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Handbook of Composites from Renewable Materials, Physico-Chemical and Mechanical Characterization

ISBN: 978-1-119-22366-5
688 pages
February 2017
Handbook of Composites from Renewable Materials, Physico-Chemical and Mechanical Characterization (1119223660) cover image

Description

The Handbook of Composites From Renewable Materials comprises a set of 8 individual volumes that brings an interdisciplinary perspective to accomplish a more detailed understanding of the interplay between the synthesis, structure, characterization, processing, applications and performance of these advanced materials. The handbook covers a multitude of natural polymers/ reinforcement/ fillers and biodegradable materials. Together, the 8 volumes total at least 5000 pages and offers a unique publication.

This 3rd volume of the Handbook is solely focused on the Physico-Chemical and Mechanical Characterization of renewable materials. Some of the important topics include but not limited to: structural and biodegradation characterization of supramolecular PCL/HAP nano-composites; different characterization of solid bio-fillers based agricultural waste material; poly (ethylene-terephthalate) reinforced with hemp fibers;  poly (lactic acid) thermoplastic composites from renewable materials; chitosan –based composite materials: fabrication and characterization; the use of flax fiber reinforced polymer (FFRP) composites in the externally reinforced structures for seismic retrofitting monitored by transient thermography and optical techniques; recycling and reuse of fiber reinforced polymer wastes in concrete composite materials; analysis of damage in hybrid composites subjected to ballistic impacts; biofiber reinforced acrylated epoxidized soybean oil (AESO) biocomposites; biopolyamides and high performance natural fiber-reinforced biocomposites; impact of recycling on the mechanical and thermo-mechanical properties of wood fiber based HDPE and PLA composites; lignocellulosic fibers composites: an overview; biodiesel derived raw glycerol to value added products; thermo-mechanical characterization of sustainable structural composites; novel pH sensitive composite hydrogel based on functionalized starch/clay for the controlled release of amoxicillin; preparation and characterization of biobased thermoset polymers from renewable resources; influence of natural fillers size and shape into mechanical and barrier properties of biocomposites; composite of biodegradable polymer blends of PCL/PLLA and coconut fiber - the effects of ionizing radiation; packaging composite materials from renewable resources; physicochemical properties of ash based geopolymer concrete; a biopolymer derived from castor oil polyurethane; natural polymer based biomaterials; physical and mechanical properties of polymer membranes from renewable resources

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Table of Contents

Preface xxi

1 Structural and Biodegradation Characterization of Supramolecular PCL/HAp Nanocomposites for Application in Tissue Engineering 1
Parvin Shokrollahi, Fateme Shokrolahi and Parinaz Hassanzadeh

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Biomedical Applications of HAp 2

1.3 Effect of HAp Particles on Biodegradation of PCL/HAp Composites 5

1.4 Polycaprolactone 6

1.5 Supramolecular Polymers and Supramolecular PCL 7

1.6 Supramolecular Composites: PCL (UPy)2 /HApUPy Composites 8

1.7 PCL(UPy)2 /HApUPy Nanocomposites 17

References 20

2 Different Characterization of Solid Biofillers-based Agricultural Waste Material 25
Ahmad Mousa and Gert Heinrich

2.1 Introduction 25

2.2 Examples on Agricultural Waste Materials 26

2.3 The Main Polymorphs of Cellulose 30

2.4 Modification Methods of Agro-biomass 31

2.5 Properties of Thermoplastics Reinforced with Untreated Wood Fillers 34

2.6 Production of Nanocellulose 34

2.7 Processing of Wood Thermoplastic Composites 37

2.8 Conclusion 38

References 38

3 Poly (ethylene-terephthalate) Reinforced with Hemp Fibers: Elaboration, Characterization, and Potential Applications 43
A.S. Fotso Talla, F. Erchiqui and J.S.Y. D Pagé

