps 111

6.3.1 Traps 111

6.4 What Do You Need to form a Hydrocarbon Reservoir? 112

6.5 Volumetric Analysis, Recovery Factor, and EUR 113

6.5.1 Volumetric Oil in Place 114

6.5.2 Volumetric Gas in Place 114

6.5.3 Recovery Factor and Estimated Ultimate Recovery 115

6.6 Activities 115

6.6.1 Further Reading 115

6.6.2 True/False 116

6.6.3 Exercises 116

7 Reservoir Geophysics 119

7.1 Seismic Waves 119

7.1.1 Earthquake Magnitude 122

7.2 Acoustic Impedance and Reflection Coefficients 124

7.3 Seismic Resolution 126

7.3.1 Vertical Resolution 126

7.3.2 Lateral Resolution 127

7.3.3 Exploration Geophysics and Reservoir Geophysics 128

7.4 Seismic Data Acquisition, Processing, and Interpretation 129

7.4.1 Data Acquisition 129

7.4.2 Data Processing 130

7.4.3 Data Interpretation 130

7.5 Petroelastic Model 131

7.5.1 IFM Velocities 131

7.5.2 IFM Moduli 132

7.6 Geomechanical Model 133

7.7 Activities 135

7.7.1 Further Reading 135

7.7.2 True/False 135

7.7.3 Exercises 135

8 Drilling 137

8.1 Drilling Rights 137

8.2 Rotary Drilling Rigs 138

8.2.1 Power Systems 139

8.2.2 Hoisting System 141

8.2.3 Rotation System 141

8.2.4 Drill String and Bits 143

8.2.5 Circulation System 146

8.2.6 Well Control System 148

8.3 The Drilling Process 149

8.3.1 Planning 149

8.3.2 Site Preparation 150

8.3.3 Drilling 151

8.3.4 Open -Hole Logging 152

8.3.5 Setting Production Casing 153

8.4 Types of Wells 155

8.4.1 Well Spacing and Infill Drilling 155

8.4.2 Directional Wells 156

8.4.3 Extended Reach Drilling 158

8.5 Activities 158

8.5.1 Further Reading 158

8.5.2 True/False 158

8.5.3 Exercises 159

9 Well Logging 161

9.1 Logging Environment 161

9.1.1 Wellbore and Formation 162

9.1.2 Open or Cased? 163

9.1.3 Depth of Investigation 164

9.2 Lithology Logs 164

9.2.1 Gamma -Ray Logs 164

9.2.2 Spontaneous Potential Logs 165

9.2.3 Photoelectric Log 167

9.3 Porosity Logs 167

9.3.1 Density Logs 167

9.3.2 Acoustic Logs 168

9.3.3 Neutron Logs 169

9.4 Resistivity Logs 170

9.5 Other Types of Logs 174

9.5.1 Borehole Imaging 174

9.5.2 Spectral Gamma -Ray Logs 174

9.5.3 Dipmeter Logs 174

9.6 Log Calibration with Formation Samples 175

9.6.1 Mud Logs 175

9.6.2 Whole Core 175

9.6.3 Sidewall Core 176

9.7 Measurement While Drilling and Logging While Drilling 176

9.8 Reservoir Characterization Issues 177

9.8.1 Well Log Legacy 177

9.8.2 Cutoffs 177

9.8.3 Cross -Plots 178

9.8.4 Continuity of Formations between Wells 178

9.8.5 Log Suites 179

9.8.6 Scales of Reservoir Information 180

9.9 Activities 182

9.9.1 Further Reading 182

9.9.2 True/False 182

9.9.3 Exercises 182

10 Well Completions 185

10.1 Skin 186

10.2 Production Casing and Liners 188

10.3 Perforating 189

10.4 Acidizing 192

10.5 Hydraulic Fracturing 193

10.5.1 Horizontal Wells 201

10.6 Wellbore and Surface Hardware 202

10.7 Activities 203

10.7.1 Further Reading 203

10.7.2 True/False 203

10.7.3 Exercises 204

11 Upstream Facilities 205

11.1 Onshore Facilities 205

11.2 Flash Calculation for Separators 208

11.3 Pressure Rating for Separators 211

11.4 Single -Phase Flow in Pipe 213

11.5 Multiphase Flow in Pipe 216

11.5.1 Modeling Multiphase Flow in Pipes 217

11.6 Well Patterns 218

11.6.1 Intelligent Wells and Intelligent Fields 219

11.7 Offshore Facilities 221

11.8 Urban Operations: The Barnett Shale 224

11.9 Activities 225

11.9.1 Further Reading 225

11.9.2 True/False 225

11.9.3 Exercises 225

