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Handbook of Composites from Renewable Materials, Volume 5, Biodegradable Materials

ISBN: 978-1-119-22439-6
688 pages
February 2017
Handbook of Composites from Renewable Materials, Volume 5, Biodegradable Materials (111922439X) cover image


The Handbook of Composites From Renewable Materials comprises a set of 8 individual volumes that brings an interdisciplinary perspective to accomplish a more detailed understanding of the interplay between the synthesis, structure, characterization, processing, applications and performance of these advanced materials. The handbook covers a multitude of natural polymers/ reinforcement/ fillers and biodegradable materials. Together, the 8 volumes total at least 5000 pages and offers a unique publication.

This 5th volume Handbook is solely focused on Biodegradable Materials. Some of the important topics include but not limited to: Rice husk and its composites; biodegradable composites based on thermoplastic starch and talc nanoparticles; recent progress in biocomposites of biodegradable polymer; microbial polyesters: production and market; biodegradable and bio absorbable materials for osteosynthesis applications; biodegradable polymers in tissue engineering; composites based on hydroxyapatite and biodegradable polylactide; biodegradable composites; development of membranes from bio-based materials and their applications; green biodegradable composites based on natural fibers; fully biodegradable all-cellulose composites; natural fiber composites with bio-derivative and/or degradable polymers; synthetic biodegradable polymers for bone tissue engineering; polysaccharides as green biodegradable platforms for building-up electroactive composite materials; biodegradable polymer blends and composites from seaweeds; biocomposites scaffolds derived from renewable resources for bone tissue repair ; pectin-based composites; recent advances in conductive composites based on biodegradable polymers for regenerative medicine applications; biosynthesis of PHAs and their biomedical applications; biodegradable soy protein isolate/poly (vinyl alcohol) packaging films and biodegradability of bio-based polymeric materials in natural environment.

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Table of Contents

Preface xix

1 Rice Husk and its Composites: Effects of Rice Husk Loading, Size, Coupling Agents, and Surface Treatment on Composites’ Mechanical, Physical, and Functional Properties 1
A. Bilal, R.J.T. Lin and K. Jayaraman

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Natural Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites 3

1.3 Rice Husk and its Composites 5

1.4 Effects of Coupling Agents on the Properties of RH Composites 12

1.5 Summary 15

References 16

2 Biodegradable Composites Based on Thermoplastic Starch and Talc Nanoparticles 23
Luciana A. Castillo, Olivia V. López, M. Alejandra García, Marcelo A. Villar and Silvia E. Barbosa

2.1 Introduction 23

2.2 Thermoplastic Starch-Talc Nanocomposites 27

2.3 Use of Talc Samples with Different Morphologies 40

2.4 Packaging Bags Based on TPS–Talc Nanocomposites Films 49

2.5 Conclusions 54

References 54

3 Recent Progress in Biocomposite of Biodegradable Polymer 61
Vicente de Oliveira Sousa Neto and Ronaldo Ferreira do Nascimento

3.1 Introduction 61

3.2 Biodegradable Polymers: Natural Origin and Development 63

3.3 Polysaccharides 63

3.4 Chemical Synthesis Produced Polymer 77

3.5 Polyesters Produced by Microorganism or by Plants 83

3.6 Concluding Remarks 87

References 88

4 Microbial Polyesters: Production and Market 95
Neha Patni, Yug Saraswat and Shibu G. Pillai

4.1 Introduction 95

4.2 Polyhydroxy Alkanoates 96

4.3 Bacterial Cellulose 100

4.4 Polylactic Acid or Polylactide 102

4.5 Polyglycolic Acid 102

4.6 Brief Overview of the Local and World Scenario of Bioplastics 103

4.7 Summary 103

References 104

5 Biodegradable and Bioabsorbable Materials for Osteosynthesis Applications: State-of-the-Art and Future Perspectives 109
Sandra Carolina Cifuentes, Rosario Benavente, Marcela Lieblich and José Luis González-Carrasco

5.1 Introduction 109

5.2 State-of-the-Art 111

5.3 Future Perspectives 117

5.4 Conclusions 131

References 132

6 Biodegradable Polymers in Tissue Engineering 145
Silvia Ioan and Luminita Ioana Buruiana

6.1 Introduction 145

6.2 Biodegradable Materials for Bone Tissue Engineering 146

6.3 Biocompatibility and Biodegradation of Polymer Networks 147

6.4 Biomaterial Reaction to Foreign Bodies 153

6.5 Design of Immunomodulatory Biomaterials 154

6.6 Applications Potential of Polyurethanes in Engineering Tissues 154

6.7 Application Potential of Polycarbonates 160

6.8 Poly(amido Amine) 164

6.9 Polyester Amine 168

6.10 Polypyrrole-based Conducting Polymers 172

6.11 Remarks and Future Directions 175

Acknowledgment 176

References 176

7 Composites Based on Hydroxyapatite and Biodegradable Polylactide 183
Pau Turon, Luís J. del Valle, Carlos Alemán and Jordi Puiggalí

