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Health, Safety, and Environmental Management in Offshore and Petroleum Engineering

ISBN: 978-1-119-22184-5
272 pages
May 2016
Health, Safety, and Environmental Management in Offshore and Petroleum Engineering (1119221846) cover image

Description

This book shares the technical knowhow in the field of health, safety and environmental management, as applied to oil and gas industries and explains concepts through a simple and straightforward approach

  • Provides an overview of health, safety and environmental (HSE) management as applied to offshore and petroleum engineering
  • Covers the fundamentals of HSE and demonstrates its practical application
  • Includes industry case studies and examples based on the author's experiences in both academia and oil and gas industries
  • Presents recent research results
  • Includes tutorials and exercises
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Table of Contents

Preface  xiii

About the author  xiv

Chapter 1: Safety Assurance and Assessment  1

Introduction to Safety, Health, and Environment Management 1

1.1 Importance of Safety 2

1.2 Basic terminologies in HSE 2

1.2.1 What Is Safety? 5

1.2.2 Why Is Safety Important? 5

1.3 Importance of safety in offshore and petroleum industries 5

1.4 Objectives of HSE 7

1.5 Scope of HSE guidelines 8

1.6 Need for safety 9

1.7 Organizing safety 10

1.7.1 Ekofisk B Blowout 10

1.7.2 Enchova Blowout 11

1.7.3 West Vanguard Gas Blowout 12

1.7.4 Ekofisk A riser rupture 13

1.7.5 Piper A explosion and fire 14

1.8 Risk 14

1.9 Safety assurance and assessment 15

1.10 Frank and Morgan Logical Risk analysis 16

1.11 Defeating accident process 23

1.12 Acceptable risk 24

1.13 Risk assessment 24

1.13.1 Hazard identification 25

1.13.2 Dose-response assessment 25

1.13.3 Exposure assessment 25

1.13.4 Risk characterization 25

1.14 Application issues of risk assessment 26

1.15 Hazard classification and assessment 26

1.15.1 Hazard identification 27

1.15.2 Hazard identification methods 28

1.16 Hazard identification during operation (HaZOP) 29

1.16.1 HaZOP objectives 29

1.16.2 Common application areas of HaZOP 30

1.16.3 Advantages of HaZOP 31

1.17 Steps in HaZOP 45 1.18 Backbone of HaZOP 31

1.18 Backbone of HAZOP 32

1.19 HaZOP flow chart 35

1.20 Full recording versus recording by exception 35

1.21 Pseudo secondary words 36

1.22 When to do HaZOP? 37

1.22.1 Types of HaZOP 38

1.23 Case study: Example problem of Group Gathering Station 38

1.24 Accidents in offshore platforms 47

1.24.1 Sliepner A Platform 47

1.24.2 Thunder Horse Platform 49

1.24.3 Timor Sea Oil Rig 50

1.24.4 Bombay High North in Offshore Mumbai 50

1.25 Hazard evaluation and control 51

1.25.1 Hazard evaluation 52

1.25.2 Hazard classification 52

1.25.3 Hazard control 53

1.25.4 Monitoring 54

Exercises 1 54

Model Paper 66

Chapter 2 Environmental issues and Management 68

2.1 Primary environmental issues 68

2.1.1 Visible consequences 68

2.1.2 Trends in oil and gas resources 68

2.1.3 World’s energy resources 69

2.1.4 Anthropogenic impact of Hydrosphere 69

2.1.5 Marine pollution 70

2.1.6 Marine pollutants 73

2.1.7 Consequence of marine pollutants 73

2.2 Impact of oil and gas industries on marine environment 74

2.2.1 Drilling operations and consequences 74

2.2.2 Main constituents of oil based drilling fluid 75

2.2.3 Pollution due to produced waters during drilling 77

2.3 Drilling accidents 78

2.3.1 Underwater storage reservoirs 78

2.4 Pipelines 78

2.5 Impact on marine pollution 79