12 Transient Well Testing 227

12.1 Pressure Transient Testing 227

12.1.1 Flow Regimes 228

12.1.2 Types of Pressure Transient Tests 228

12.2 Oil Well Pressure Transient Testing 229

12.2.1 Pressure Buildup Test 232

12.2.2 Interpreting Pressure Transient Tests 235

12.2.3 Radius of Investigation of a Liquid Well 237

12.3 Gas Well Pressure Transient Testing 237

12.3.1 Diffusivity Equation 238

12.3.2 Pressure Buildup Test in a Gas Well 238

12.3.3 Radius of Investigation 239

12.3.4 Pressure Drawdown Test and the Reservoir Limit Test 240

12.3.5 Rate Transient Analysis 241

12.3.6 Two -Rate Test 242

12.4 Gas Well Deliverability 242

12.4.1 The SBA Method 244

12.4.2 The LIT Method 245

12.5 Summary of Transient Well Testing 246

12.6 Activities 246

12.6.1 Further Reading 246

12.6.2 True/False 246

12.6.3 Exercises 247

13 Production Performance 249

13.1 Field Performance Data 249

13.1.1 Bubble Mapping 250

13.2 Decline Curve Analysis 251

13.2.1 Alternative DCA Models 253

13.3 Probabilistic DCA 254

13.4 Oil Reservoir Material Balance 256

13.4.1 Undersaturated Oil Reservoir with Water Influx 257

13.4.2 Schilthuis Material Balance Equation 258

13.5 Gas Reservoir Material Balance 261

13.5.1 Depletion Drive Gas Reservoir 262

13.6 Depletion Drive Mechanisms and Recovery Efficiencies 263

13.7 Inflow Performance Relationships 266

13.8 Activities 267

13.8.1 Further Reading 267

13.8.2 True/False 267

13.8.3 Exercises 268

14 Reservoir Performance 271

14.1 Reservoir Flow Simulators 271

14.1.1 Flow Units 272

14.1.2 Reservoir Characterization Using Flow Units 272

14.2 Reservoir Flow Modeling Workflows 274

14.3 Performance of Conventional Oil and Gas Reservoirs 276

14.3.1 Wilmington Field, California: Immiscible Displacement by Water Flooding 277

14.3.2 Prudhoe Bay Field, Alaska: Water Flood, Gas Cycling, and Miscible Gas Injection 278

14.4 Performance of an Unconventional Reservoir 280

14.4.1 Barnett Shale, Texas: Shale Gas Production 280

14.5 Performance of Geothermal Reservoirs 285

14.6 Activities 287

14.6.1 Further Reading 287

14.6.2 True/False 287

14.6.3 Exercises 288

15 Midstream and Downstream Operations 291

15.1 The Midstream Sector 291

15.2 The Downstream Sector: Refineries 294

15.2.1 Separation 295

15.2.2 Conversion 299

15.2.3 Purification 300

15.2.4 Refinery Maintenance 300

15.3 The Downstream Sector: Natural Gas Processing Plants 300

15.4 Sakhalin -2 Project, Sakhalin Island, Russia 301

15.4.1 History of Sakhalin Island 302

15.4.2 The Sakhalin -2 Project 306

15.5 Activities 310

15.5.1 Further Reading 310

15.5.2 True/False 310

15.5.3 Exercises 311

Appendix Unit Conversion Factors 313

References 317

Index 327

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Author Information

John R. Fanchi holds the Ross B. Matthews Chair of Petroleum Engineering at Texas Christian University in Fort Worth, Texas. He has taught at the Colorado School of Mines, and has industrial experience with major oil and gas companies including Chevron and Marathon. He is a Distinguished Member of the Society of Petroleum Engineers.

Richard L. Christiansen has taught Petroleum Engineering at the University of Utah and Colorado School of Mines. He has broad industrial experience as a petroleum engineer in independent and major oil and gas companies. He has a Ph.D. in chemical engineering from the University of Wisconsin.

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