7.1 Introduction 183

7.2 Bone Tissues and Mineralization Processes 184

7.3 Polylactide and its Copolymers 187

7.4 Calcium Phosphate Cements Reinforced with Polylactide Fibers 188

7.5 Nanocomposites of Polylactide and Hydroxyapatite: Coupling Agents 189

7.6 PLA/HAp Scaffolds for Tissue-Engineering Applications 191

7.7 Scaffolds Constituted by Ternary Mixtures Including PLA and HAp 198

7.8 Bioactive Molecules Loaded in PLA/HAp Scaffolds 200

7.9 Hydrogels Incorporating PLA/HAp 204

7.10 Conclusions 206

References 207

8 Biodegradable Composites: Properties and Uses 215
Daniel Belchior Rocha and Derval dos Santos Rosa

8.1 Introduction 215

8.2 Biodegradable Polymers Applied in Composites 217

8.3 Composites Using Matrices by Biomass Polymers 220

8.4 Composites Using Matrices by Biopolymers Synthesized from Monomers 230

8.5 Composites using matrices by biopolymers produced by microorganism 239

8.6 Conclusion 241

Acknowledgments 242

References 243

9 Development of Membranes from Biobased Materials and their Applications 251
K. C. Khulbe and T. Matsuura

9.1 Introduction 251

9.2 Membranes from Biopolymer or Biomaterials 253

9.3 Summary 274

References 275

10 Green Biodegradable Composites Based on Natural Fibers 283
Magdalena Wróbel-Kwiatkowska, Mateusz Kropiwnicki and Waldemar Rymowicz

10.1 Introduction 283

10.2 Plant Fibers Composition 284

10.3 Fiber Modifications 285

10.4 Composites Based on Different Plant Fibers 289

10.5 Future and Perspectives of Composites 293

10.6 Conclusions 295

References 295

11 Fully Biodegradable All-Cellulose Composites 303
Fabrizio Sarasini

11.1 Introduction 303

11.2 Self-Reinforced Composites 305

11.3 All-Cellulose Composites 306

11.4 Conclusions and Future Challenges 315

References 316

12 Natural Fiber Composites with Bioderivative and/or Degradable Polymers 323
Kamila Salasinska and Joanna Ryszkowska

12.1 Introduction 323

12.2 Materials 325

12.3 Methods for the Manufacture of Composites 326

12.4 Research Methodology of Plant Component and Composites 328

12.5 Test Results 332

12.6 Comparison of the Properties of Composites with Different Types of Polymer Matrices 350

12.7 Summary and Conclusive Statements 351

Acknowledgments 352

References 352

13 Synthetic Biodegradable Polymers for Bone Tissue Engineering 355
Jiuhong Zhang, Zhiqiang Xie, Juan Yan and Jian Zhong

13.1 Introduction 355

13.2 Synthetic Biodegradable Polymers 356

13.3 Physicochemical Characterizations of Polymeric Scaffolds 363

13.4 Definition and Clinical Needs of Bone Tissue Engineering 365

13.5 Application of Synthetic Biodegradable Polymers in Bone Tissue Engineering 367

13.6 Summary 369

Acknowledgments 370

References 370

14 Polysaccharides as Green Biodegradable Platforms for Building-up Electroactive Composite Materials: An Overview 377
Fernanda F. Simas-Tosin, Aline Grein-Iankovski, Marcio Vidotti and Izabel C. Riegel-Vidotti

14.1 Introduction 377

14.2 Main Chemical and Physical Chemical Properties of the Polysaccharides Used in the Synthesis of Electroactive Composites 379

14.3 Electroactive Materials 394

14.4 Spectroscopic Characterization of Colloidal Gum Arabic/Polyaniline and Gum Arabic/Poly(3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene) 401