2.6 Oil hydrocarbons: Composition and Consequences 79

2.6.1 Crude oil 79

2.7 Detection of oil content in marine pollution 80

2.8 Oil spill: Physical review 80

2.8.1 Environmental impact of oil spill 80

2.9 Oil: A multi-component toxicant 81

2.9.1 Oil spill 81

2.10 Chemicals and wastes from offshore oil industry 81

2.10.1 Drilling discharges 81

2.11 Control of oil spill 82

2.12 Environmental management issues 83

2.12.1 Environmental protection: Principles applied to oil and gas activities 83

2.12.2 Environmental Management: Standards and Requirements 84

2.13 Ecological monitoring 84

2.13.1 Ecological monitoring stages 84

2.14 Atmospheric pollution 85

2.14.1 Release and dispersion models 85

2.14.2 Continuous release and instantaneous release (Plume and Puff models) 85

2.14.3 Factors affecting dispersion 86

2.15 Dispersion models for neutrally and positively buoyancy gas 89

2.15.1 Plume dispersion models 89

2.15.2 Maximum plume concentration 90

2.16 Puff dispersion model 91

2.16.1 Maximum Puff concentration 92

2.17 Isopleths 92

2.18 Estimate of dispersion coefficients 93

2.18.1 Estimates from equations 93

2.19 Dense gas dispersion 96

2.19.1 Britter-Mcquiad dense gas dispersion model 96

2.20 Evaluation of toxic effects of dispersed liquid and gas 97

2.21 Hazard Assessment and Accident Scenarios 99

2.21.1 Damage estimate modelling: Probit model 99

2.21.2 Probit correlations for various damages 102

2.22 Fire and Explosion models 102

Exercises 2 105

3. Accident Modeling, Risk assessment and Management 109

3.1 Introduction 109

3.2 Dose Versus response 109

3.2.1 Various types of doses 110

3.2.2 TLV concentration 111

3.3 Industrial Hygiene 112

3.4 Fire and explosion modelling 112

3.4.1 Fundamentals of fire and explosion 114

3.4.2 Flammability Characteristics of Vapor and Gases 115

3.5 Fire and explosion characteristics of materials 115

3.6 Estimation of flammability limits using stoichiometric balance 115

3.6.1 Stoichiometric balance 116

3.6.2 Estimation of Limiting Oxygen concentration (LOC) 116

3.7 Flammability diagram for hydrocarbons 117

3.7.1 Constructing flammability diagram 117

3.8 Ignition energy 119

3.9 Explosions 120

3.10 Explosion characteristics 120

3.11 Explosion modelling 120

3.12 Damage consequences of explosion damage 121

3.13 Energy in chemical explosions 124

3.14 Explosion energy in physical explosions 124

3.15 Dust and Gaseous explosion 124

3.16 Explosion damage estimate 125

3.17 Fire and explosion preventive measures 126

3.17.1 Inerting and purging 126

3.18 Use of flammability diagram 131

3.18.1 Placing a vessel out of service 131

3.18.2 Placing a vessel into service 132

3.19 NFPA 69 recommendations 132

3.20 Explosion proof equipments 133

3.20.1 Class systems 133

3.20.2 Group systems 134

3.20.3 Division systems 134

3.21 Ventilation for storage and process areas 134

3.21.1 Storage areas 134

3.21.2 Process areas 134

3.22 Sprinkler systems 135

3.22.1 Anti-freeze sprinkler system 135

3.22.2 Deluge sprinkler system 135

3.22.3 Dry pipe sprinkler system 135

3.22.4 Wet pipe sprinkler system 135

3.23 Toxic release and dispersion modelling 136

3.23.1 Threshold limit values (TLVs ) 136

3.24 Industrial Hygiene 136

3.25 Exposure evaluation: Chemical Hazard 137

3.25.1 Time weighted average method 137

3.25.2 Overexposure at work place 138

3.25.3 TLV-TWA Mix 138

3.26 Exposure evaluation: physical hazards 138

3.27 Industrial Hygiene Control 138

3.27.1 Environmental control 139

3.27.2 Personal protection 139

3.28 Ventilation hoods to reduce hazards 139