3.1 General Introduction to Biocomposite Materials 43

3.2 PET–Hemp Fiber Composites 45

3.3 Methods of Elaboration and Characterization of PET–Hemp Fiber Composites 48

3.4 Properties of PET–Hemp Fiber Composites 50

3.5 Applications of PET–Hemp Fiber Composites 57

3.6 Conclusion and Future Prospects 64

References 64

4 Poly(Lactic Acid) Thermoplastic Composites from Renewable Materials 69
Khosrow Khodabakhshi

4.1 Introduction 69

4.2 Poly(Lactic Acid) Production, Properties, and Processing 71

4.3 Poly(Lactic Acid) Nanocomposites 74

4.4 Poly(Lactic Acid) Natural Fibers-Reinforced Composites 79

4.5 Conclusions 93

References 93

5 Chitosan-Based Composite Materials: Fabrication and Characterization 103
Nabil A. Ibrahim and Basma M. Eid

5.1 Introduction 103

5.2 Cs-Based Composite Materials 105

5.3 Cs-Based Nanocomposites 105

5.4 Characterization of Cs-based Composites 130

5.5 Environmental Concerns 130

5.6 Future Prospects 130

References 133

6 The Use of Flax Fiber-reinforced Polymer (FFRP) Composites in the Externally Reinforced Structures for Seismic Retrofitting Monitored by Transient Thermography and Optical Techniques 137
C. Ibarra-Castanedo, S. Sfarra, D. Paoletti, A. Bendada and X. Maldague

6.1 Introduction 137

6.2 Experimental Setup 139

6.3 Conclusions 151

Acknowledgments 152

References 152

7 Recycling and Reuse of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Wastes in Concrete Composite Materials 155
M.C.S. Ribeiro, A. Fiúza and A.J.M. Ferreira

7.1 Introduction 155

7.2 Recycling Processes for Thermoset FRP Wastes 158

7.3 End-Use Applications for Mechanically Recycled FRP Wastes 164

7.4 Market Outlook and Future Perspectives 166

Acknowledgment 167

References 167

8 Analysis of Damage in Hybrid Composites Subjected to Ballistic Impacts: An Integrated Non-destructive Approach 175
S. Sfarra, F. López, F. Sarasini, J. Tirillò, L. Ferrante, S. Perilli, C. Ibarra-Castanedo, D. Paoletti, L. Lampani, E. Barbero, S. Sánchez-Sáez and X. Maldague

8.1 Introduction 176

8.2 Lay-up Sequences and Manufacturing of Composite Materials 178

8.3 Test Procedure 178

8.4 Numerical Simulation 180

8.5 Non-destructive Testing Methods and Related Techniques 191

8.6 Results and Discussion 194

8.7 Conclusions 206

References 206

9 Biofiber-Reinforced Acrylated Epoxidized Soybean Oil (AESO)  Biocomposites 211
Nazire Deniz Yżlmaz, G.M. Arifuzzaman Khan and Kenan Yżlmaz

9.1 Introduction 211

9.2 Soybean Oil 213

9.3 Functionalization of Soy Oil Triglyceride 216

9.4 Manufacturing of AESO-Based Composites 227

9.5 Targeted Applications 247

9.6 Conclusion 247

Acknowledgments 248

References 248

10 Biopolyamides and High-Performance Natural Fiber-Reinforced Biocomposites 253
Shaghayegh Armioun, Muhammad Pervaiz and Mohini Sain

10.1 Introduction 253

10.2 Polyamide Chemistry 256

10.3 Overview of Current Applications of Polyamides 261

10.4 Biopolyamide Reinforced with Natural Fibers 262

10.5 Conclusion 268

References 268

11 Impact of Recycling on the Mechanical and Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Wood Fiber Based HDPE and PLA Composites 271
Dilpreet S. Bajwa and Sujal Bhattacharjee

11.1 Introduction 271

11.2 Experiments 275

11.3 Results and Discussion 279

11.4 Conclusion 289

References 289

12 Lignocellulosic Fibers Composites: An Overview 293
Grzegorz Kowaluk

12.1 Wood 293

12.2 Conventional Wood-Based Composites 296

12.3 Lignocellulosic Composites with Reduced Weight 299

12.4 Regenerated Cellulose Fibers 301

12.5 Composites with Natural Fibres 303

12.6 Sisal 303

12.7 Banana Fibers 304

12.8 Lignin and Cellulose 305

12.9 Nanocellulose 306

References 306

13 Biodiesel-Derived Raw Glycerol to Value-Added Products: Catalytic Conversion Approach 309
Samira Bagheri, Nurhidayatullaili Muhd Julkapli, Wageeh Abdulhadi Yehya Dabdawb and Negar Mansouri

13.1 Introduction 309

13.2 Glycerol 313

13.3 Catalytic Conversion of Glycerol to Value-added Products 316

13.4 Conclusion 345

References 346

14 Thermo-Mechanical Characterization of Sustainable Structural Composites 367
Marek Prajer and Martin P. Ansell

14.1 Introduction 367

14.2 Structure and Mechanical Properties of Botanical Fibers 368

14.3 Sustainable Polymer Matrix 372

14.4 Interface in Natural Fiber-Sustainable Polymer Microcomposites 377

14.5 Natural Fibers as a Reinforcement in Unidirectional and Laminar Composites 381

14.6 Sustainable Structural Composites 384

14.7 Discussion and Conclusions 401

Acknowledgment 402

References 402

15 Novel pH Sensitive Composite Hydrogel Based on Functionalized Starch/clay for the Controlled Release of Amoxicillin 409
T.S. Anirudhan, J. Parvathy and Anoop S. Nair