14.5 Polysaccharides/Conducting Polymer: Final overview 406

References 409

15 Biodegradable Polymer Blends and Composites from Seaweeds 419
Yolanda Freile-Pelegrín and Tomás J. Madera-Santana

15.1 Introduction 419

15.2 Seaweed Resources: World Scenario 420

15.3 Seaweed Polymers with Potential Materials Applications 422

15.4 Potential Biopolymer Blends and Composites from Seaweeds 426

References 433

16 Biocomposite Scaffolds Derived from Renewable Resources for Bone Tissue Repair 439
S. Dhivya and N. Selvamurugan

16.1 Introduction 439

16.2 Polysaccharide-Based Polymers 440

16.3 Glycosaminoglycans 455

16.4 Protein-Based Polymers 459

16.5 Polyesters 463

16.6 Polyhydroxyalkanoates 465

16.7 Others 466

16.8 Conclusions and Future Direction 467

Acknowledgment 468

Abbreviations 468

References 470

17 Pectin-based Composites 487
Veronika Bátori, Dan Åkeson, Akram Zamani and Mohammad J. Taherzadeh

17.1 Introduction 487

17.2 Pectin 488

17.3 Biosynthesis of Pectin Polymers during Cell Differentiation 495

17.4 Production of Pectin 495

17.5 Pectin-based Biocomposites 499

17.6 Conclusions 513

References 513

18 Recent Advances in Conductive Composites Based on Biodegradable Polymers for Regenerative Medicine Applications 519
Ilaria Armentano, Elena Fortunati, Luigi Torre and Josè Maria Kenny

18.1 Introduction 519

18.2 Regenerative Medicine 520

18.3 Biodegradable Polymers 521

18.4 Conductive Nanostructures 524

18.5 Polymer Nanocomposite Approach 526

18.6 Conclusions and Future Perspectives 535

References 536

19 Biosynthesis of PHAs and Their Biomedical Applications 543
K.-S. Heng, Y.-F. Lee, L. Thinagaran, J.-Y. Chee, P. Murugan and K. Sudesh

19.1 Introduction 543

19.2 Genetic and Metabolic Pathway of PHA Production 545

19.3 PHA Production from Sugars 548

19.4 PHA Production from Oils 554

19.5 Exploration and Application of PHAs as Biomaterials 566

19.6 Future Perspectives 573

Acknowledgments 574

References 574

20 Biodegradable Soy Protein Isolate/Poly(Vinyl Alcohol) Packaging Films 587
Jun-Feng Su

20.1 Introduction 587

20.2 Experimental 589

20.3 Results and Discussion 597

20.4 Conclusion 620

References 621

21 Biodegradability of Biobased Polymeric Materials in Natural Environments 625
Sudhakar Muniyasamy and Maya Jacob John

21.1 Introduction 625

21.2 Biobased Polymers from Renewable Resources 629

21.3 Biodegradable and Compostable Polymeric Materials from Renewable Resources 632

21.4 Overview of Biodegradation Studies of Biobased Polymers in Different Environmental Conditions 640

21.5 Biodegradation Mechanisms of Biobased Polymeric Materials 645

21.6 Concluding Remarks 648

References 649

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Author Information

Vijay Kumar Thakur is a Lecturer in the School of Aerospace, Transport and Manufacturing Engineering, Cranfield University, UK. Previously he had been a Staff Scientist in the School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering at Washington State University, USA. He spent his postdoctoral study in Materials Science & Engineering at Iowa State University, USA, and gained his PhD in Polymer Chemistry (2009) at the National Institute of Technology, India. He has published more than 90 SCI journal research articles in the field of polymers/materials science and holds one US patent. He has also published about 25 books and 33 book chapters on the advanced state-of-the-art of polymers/materials science with numerous publishers, including Wiley-Scrivener.

Manju Kumar Thakur has been working as an Assistant Professor of Chemistry at the Division of Chemistry, Govt. Degree College Sarkaghat Himachal Pradesh University, Shimla, India since 2010. She received her PhD in Polymer Chemistry from the Chemistry Department at Himachal Pradesh University. She has deep experience in the field of organic chemistry, biopolymers, composites/ nanocomposites, hydrogels, applications of hydrogels in the removal of toxic heavy metal ions, drug delivery etc. She has published more than 30 research papers in peer-reviewed journals, 25 book chapters and co-authored five books all in the field of polymeric materials.

Michael R. Kessler is a Professor and Director of the School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering at Washington State University, USA. He is an expert in the mechanics, processing, and characterization of polymer matrix composites and nanocomposites. His honours include the Army Research Office Young Investigator Award, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research Young Investigator Award, the NSF CAREER Award, and the Elsevier Young Composites Researcher Award from the American Society for Composites. He has more than 150 journal articles and 5800 citations, holds 6 patents, published 5 books on the synthesis and characterization of polymer materials, and presented at least 200 talks at national and international meetings.

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