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Handbook of Composites from Renewable Materials, Volume 4, Functionalization

ISBN: 978-1-119-22378-8
608 pages
February 2017
Handbook of Composites from Renewable Materials, Volume 4, Functionalization (1119223784) cover image

Description

The Handbook of Composites From Renewable Materials comprises a set of 8 individual volumes that brings an interdisciplinary perspective to accomplish a more detailed understanding of the interplay between the synthesis, structure, characterization, processing, applications and performance of these advanced materials. The handbook covers a multitude of natural polymers/ reinforcement/ fillers and biodegradable materials. Together, the 8 volumes total at least 5000 pages and offers a unique publication.

This 4th volume of the Handbook is solely focused on the Functionalization of renewable materials. Some of the important topics include but not limited to: Chitosan-based bio sorbents: oil spill clean-up by textiles; pyridine and bipyridine end-functionalized polylactide; functional separation membranes from chitin and chitosan derivatives; acrylated epoxidized flaxseed oil bio-resin and its biocomposites; encapsulation of inorganic renewable nanofiller; chitosan coating on textile fibers for functional properties; surface functionalization of cellulose whiskers for nonpolar composites; impact of chemical treatment and the manufacturing process on mechanical, thermal and rheological properties of natural fibers based composites; bio-polymers modification; review on fibers from natural resources; strategies to improve the functionality of starch based films; the effect of gamma-radiation on biodegradability of natural fibers; surface functionalization through vapor-phase assisted surface polymerization (VASP) on natural materials from agricultural by-products; okra bast fiber as potential reinforcement element of biocomposites; silane coupling agent used in natural fiber/plastic composites; composites of olefin polymer /natural fibers: the surface modifications on natural fibers; surface functionalization of biomaterials; thermal and mechanical behaviors of bio-renewable fibres based polymer composites; natural and artificial diversification of starch; role of radiation and surface modification on bio-fiber for reinforced polymer composites.

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Table of Contents

Preface xix

About the Editors xxi

1 Chitosan-based Biosorbents: Modifications and Application for Sequestration of PPCPs and Metals for Water Remediation 1
Dipali Rahangdale, G. Archana, Rita Dhodapkar and Anupama Kumar

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Modification of Chitosan 5

1.3 Interactions of Chitosan-based MIP Sorbents with Pollutants (Organic & Inorganic) 15

1.4 Applications of Chitosan 17

1.5 Conclusion 19

2 Oil Spill Cleanup by Textiles 27
D.P. Chattopadhyay and Varinder Kaur

2.1 Introduction 27

2.2 Causes of Oil Spilling 28

2.3 Problems Faced due to Oil Spilling 28

2.4 Oil Sorption Phenomenon 29

2.5 Removal of Oil Spill 30

2.6 Recent Developments for Effective Water Cleaning 37

2.7 Test Methods for Evaluation of Oil Sorbents 38

2.8 Conclusions 41

3 Pyridine and Bipyridine End-functionalized Polylactide: Synthesis and Catalytic Applications 47
Marco Frediani, Werner Oberhauser, Elisa Passaglia, Luca Rosi, Damiano Bandelli, Mattia Bartoli and Giorgio Petrucci

3.1 Introduction 47

3.2 Macroligand Synthesis 49

3.3 Macroligand Coordination to Palladium 52

3.4 Pd-nanoparticles Supported onto End-functionalized Stereocomplexes 55

3.5 Catalytic Applications 58

3.6 Outlook 63

4 Functional Separation Membranes from Chitin and Chitosan Derivatives 69
Tadashi Uragami

4.1 Introduction 69

4.2 Preparation of Separation Membrane from Chitin, Chitosan, and their Derivatives 73

4.3 Functional Separation Membranes from Chitin, Chitosan, and their Derivatives 74

4.4 Conclusions 113

5 Acrylated Epoxidized Flaxseed Oil Bio-Resin and its Biocomposites 121
Anup Rana and Richard W. Evitts

5.1 Introduction 121

5.2 Experimental 124

5.3 Results and Discussion 127

5.4 Conclusions 137

Acknowledgment 138

6 Encapsulation of Inorganic Renewable Nanofiller 143
Anyaporn Boonmahitthisud, Saowaroj Chuayjuljit and Takaomi Kobayashi

6.1 Introduction 143

6.2 Synthesis of Polymer-encapsulated Silica Nanoparticles 147

6.3 Concluding Remarks 160

Acknowledgments 161

References 161

7 Chitosan Coating on Textile Fibers for Functional Properties 165
Franco Ferrero and Monica Periolatto

7.1 Introduction 165

7.2 Antimicrobial Coating of Textiles by Chitosan UV Curing 171

7.3 Chitosan Coating of Wool for Antifelting Properties 181

7.4 Chitosan Coating on Textile Fibers to Increasing Uptake of Ionic Dyes in Dyeing 183

7.5 Chitosan Coating on Cotton Filter for Removal of Dyes and Metal Ions from Wastewaters 186

7.6 Conclusions 190

References 191

8 Surface Functionalization of Cellulose Whiskers for Nonpolar Composites Applications 199
Kelcilene B. R. Teodoro, Adriana de Campos, Ana Carolina Corrêa, Eliangela de Morais Teixeira, José Manoel Marconcini and Luiz Henrique Capparelli Mattoso

