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Handbook of Composites from Renewable Materials, Volume 2, Design and Manufacturing

ISBN: 978-1-119-22427-3
640 pages
February 2017
Handbook of Composites from Renewable Materials, Volume 2, Design and Manufacturing (1119224276) cover image


The Handbook of Composites From Renewable Materials comprises a set of 8 individual volumes that brings an interdisciplinary perspective to accomplish a more detailed understanding of the interplay between the synthesis, structure, characterization, processing, applications and performance of these advanced materials. The handbook covers a multitude of natural polymers/ reinforcement/ fillers and biodegradable materials. Together, the 8 volumes total at least 5000 pages and offers a unique publication.

This 2nd volume of the Handbook is solely focused on the Design and Manufacturing of renewable materials. Some of the important topics include but not limited to: design and manufacturing of high performance green composites; manufacturing of high performance biomass-based polyesters by rheological approach; components design of fibrous composite materials; design and manufacturing of bio-based sandwich structures; design and manufacture of biodegradable products from renewable resources; manufacturing and characterization of quicklime filled metal alloy composites for single row deep groove ball bearing; manufacturing  of composites from chicken feathers and poly (vinyl chloride); production of porous carbons from resorcinol-formaldehyde gels: applications; composites using agricultural wastes; manufacturing of rice wastes-based natural fiber polymer composites from thermosetting vs. thermoplastic matrices; thermoplastic polymeric composites; natural fiber reinforced PLA composites; rigid closed-cell PUR foams containing polyols derived from renewable resources; preparation and application of the composite from alginate; recent developments in biocomposites of bombyx mori silk fibroin; design and manufacturing of natural fiber/ synthetic fiber reinforced polymer hybrid composites; natural fibre composite strengthening solution for structural beam component for enhanced flexural strength; high pressure resin transfer molding of epoxy resins from renewable sources; cork based structural composites; the use of wheat straw as an agricultural waste in composites for semi-structural applications and design/ manufacturing of sustainable composites.

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Table of Contents

Preface xix

1 Design and Manufacturing of High-Performance Green Composites Based on Renewable Materials 1
Katharina Resch, Andrea Klein, Silvia Lloret Pertegás and Ralf Schledjewski

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Bio-Based Epoxy Matrix – State of the Art 3

1.3 Curing of Bio-Based Epoxy Resins – an Ecological Approach 10

1.4 Natural Fibers 12

1.4.1 Mechanical Performance of Bast Fibers 12

1.5 Processing Routes 14

1.6 Applications and Requirements 17

1.7 Concluding Remarks 18

Acknowledgement 18

References 18

2 Manufacturing of High Performance Biomass-Based Polyesters by Rheological Approach 25
Masayuki Yamaguchi

2.1 Introduction 25

2.2 Linear Viscoelastic Properties 26

2.3 Enhancement of Crystallization Rate 32

2.4 Rheological Modification for Marked Melt Elasticity 38

2.5 Conclusion 44

Acknowledgments 44

References 45

3 Design of Fibrous Composite Materials for Saving Energy 49
Zuzana Murèinková, Vladimír Kompiš, Pavel Adamèík, Slavomír Dobroviè and Jaromír Murèinko

3.1 Introduction 49

3.2 Microtermomechanical Fiber Composites Behavior 54

3.3 Industrial Applications — Case Studies 74

3.4 Conclusions 87

References 88

4 Design and Manufacturing of Bio-Based Sandwich Structures 93
Maya Jacob John

4.1 Introduction 93

4.2 Bio-Based Core Materials 95

4.3 Manufacture of Sandwich Panels 99

4.4 Recent Studies on Bio-Based Sandwich Panels 101

4.5 Applications of Bio-Based Sandwich Panels 107

4.6 Conclusions 108

References 108

Contents vii

5 Design and Manufacture of Biodegradable Products from Renewable Resources 111
Mahmoud M. Farag

5.1 Introduction 111

5.2 Materials and Processes for Biodegradable Composites 112

5.3 Performance of Biodegradable Composites Under Service Conditions 116

5.4 Case Studies 118

References 129

6 Manufacturing and Characterization of Quicklime (CaO) Filled ZA-27 Metal Alloy Composites for Single-Row Deep Groove Ball Bearing 133
Amar Patnaik, I.K.Bhat and Swati Gangwar