15.1 Introduction 409

15.2 Experimental 412

15.3 Results and Discussion 416

15.4 Conclusions 421

Acknowledgments 422

References 422

16 Preparation and Characterization of Biobased Thermoset Polymers from Renewable Resources and Their Use in Composites 425
Sunil Kumar Ramamoorthy, Dan Åkesson, Mikael Skrifvars and Behnaz Baghaei

16.1 Introduction 425

16.2 Characterization 427

References 452

17 Influence of Natural Fillers Size and Shape into Mechanical and Barrier Properties of Biocomposites 459
Marcos Mariano, Clarice Fedosse Zornio, Farayde Matta Fakhouri and Sílvia Maria Martelli

17.1 Introduction 459

17.2 Mechanical Properties of Biobased Composites 464

References 480

18 Composite of Biodegradable Polymer Blends of PCL/PLLA and Coconut Fiber: The Effects of Ionizing Radiation 489
Yasko Kodama

18.1 Introduction 489

18.2 Material and Method 494

18.3 Results and Discussion 502

18.4 Conclusion 519

Acknowledgments 520

References 521

19 Packaging Composite Materials from Renewable Resources 525
Behjat Tajeddin

19.1 Introduction 525

19.2 Sustainable Packaging 527

19.3 Packaging Materials/Composites 531

19.4 Biomass Packaging Materials/Biobased Polymers 532

19.5 Vegetable Oils/Essential Oils 538

19.6 Aliphatic Polyesters 538

19.7 Synthetic/Natural Polymers Reinforcement with Any Other Renewable Resources/Vegetables Fibers Blends 544

19.8 Edible Packaging Materials (Composites) 545

19.9 Processing Methods or Tools for Biopackaging Composites Productions 546

19.10 Nanopackaging (Bionanocomposites) 549

19.11 Preparation Methods for Packaging Nanocomposites 550

19.12 Edible Nanocomposite-based Material 552

19.13 Summary/Conclusion 552

Abbreviations 553

References 554

20 Physicochemical Properties of Ash-Based Geopolymer Concrete 563
M. Shanmuga Sundaram and S. Karthiyaini

20.1 Precursor of Geopolymerization 563

20.2 Back Ground of Precursor 564

20.3 Present Scenario of Geopolymer 564

20.4 Geopolymer Concrete 565

20.5 Constituents of Geopolymers 566

20.6 Evolution of Geopolymer 566

20.7 Works on Geopolymer Concrete 567

20.8 Economic Benefits of Geopolymer Concrete 574

20.9 Authors Study 574

20.10 Conclusion 577

References 578

21 A Biopolymer Derived from Castor Oil Polyurethane: Experimental and Numerical Analyses 581
R.R.C. da Costa, A.C. Vieira, R.M. Guedes and V. Tita

21.1 Introduction 581

21.2 Experimental Analyses 586

21.3 Constitutive Models 590

21.4 Results 591

21.5 Conclusions 602

Acknowledgment 604

References 604

22 Natural Polymer-Based Biomaterials and Its Properties 607
Md. Saiful Islam, Irmawati Binti Ramli, S.N. Kamilah, Azman Hassan and Abu Saleh Ahmed

22.1 Introduction 608

22.2 Modifications of PLA 612

22.3 PLA Applications 612

22.4 Characterization by FT-IR 614

22.5 Characterization by Optical Microscopy 615

22.6 Characterization by Electron Microscopy 616

22.7 Characterization by Mechanical Testing 618

22.8 Characterization of GPC 624

22.9 Characterization of Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis 625

References 626

23 Physical and Mechanical Properties of Polymer Membranes from Renewable Resources 631
Anika Zafiah Mohd Rus

23.1 Introduction 631

23.2 Membranes Classifications 633

23.3 Overview of Fabrication Method of Polymer Membranes from Renewable Resources 637

23.4 Chemical Reaction of Renewable Polymer (BP) 640

23.5 Morphological Changes of Polymer Membrane by Scanning Electron Microscope 645

23.6 Water Permeability 648

23.7 Conclusions 649

References 650

Index 653

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This Title is Part of the Following Set

by Vijay Kumar Thakur (Editor), Manju Kumari Thakur (Editor), Michael R. Kessler (Editor)
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