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Microwave Materials and Applications, 2 Volume Set

Mailadil T. Sebastian (Editor), Rick Ubic (Editor), Heli Jantunen (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-119-20852-5
1000 pages
May 2017
Microwave Materials and Applications, 2 Volume Set (1119208521) cover image

Description

The recent rapid progress in wireless telecommunication, including the Internet of Things, 5th generation wireless systems, satellite broadcasting, and intelligent transport systems has increased the need for low-loss dielectric materials and modern fabrication techniques. These materials have excellent electrical, dielectric, and thermal properties and have enormous potential, especially in wireless communication, flexible electronics, and printed electronics.

Microwave Materials and Applications discusses the methods commonly employed for measuring microwave dielectric properties, the various attempts reported to solve problems of materials chemistry and crystal structure, doping, substitution, and composite formation, highlighting the processing techniques, morphology influences, and applications of microwave materials whilst summarizing many of the recent technical research accomplishments in the area of microwave dielectrics and applications

Chapters examine:

  • Oxide ceramics for dielectric resonators and substrates
  • HTCC, LTCC and ULTCC tapes for substrates
  • Polymer ceramic composites for printed circuit boards
  • Elastomer-ceramic composites for flexible electronics
  • Dielectric inks
  • EMI shielding materials
  • Microwave ferrites

A comprehensive Appendix presents the fundamental properties for more than 4000 low-loss dielectric ceramics, their composition, crystal structure, and their microwave dielectric properties.

Microwave Materials and Applications presents a comprehensive view of all aspects of microwave materials and applications, making it useful for scientists, industrialists, engineers, and students working on current and emerging applications of wireless communications and consumer electronics.

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Table of Contents

VOLUME I

List of Contributors xv

Series Preface xvii

Preface xix

1. Measurement of Microwave Dielectric Properties and Factors Affecting Them 1
M.T. Sebastian, M.A.S. Silva, and A.S.B. Sombra

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Permittivity (��r) and quality factor (Q) 2

1.3 Measurement of Microwave Dielectric Properties 7

1.4 Methods of Measurement 8

1.5 Measurement of EMI Shielding Effectiveness 29

1.6 Terahertz and Millimeter Wave Measurements 31

1.7 Measurement of Dielectric Properties of Powder Samples 34

1.8 Estimation of Dielectric Loss by Spectroscopic Methods 35

1.9 Factors Affecting Dielectric Loss 39

1.10 Measurement of Temperature Coefficient of Resonant Frequency 41

1.11 Tuning of the Resonant Frequency 42

References 45

2. Modeling of Microwave Dielectric Properties of Composites 53
Marko Tuhkala, Merja Teirikangas, and Jari Juuti

2.1 Introduction 53

2.2 Connectivity 54

2.3 Electrostatic Theory 56

2.4 Mixing Equations 59

2.5 Effect of Porosity 71

2.6 Conclusion 77

References 77

3. Perovskites 81
K.P. Surendran and Rick Ubic

3.1 Introduction 81

3.2 Lattice Constant Prediction 83

3.3 Tolerance Factor 84

3.4 Octahedral Tilting 86

3.5 Simple Perovskites 87

3.6 Cation Ordering 89

3.7 Cation Deficient Perovskites 133

3.8 Summary 135

References 136

4. High Permittivity Materials 149
Rick Ubic, G. Subodh, and M.T. Sebastian

4.1 Introduction 149

4.2 The BaO–Ln2O3–TiO2 System 149

4.3 The Effect of Processing Parameters on Electrical Properties 162

4.4 Titania 164

4.5 Sr1-3x/2CexTiO3 Ceramics 166

4.6 Pbn(Nb1-xTax)O5+n 174

4.7 (Pb1-xCax)(Fe1/2B1/2)O3 [B = Nb, Ta] 185

4.8 Ag(Nb1-xTax)O3 187

4.9 Summary 190

References 190

5. Millimeter-Wave Materials 203
Hitoshi Ohsato

5.1 Introduction: New Frontiers of Millimeter-Wave Dielectrics 203

5.2 Dielectric Properties for Millimeter Wave 207

5.3 Candidates of Millimeter-Wave Dielectrics 209

5.4 Specialized Study 212

Acknowledgments 259

References 259

6. Other Important Materials 267
M.T. Sebastian and R.C. Pullar

6.1 Spinel 267

6.2 Li2ATi3O8 (A = Mg, Zn) Ceramics 280

6.3 Li2Zn3Ti4O12 289

6.4 Apatites 290

6.5 Alumina 303

6.6 Zirconium Tin Titanate 306

6.7 Dielectric Materials in the BaO–TiO2 System 314

6.8 Columbite Niobates (M2+Nb2O6) 318

Acknowledgments 327

References 328

7. Microwave Dielectric Properties of Glasses and Bulk Glass Ceramics 345
Martin Letz

7.1 Glasses 345

7.2 Bulk Glass Ceramics 349

References 353

8. High Temperature Cofired Ceramic (HTCC), Low Temperature Cofired Ceramic (LTCC), and Ultralow Temperature Cofired Ceramic (ULTCC) Materials 355
M.T. Sebastian and Heli Jantunen