6.1 Introduction 133

6.2 Experimental Details 134

6.3 Result and Discussions 144

6.4 Conclusions 154

Acknowledgement 155

References 155

7 Manufacturing of Composites From Chicken Feathers and Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) 159
Diana Samantha Villarreal Lucio, José Luis Rivera-Armenta, Valeria Rivas-Orta, Nancy Patricia Díaz-Zavala, Ulises Páramo-García, Nohra Violeta Gallardo Rivas and María Yolanda Chávez Cinco

7.1 Introduction 159

7.2 Experimental 164

7.3 Results and Discussion 165

7.4 Conclusions 172

Acknowledgments 172

References 172

8 Production of Porous Carbons from Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Gels: Applications 175
Luciano Tamborini, Paula Militello, Cesar Barbero and Diego Acevedo

8.1 Introduction 175

8.2 Synthesis of Aerogels 178

8.3 Polymeric Gels From Renewable Raw Materials 180

8.4 Carbonization of Polymeric Resins 182

8.5 Drying the Polymeric Gel 182

8.6 Gel Stabilization 185

8.7 Pyrolysis of R-F Resins 188

8.8 Applications of the Gels 188

8.9 Conclusions 191

References 192

9 Composites Using Agricultural Wastes 197
Taha Ashour

9.1 Introduction 197

9.2 Natural Fibres Classification 200

9.3 Types of Plant Fibres 201

9.4 Composite Mechanical Properties 211

9.5 Industry Process of Some Biocomposites Using Agricultural Wastes 217

References 235

10 Manufacturing of Rice Waste-Based Natural Fiber Polymer Composites from Thermosetting vs. Thermoplastic Matrices 241
Altaf H. Basta, Houssni El-Saied and Mohamed S. Hassanen

10.1 General Introduction 241

10.2 Scope Survey of Agro-Based NFPC Composites 243

10.3 Optimizing the Conditions for Production of High Performance Natural Fiber Polymer Composites 248

Acknowledgment 258

References 259

11 Thermoplastic Polymeric Composites and Polymers: Their Potentialities in a Dialogue Between Art and Technology 263
Thais H. Sydenstricker Flores-Sahagun, Nivaldo Rodrigues Carneiro and Danelia Lee Flores-Sahagun

11.1 Introduction 263

11.2 Organic Beauty in 1998 265

11.3 Organic Beauty and Other Sculptures in 2014 268

11.4 Laboratory Experiences 276

11.5 Final Remarks 282

Acknowledgments 285

References 285

12 Natural Fiber Reinforced PLA Composites: Effect of Shape of Fiber Elements on Properties of Composites 287
Tibor Alpár, Gábor Markó and László Koroknai

12.1 Introduction 287

12.2 Natural Reinforcers 290

12.3 Element Morphology 293

12.4 Continuous Fiber Reinforced PLA Composite 305

References 309

13 Rigid Closed-Cell PUR Foams Containing Polyols Derived from Renewable Resources: The Effect of Polymer Composition, Foam Density, and Organoclay Filler on their Mechanical Properties 313
M. Kirpluks, L. Stiebra, A. Trubaca-Boginska, U. Cabulis and J. Andersons

13.1 Introduction 313

13.2 Experimental 318

13.3 Modeling the Mechanical Properties of Foams 321

13.4 Results and Discussion 325

13.5 Conclusions 335

Acknowledgement 336

References 336

14 Preparation and Application of the Composite From Alginate 341
Zhou Zhiyu, Xiao Kecen and Chen Yu

14.1 Introduction 341

14.2 Composites from Alginate and Natural Polymers 342

14.3 Composites from Alginate and Synthetic Polymers 351

14.4 Composites from Alginate and Biomacromolecules 356

14.5 Composites from Alginate and Inorganic Components 359

14.6 Composites from Alginate and Carbon Materials 364

14.7 Composites from Alginate and Clays 366

References 367

15 Recent Developments in Biocomposites of Bombyx mori Silk Fibroin 377
G M Arifuzzaman Khan, Nazire Deniz Yilmaz and Kenan Yilmaz