8.1 Introduction 200

8.2 Experimental 207

8.3 Results and Discussion 211

8.4 Conclusion 219

References 219

9 Impact of Chemical Treatment and the Manufacturing Process on Mechanical, Thermal, and Rheological Properties of Natural Fibers-based Composites 225
Marya Raji, Hamid Essabir, Rachid Bouhfid and Abou el kacem Qaiss

9.1 Introduction 225

9.2 Physicochemical Characteristics of Natural Fibers 228

9.3 Problematic 230

9.4 Natural Fibers Treatments 231

9.5 Composites Manufacturing 235

9.6 Composites Properties 236

9.7 Conclusion 247

References 248

10 Biopolymers Modification and their Utilization in Biomimetic Composites for Osteochondral Tissue Engineering 253
Kausik Kapat and Santanu Dhara

10.1 Introduction 254

10.2 Failure, Defect, and Design: Role of Composites 255

10.3 Cell-ECM Composite Hierarchy in Bone-cartilage Interface 257

10.4 Polymers for Osteochondral Tissue Engineering 258

10.5 Polymer Modification for Osteochondral Tissue Engineering 261

10.6 Composite Scaffolds for Osteochondral Tissue Engineering 271

10.7 Osteochondral Composite Scaffolds: Clinical Status 275

10.8 Current Challenges and Future Direction 276

References 276

11 Review on Fibers from Natural Resources 287
Jessica Flesner and Boris Mahltig

11.1 Introduction 287

11.2 Materials and Methods 288

11.3 Fiber Characteristics 290

11.4 Conclusions 304

Acknowledgments 304

References 305

12 Strategies to Improve the Functionality of Starch-Based Films 311
A. Cano, M. Chafer, A. Chiralt and C. Gonzalez-Martinez

12.1 Introduction 311

12.2 Starch: Sources and Main Uses 312

12.3 Strategies to Improve the Functionality of Biopolymer-Based Films 317

12.4 Bioactive Compounds with Antimicrobial Activity 326

12.5 Conclusion 329

References 329

13 The Effect of Gamma Radiation on Biodegradability of Natural Fiber/PP-HMSPP Foams: A Study of Thermal Stability and Biodegradability 339
Elizabeth C. L. Cardoso, Sandra R. Scagliusi and Ademar B. Lugão

13.1 Introduction 339

13.2 Materials and Methods 342

13.3 Results and Discussion 344

13.3 Conclusions 351

Acknowledgments 351

References 351

14 Surface Functionalization through Vapor-Phase-Assisted Surface Polymerization (VASP) on Natural Materials from Agricultural By-Products 355
Yoshito Andou and Haruo Nishida

14.1 Introduction 355

14.2 Surface Modification by Steam Treatment 358

14.3 Surface Modification by Compatibilizer 359

14.4 Vapor-Phase-Assisted Surface Polymerization 360

14.5 Vapor-Phase-Assisted Surface Modification of Biomass Fillers 362

14.6 Vapor-Phase Chemical Modification of Biomass Fillers 365

14.7 Green Composites Through VASP Process 368

14.8 Conclusions and Outlook 372

References 374

15 Okra Bast Fiber as Potential Reinforcement Element of Biocomposites: Can It Be the Flax of the Future? 379
G.M. Arifuzzaman Khan, Nazire Deniz Yilmaz and Kenan Yilmaz

15.1 Introduction 379

15.2 Cultivation and Harvesting of Okra Plant 381

15.3 Extraction of Bast Fibers from Okra Plant 382

15.4 Composition, Morphology, and Properties of Okra Bast Fiber 383

15.5 Modification Methods of Okra Bast fiber 391

15.6 Potential Application Areas of Okra Bast Fiber-reinforced Biocomposites 398

15.7 Conclusions and Future Work 400

References 400

16 Silane Coupling Agents Used in Natural Fiber/Plastic Composites 407
Yanjun Xie, Zefang Xiao, Holger Militz and Xiaolong Hao

16.1 Introduction 407

16.2 Hydrolysis of Silanes 409

16.3 Interaction with Natural Fibers 413

16.4 Interaction with Plastics 415

16.5 Summary 422

Acknowledgments 423

Abbreviations 423

References 424

17 Composites of Olefin Polymer/Natural Fibers: The Surface Modifications on Natural Fibers 431
Sandra Regina Albinante, Gabriel Platenik and Luciano N. Batista