8.1 High Temperature Cofired Ceramics (HTCC) 355

8.2 HTCC Alumina 357

8.3 Aluminium Nitride HTCC 359

8.4 ZrSiO4 361

8.5 Low Temperature Cofired Ceramics (LTCC) 366

8.6 Ultralow Temperature Cofired Ceramics (ULTCC) 395

8.7 Discussion and Conclusion 408

References 411

Index i1

VOLUME II

List of Contributors xv

Series Preface xvii

Preface xix

9. Voltage Tunable Microwave Dielectrics for Frequency and Phase Agile Devices 427
K. Sudheendran and K.C. James Raju

9.1 Introduction to Voltage Tunable Materials 427

9.2 Different Classes of Voltage Tunable Materials 428

9.3 Importance of Voltage Tunable Materials in Frequency and Phase Agile Devices 432

9.4 Growth Techniques for Voltage Tunable Thin Films on Various Substrates 434

9.5 Characterization techniques 437

9.6 High-Frequency Characterization 438

9.7 Design and Realization Aspects of Varactors Using Tunable Materials 449

9.8 Conclusions 454

Acknowledgment 454

References 454

10. Dielectric Inks 457
J. Varghese and M.T. Sebastian

10.1 Introduction 457

10.2 Methodology 461

10.3 Dielectric Inks and Their Properties 462

10.4 Polymer-Based Dielectric Inks, Properties and Applications 473

10.5 Commercially Available Dielectric Inks, Properties and Applications 475

10.6 Conclusion 475

Acknowledgment 477

References 477

11. Polymer–Ceramic Composites for Microwave Applications 481
R. Ratheesh and M.T. Sebastian

11.1 Introduction: Microwave Substrates 481

11.2 Types of Polymer–Ceramic Composites 483

11.3 Thermoplastic Matrix and Composites 485

11.4 PTFE/Ceramic Composites 489

11.5 Polyethylene–Ceramic Composites 502

11.6 Polystyrene–Ceramic Composites 507

11.7 Epoxy-Ceramic Composites 510

11.8 Liquid Crystal Polymer (LCP) 513

11.9 Thermal Conductivity 514

11.10 Polymer Nanoceramic Composites 518

11.11 Ultrawideband Antenna Design Using Copper Cladded Ceramic-Filled PTFE Substrates 521

11.12 Conclusion 526

References 527

12. Rubber–Ceramic Composites 537
M.T. Sebastian and L.K. Namitha

12.1 Introduction 537

12.2 Silicone Rubber 539

12.3 Butyl Rubber (BR) 553

12.4 Fabrication of Flexible Microstrip Antenna 567

12.5 Conclusions 570

References 570

13. Designing of Materials for EMI Shielding Applications 575
Swati Varshney and S.K. Dhawan

13.1 Electromagnetic Shielding and Microwave Absorption Mechanism 577

13.2 Shielding Effectiveness (SE) 577

13.3 Measurement of Shielding Effectiveness 578

13.4 Electromagnetic Shielding Materials 581

13.5 New Insight into Designing of Materials for Microwave Shielding 583

13.6 Nanostructured Graphene/Fe3O4 Incorporated Polyaniline for EMI Shielding 584

13.7 Designing of Polypyrrole–��-Fe2O3 Nanocomposite Wave Absorber 586

13.8 Designing of Conducting Polymer Composite by Incorporating Ferrofluid 590

13.9 Designing of Polypyrrole–Aqueous Ferrofluid (PFF) Nanocomposite Microwave Absorber 593

13.10 Conclusions 596

Acknowledgments 598

References 598

14. Microwave Ferrites and Applications 603
Vincent G. Harris

14.1 Introduction 603

14.2 Structure, chemistry, magnetism, and gyromagnetic properties 604

14.3 Ferrite Materials Processing for Microwave Applications 611

14.4 Semiconductor Integration of Ferrite Thin and Thick Films for MIC Development 620

14.5 Ferrite–Based Microwave Device Development 628

14.6 Outlook 642

References 643

15. Applications of Microwave Dielectrics 653
Heike Bartsch, Alexander Schulz, Jens M¨uller, Alexander Ebert, Steffen Spira, Frank Wollenschl¨ager, and Matthias Hein

15.1 General Requirements for Microwave Applications 653

15.2 LTCC Microwave Components and Materials 654

15.3 LTCC Application Examples 666

References 676

16. Applications of Dielectric Resonators 683
P. Mohanan and S. Mridula

16.1 Introduction 683

16.2 Dielectric Resonator Antenna (DRA) 684

16.3 Applications of Dielectric Resonator in Microwave Oscillators 698

16.4 Application of Dielectric Resonators in Microwave Filters 703

References 710

Appendix: List of Low-Loss Ceramic Dielectric Materials and Their Properties 715
M.T. Sebastian

Index i1

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Author Information

Edited by
M. T. Sebastian Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Oulu, Finland

Rick Ubic Micron School of Materials Science and Engineering, Boise State University, USA

Heli Jantunen Faculty of Information Technology and Electrical Engineering, University of Oulu, Finland

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