3.29 Elements to control Process Accidents 140

3.30 Methods for chemical risk analysis 141

3.30.1 Qualitative risk analysis 141

3.30.2 Quantitative risk analysis 141

3.31 Safety review 142

3.32 Process Hazards Checklists 142

3.33 Hazard surveys 142

3.34 Emergency Response Planning Guidelines (ERPG) 142

3.35 Chemical Exposure Index 143

3.36 Guidelines for Estimating Amount of Material becoming Airborne following a Release 151

3.36.1 Example problem on Ammonia release 151

3.36.2 Example problem in chlorine release 153

3.37 Quantified Risk Assessment 154

3.38 Hazard Identification (HAZID) 154

3.39 Cause analysis 155

3.40 Fault tree analysis (FTA) 155

3.41 Event Tree Analysis (ETA) 157

3.42 Disadvantages of QRA 157

3.43 Risk Acceptance criteria 157

3.44 Hazard Assessment 159

3.45 Identify hazards 159

3.45.1 Prioritizing hazards 159

3.46 Risk Assessment 160

3.46.1 Identify and implement hazard controls 160

3.46.2 Communicate 160

3.47 Evaluate effectivenes 161

3.48 Fatality risk assessment 161

3.48.1 Statistical Analysis 161

3.48.2 Phenomena based analysis 161

3.48.3 Averaging of FAR values 162

3.49 Marine Systems Risk Modelling 162

3.49.1 Ballast system failure 162

3.50 Risk Picture: Definitions and Characteristics 162

3.51 Fatality risk 163

3.51.1 Platform fatality risk 163

3.51.2 Individual risk 163

3.52 Societal risk 164

3.53 Impairment Risk 164

3.54 Environment Risk 166

3.55 Asset Risk 166

3.56 Risk Assessment and Management 167

3.57 Probabilistic Risk Assessment 167

3.58 Risk Management 167

3.58.1 Risk Preference 168

Exercises 3 168

4. Safety measures in design and operation 177

4.1 Introduction 177

4.2 Inerting or purging 178

4.3 Terminologies 178

4.4 Factors affecting purging 180

4.5 Causes of Dilution or Mixing 180

4.5.1 Area of contact 181

4.5.2 Time of contact 181

4.5.3 Input velocities 181

4.5.4 Densities of gases 182

4.5.5 Temperature effects 182

4.6 Methods of Purging 183

4.6.1 Siphon Purging 183

4.6.2 Vacuum purging 183

4.6.3 Pressure Purging 184

4.6.4 Sweep-Through Purging 184

4.6.5 Fixed-Rate Purging 184

4.6.6 Variable-Rate or Demand Purging 185

4.7 Limits of Flammability of Gas Mixtures 185

4.8 Protection System Design and Operation 185

4.9 Explosion prevention systems 186

4.10 Safe Work Practices 186

4.10.1 Load lifting 186

4.10.2 Confined space, excavations, and hazardous environments 187

4.10.3 Lockout/Tagout 187

4.10.4 Well Pumping Units 188

4.11 Hot work permit 188

4.12 Welding Fumes and Ventilation 190

4.13 Critical equipments 190

4.13.1 Changes to critical equipment 190

4.14 Fire prevention 191

4.15 Fire protection 191

4.16 Grounding and bonding 192

4.17 Other general requirements 192

4.17.1 Performance-Based Design 192

4.17.2 Inspection of protection systems 195

4.18 Process Safety Management (PSM) at Oil and Gas Operations 196

4.18.1 Process safety information 197

4.18.2 Process safet information 197

4.19 Process Hazard Analysis (PHA) 198

4.20 safe operating procedures 199

4.21 Safe Work Practice Procedures 200

4.21.1 Training 200

4.21.2 Pre-Startup Review 200

4.22 Mechanical Integrity 201

4.23 Management of Change 201

4.24 Incident investigations 202

4.25 Compliance Audits 202

4.26 Software used in HSE management 203

4.26.1 CMO COMPLIANCE 203

4.26.2 Spiramid’s HSE Software 203

4.26.3 Integrum 204

4.26.4 Rivo HSE Management Software 204

Exercises 4 204

Application problem: Quantified Risk assessment of LPG filling station 210

References 220

Index 226

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