17.1 Introduction 431

17.2 Vegetable Fiber 432

17.3 Chemical Treatments 433

17.4 Mercerization 434

17.5 Acetylation Process: Way to Insert Fibers on Hydrophilic Polymers 438

17.6 Acetylation Treatment 439

17.7 Catalyst for Acetylation Process 439

17.7 Methods for Determination Acetylation 441

17.8 Weight Percentage Gain 442

17.9 Fourier Transformer Infrared Spectroscopy 442

17.10 Chemical Modification of Fiber through the Reaction with Polymer-modified Olefin 443

17.11 Other Treatments 445

17.12 Maximum Stress in Tension 448

17.13 Elongation at Break 449

17.14 Elastic Modulus 449

17.15 Impact Resistance 450

References 451

18 Surface Functionalization of Biomaterials 457
Karol Kyzio³, £ukasz Kaczmarek and Agnieszka Kyzio³

18.1 Introduction 457

18.2 Biomaterials 458

18.3 Surface Modification Technologies 466

18.4 Surface Functionalization of Metallic Biomaterials: Selected Examples 475

18.5 Surface Functionalization of Polymeric Biomaterials: Selected Examples 478

18.6 Conclusions and Future Directions 481

References 483

19 Thermal and Mechanical Behaviors of Biorenewable Fibers-Based Polymer Composites 491
K. Anbukarasi and S. Kalaiselvam

19.1 Introduction 491

19.2 Classification of Natural Fibers 494

19.3 Structure of Biofiber 494

19.4 Surface Treatment of Natural Fibers 496

19.5 Hemp Fiber Composites 499

19.6 Bamboo Fiber Composites 500

19.7 Banana Fiber Composites 501

19.8 Kenaf Fiber Composites 502

19.9 Coir Fiber Composites 503

19.10 Jute Fiber Composites 504

19.11 Flax Fiber Composites 505

19.12 Date Palm Fibers Composites 506

19.13 Rice Straw Fiber Composites 506

19.14 Agava Fibers Composites 507

19.15 Sisal Fibers Composites 507

19.16 Pineapple Leaf Fiber Composites 508

19.17 Basalt Fiber Composites 508

19.18 Grewia optiva Fiber Composites 509

19.19 Luffa Fiber Composites 509

19.20 Some Other Natural Fibers Composites 512

19.21 Conclusion 514

References 515

20 Natural and Artificial Diversification of Starch 521
M. Kapelko-¯eberska, A. Gryszkin, T. Ziêba and Akhilesh Vikram Singh

20.1 Introduction 521

References 535

21 Role of Radiation and Surface Modification on Biofiber for Reinforced Polymer Composites: A Review 541
M. Masudul Hassan, A. Karim and Manfred H. Wagner

21.1 Introduction 541

21.2 Natural Fibers 542

21.3 Chemistry of Cellulose in NF 544

21.4 Drawback of NFs 545

21.5 Surface Modification of NFs 545

21.6 Radiation Effect on the Surface of Biofiber 548

21.7 Biocomposites 550

21.8 Hybrid Biocomposites 552

21.9 Nanofillers and Nanocomposites 554

21.10 Initiative in Product Development of NF Composite 554

21.11 Conclusion 555

Acknowledgments 556

References 556

Index 563

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Author Information

Vijay Kumar Thakur is a Lecturer in the School of Aerospace, Transport and Manufacturing Engineering, Cranfield University, UK. Previously he had been a Staff Scientist in the School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering at Washington State University, USA. He spent his postdoctoral study in Materials Science & Engineering at Iowa State University, USA, and gained his PhD in Polymer Chemistry (2009) at the National Institute of Technology, India. He has published more than 90 SCI journal research articles in the field of polymers/materials science and holds one US patent. He has also published about 25 books and 33 book chapters on the advanced state-of-the-art of polymers/materials science with numerous publishers, including Wiley-Scrivener.

Manju Kumar Thakur has been working as an Assistant Professor of Chemistry at the Division of Chemistry, Govt. Degree College Sarkaghat Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, India since 2010. She received her PhD in Polymer Chemistry from the Chemistry Department at Himachal Pradesh University. She has deep experience in the field of organic chemistry, biopolymers, composites/ nanocomposites, hydrogels, applications of hydrogels in the removal of toxic heavy metal ions, drug delivery etc. She has published more than 30 research papers in peer-reviewed journals, 25 book chapters and co-authored five books all in the field of polymeric materials.

Michael R. Kessler is a Professor and Director of the School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering at Washington State University, USA. He is an expert in the mechanics, processing, and characterization of polymer matrix composites and nanocomposites. His honours include the Army Research Office Young Investigator Award, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research Young Investigator Award, the NSF CAREER Award, and the Elsevier Young Composites Researcher Award from the American Society for Composites. He has more than 150 journal articles and 5800 citations, holds 6 patents, published 5 books on the synthesis and characterization of polymer materials, and presented at least 200 talks at national and international meetings.

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