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World Cities and Nation States

ISBN: 978-1-119-21642-1
304 pages
December 2016, Wiley-Blackwell
World Cities and Nation States (1119216427) cover image

Description

World Cities and Nation States takes a global perspective to show how national governments and states/provinces/regions continue to play a decisive, and often positive, partnership role with world cities. The 16 chapter book comprised of two introductory chapters, 12 central chapters that draw on case studies, and two summary chapters - draws on over 40 interviews with national ministers, city government officials, business leaders and expert academics.
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Table of Contents

Foreword xii

Preface xiv

Section I Introducing world cities and nation states 1

1 Introduction: Clash of the centuries? 3

Urbanisation and globalisation: The age of world cities 5

The future imperatives for world cities 6

Nation states in the urban age 6

Different models and starting points 9

Other inherited factors 11

Overview of the book 14

2 Cities and nation states: The story so far 19

The rise of the nation state and the implications for cities 20

Nation states and the ‘world cities’ literature 22

A return to city‐states? 26

Reasons for caution 27

The ongoing relevance of the nation state 28

Summary 32

Section II World cities in tight nations: Unitary systems in transition 33

3 London: From centralism to negotiated growth management 35

London’s historic relationship with central government 38

The return to city government and changes in city powers since 2000 40

The national system of cities: London and the UK 43

Ongoing challenges where London needs help from national government 46

Key actors and mechanisms that enable London to make progress with UK central government 51

Conclusion 52

4 Paris: Manufacturing a metropolis amid institutional complexity 54

History of Paris’s relationship with national government 57

Paris as an established world city 58

The national system of cities: Paris and France 61

Ongoing challenges where Paris needs help from national government 62

Key actors and mechanisms that enable Paris to make progress with the nation state 66

Conclusion 67

5 Seoul: Lessons from de‐centralisation and de‐concentration 68

History of Seoul’s relationship with central government 70

Adaptation in Seoul’s global age 73

The national system of cities: Seoul and Korea 74

Ongoing challenges where Seoul needs help from national government 76

Key actors and mechanisms that enable Seoul to make progress with the nation state 79

Conclusion 79

6 Tokyo: Shared global aspirations and blunted reforms 81

History of Tokyo’s relationship with central government 83

Changes in city powers since 2000: What problems have been solved? 85

The national system of cities: Tokyo and Japan 88

The future agenda for collaboration with national government 89

Key actors and mechanisms that enable Tokyo to make progress with the nation state 92

Conclusion 93

Section III Working remotely: World cities in federal systems 95

7 Mumbai: The opportunity costs of leadership and co‐ordination failure 97

History of Mumbai’s relationship with higher tiers of government 99

Incomplete initiatives and aborted reforms in the 21st century 101

The national system of cities: Mumbai and India 102

Ongoing challenges where Mumbai needs help from national government 104

Key actors and mechanisms that enable Mumbai to make progress with the nation state 107

Conclusion 108

8 New York: Adapting to 'emergency back‐up' federalism 110

History of the city and nation state relationship up to 2000 113

Evolution of the city's relationship with the federal tier since 9/11 114

The national system of cities: New York City and American metros 115

Ongoing challenges where New York needs help from national government 116

Key actors and mechanisms that enable New York to make progress with the nation state 119

Conclusion 120

9 São Paulo: The quest for recognition and reform 122

History of São Paulo’s relationship with its nation state up to 2000 124

Changes in São Paulo’s relationship with higher tiers of government since 2000 125

The national system of cities: São Paulo and Brazil 127

Ongoing challenges where São Paulo needs help from national government 130

Key actors and mechanisms that enable São Paulo to make progress with the nation state 134

Conclusion 134

10 Toronto: Building capacity to renew the 'city that works' 136

History of Toronto’s relationship with the nation state 138

Toronto in the 21st century: A mixed record of federal–city relationships 139

The national system of cities: Toronto and Canada 143

Ongoing challenges where Toronto needs help from national government 144

Key actors and mechanisms that enable Toronto to make progress with higher tiers of government 147

Conclusion 148

Section IV Mixed blessings: City‐states and special status cities 149

11 Hong Kong: A laboratory for a globalising nation 151

History of Hong Kong’s relationship with Beijing 154

Changes in the relationship since the 1997 handover 155

The national system of cities: Hong Kong and China 156

Hong Kong’s future imperatives and the role of China’s central government 158

Key actors and mechanisms that enable Hong Kong to make progress with the nation state 160

Conclusion 162

12 Moscow: Demand or divergence – the externalities of political centralism 163

History of the city and federal government relationship in Moscow 165

New approaches in the 21st century 167

The national system of cities: Moscow and Russia 169

Ongoing opportunities and challenges where Moscow can benefit from national government support 171

Key actors and mechanisms that enable Moscow to make progress with the nation state 175

Conclusion 175

13 Shanghai: Pragmatism in pursuit of global leadership 177

History of Shanghai’s relationship with central government 179

Reforms and cyclical approaches in the Shanghai–Beijing relationship since 2000 181

The national system of cities: Shanghai and China 183

Ongoing challenges where Shanghai needs help from national government 185

Key actors and mechanisms that enable Shanghai to make progress with the nation state 187

Conclusion 187

14 Singapore: The opportunities and obstacles of city‐statehood 189

Singapore’s government and governance history 191

The impacts of Singapore’s unitary government on global city adaptation and success 193

The role of key institutions 195

Singapore’s future challenges 197

Conclusion 199

Section V Conclusion: A New Deal for the 21st century? 201

15 Adjusting to an age of world cities 203

High‐quality infrastructure and connectivity projects 205

Step changes to address housing and real estate challenges 206

Improvement and expansion of governance in world cities 207

Fiscal and investment systems 215

Business friendliness and investor readiness 216

Investment in research and innovation 217

Support for hosting global events 218

Open labour markets 219

Making practical progress with national governments 220

Conclusion 223

16 Unintended consequences: Making world cities work for nations 224

The advantages and disadvantages of having a world city 225

National frameworks to support the wider system of cities 231

Collaboration between world cities and other cities in their nations 236

World cities into the future 237

Conclusion 238

References 240

Index 277

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