15.1 Introduction 377

15.2 History of B. mori Silk 378

15.3 Chemical Composition of B. mori Silk 379

15.4 Properties of B. mori Silk 382

15.5 Extraction of Silk Fibroin by Degumming Process 386

15.6 Regenerated Fibroin Solution 388

15.7 Silk Fibroin Hydrogels 389

15.8 Methods of SF-based Biocomposite Production 389

15.9 Silk Fibroin-Based Biocomposites 392

15.10 Conclusion 400

References 400

16 Design and Manufacturing of Natural Fiber/Synthetic Fiber Reinforced Polymer Hybrid Composites 411
Asim Shahzad and R. S. Choudhry

16.1 Introduction 411

16.2 Natural Fiber/Synthetic Fiber Hybrid Composites 421

16.3 Applications and Future Outlook 440

16.4 Conclusions 440

References 441

17 Natural Fibre Composite Strengthening Solution for Structural Beam Component for Enhanced Flexural Strength, as Alternatives to CFRP and GFRP Strengthening Techniques 449
Tara Sen

17.1 Introduction 449

17.2 Materials 454

17.3 Mechanical Characterization of Natural and Artificial Frp Composites 456

17.4 RC Beam Strengthening Rechnique Using Natural and Artificial FRP Composite Systems 458

17.5 Experimentation and Analysis of Results 461

17.6 Conclusions 468

References 470

18 High Pressure Resin Transfer Moulding of Epoxy Resins from Renewable Sources 475
Salvatore Mannino, Alberta Latteri, Giuseppe Saccullo, Rey Banatao, Stefan Pastine and Gianluca Cicala

18.1 Introduction 475

18.2 Experimental 480

18.3 Results and Discussions 483

18.4 Conclusions 487

Acknowledgements 487

References 487

19 Cork-Based Structural Composites 489
António Torres Marques, Paulo Nóvoa, Marcelo Moura and Albertino Arteiro

19.1 Introduction: Cork as a Sustainable Resource 489

19.2 Cork as a Structural Material 490

19.3 Fibers and Matrices 494

19.4 Core Cork Sandwich Concepts 494

19.5 Damage Tolerant Structures with Cork 509

19.6 Processing Techniques 511

19.7 Design Philosophy 511

19.8 Conclusions and Challenges 512

References 512

20 The Use of Wheat Straw as an Agricultural Waste in Composites for Semi-Structural Applications 515
Carlo Santulli

20.1 Introduction 515

20.2 Application of Wheat Straw in Composites 518

20.3 Future Developments 524

20.4 Conclusions 527

References 528

21 Design and Manufacturing of Sustainable Composites 533
Alencar Bravo and Darli Vieira

21.1 Introduction to Ecological Composite Design 533

21.2 Design Principles for a Sustainable Composite 557

21.3 Summary of Available Composite Manufacturing Processes 569

21.4 Techniques for Improving the Thermo-Mechanical Properties of Composites 580

Acronym List 589

References 590

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Author Information

Vijay Kumar Thakur is a Lecturer in the School of Aerospace, Transport and Manufacturing Engineering, Cranfield University, UK. Previously he had been a Staff Scientist in the School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering at Washington State University, USA. He spent his postdoctoral study in Materials Science & Engineering at Iowa State University, USA, and gained his PhD in Polymer Chemistry (2009) at the National Institute of Technology, India. He has published more than 90 SCI journal research articles in the field of polymers/materials science and holds one US patent. He has also published about 25 books and 33 book chapters on the advanced state-of-the-art of polymers/materials science with numerous publishers, including Wiley-Scrivener.

Manju Kumar Thakur has been working as an Assistant Professor of Chemistry at the Division of Chemistry, Govt. Degree College Sarkaghat Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, India since 2010. She received her PhD in Polymer Chemistry from the Chemistry Department at Himachal Pradesh University. She has deep experience in the field of organic chemistry, biopolymers, composites/ nanocomposites, hydrogels, applications of hydrogels in the removal of toxic heavy metal ions, drug delivery etc. She has published more than 30 research papers in peer-reviewed journals, 25 book chapters and co-authored five books all in the field of polymeric materials.

Michael R. Kessler is a Professor and Director of the School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering at Washington State University, USA. He is an expert in the mechanics, processing, and characterization of polymer matrix composites and nanocomposites. His honours include the Army Research Office Young Investigator Award, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research Young Investigator Award, the NSF CAREER Award, and the Elsevier Young Composites Researcher Award from the American Society for Composites. He has more than 150 journal articles and 5800 citations, holds 6 patents, published 5 books on the synthesis and characterization of polymer materials, and presented at least 200 talks at national and international meetings.

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