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Refractory Material Selection for Steelmaking

Tom Vert, Jeffrey D. Smith (Foreword by)
ISBN: 978-1-119-21986-6
390 pages
May 2016
Refractory Material Selection for Steelmaking (1119219868) cover image

Description

The first book since 1974 written by a steelmaking end user and refractory engineer

Why do you pick the refractory you do? How do you choose? Where do you start the selection process? The answers to these questions must always take into account the balance of competing interests among operations, purchasing, and the suppliers. Refractory Material Selection forSteelmaking is the ultimate guide to finding ideal answers to these questions. By following the step-by-step instructions—paired with detailed explanations and full-color diagrams—readers will be able to critically select the materials that are most appropriate for them. This book considers:

  • The goals of refractory selection
  • What causes refractories to wear out
  • The properties of refractories and their raw materials
  • Specific refractory applications
  • Key strategies used to procure refractories

Tom Vert's 25 years of experience in steelmaking combined with a ceramic engineering background provide comprehensive information that will benefit anyone working with refractories in steelmaking or any other industry.

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Table of Contents

Foreword VII

Acknowledgements IX

Dedication XI

Introduction XIII

Chapter 1 1

1.0 Safety 2

1.1 Goal of Availability 13

1.2 Total Cost of Ownership (TCO) 15

1.3 Energy and Heat Overview 21

1.4 Quality-Inert to the Steel Process 26

1.5 Environment 33

Chapter 2 35

2.0 TMC Analysis Overview 36

2.1 Thermal-High Temperature Overview 38

2.2 Thermal Shock 61

2.3 Mechanical Impact 73

2.4 Mechanical Abrasion 77

2.5 Wear of Refractories - Dissolution 79

2.6 Wear of Refractories - Penetration 86

2.7 Interactions of TMC / Saturday Night Design / Rubble Pile Analysis 89

Chapter 3 93

3.0 Selection - Raw Materials Overview 94

3.1 Magnesia Overview (MgO) 98

3.2 Alumino-Silicate Overview (Al2O3 - SiO2) 107

3.3 Carbon - Graphite Overview (C) 113

3.4 Antioxidants (Aka Preferential Oxide Formers) 118

3.5 Resins, Pitches and Binders Overview 123

3.6 Special Raw Materials 126

3.7 Dolomite 130

Chapter 4 132

4.0 Refractory Dryout Anchoring Overview 133

4.1 Bricks 139

4.2 Castables, Gunning and Shortcreting Overview 142

4.3 Plastics, Rams and Mortars Overview 150

4.4 Refractory Dryout and Anchoring Overview 153

4.5 Selection - Insulation Board and Blanket Overview 159

Chapter 5 162

5.0 Refractory Texture, Testing and Technical Data Sheets Overview 163

Chapter 6 182

6.0 Hot Metal Ladle Overview 183

6.1 Safety Bottom/Wall 185

6.2 Working Bottom/Walls 187

6.3 Spout 189

Chapter 7 192

7.0 Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) Refractory Overview 193

7.1 BOF Safety/Wall 196

7.2 BOF Top Cone Overview 199

7.3 BOF Tapping Pad Overview 203

7.4 BOF Charge Pad Overview 208

7.5 BOF Trunnions Overview 215

7.6 BOF Stadium Overview 220

7.7 BOF Bottoms 225

7.8 BOF Refractory Tapholes 234

Chapter 8 240

8.0 Electric Are Furnace (EAF)

8.1 Dafety Bottom/Wall 243

8.2 Working Bottom - Hearth/Fettling 247

8.3 Working Walls 255

8.4 Argon Stirring systems for EAF's 263

8.5 EAF Refractory Delta 269

8.6 EAF Refractory Tapholes 273

Chapter 9 278

9.0 Steel Ladle Refractory Overview 279

9.1 Steel Ladle Safety Bottom/Wall 282

9.2 Steel Ladle Working Bottom 286

9.3 Steel Ladle Stir Systems 292

9.4 Steel Ladle Flow Control Systems 301

9.5 Steel Ladle Working Sidewall (Barrel) 308

9.6 Steel Ladle Working Slagline 312

9.7 Steel Ladle Lip Ring 317

9.8 RH Degasser Defractory Ovewview 320

Chapter 10 323

10.0 Caster/Tundish Refractory Overview 324

10.1 Caster Tundish Working Lining 330

10.3 Caster Tundish Flow Control 334

10.4 Caster Flow Control Systems 338

Chapter 11 353

11.0 Purchasing Strategies 354

Chapter 12 359

12.0 Summary 360

Bibliography 361

Index 363

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Author Information

Tom Vert is Vice President of Manufacturing at ArcelorMittal Dofasco. He has held this position since 2014. Tom graduated from McMaster University in 1987 with a Bachelor of Engineering (Ceramic) and received his MBA in 1994 also from McMaster University. Tom joined ArcelorMittal Dofasco in 1989 and has moved through a number of positions in Steelmaking in both Technology and Operations. Tom was responsible for refractory design and selection for over 15 years and is also a distinguished life member of the UNITECR Refractory International Executive Board for The American Ceramic Society. Tom has nine published papers on refractories and has taught four different courses on refractory topics.

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