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Ecoacoustics: The Ecological Role of Sounds

ISBN: 978-1-119-23069-4
352 pages
July 2017
Ecoacoustics: The Ecological Role of Sounds (1119230691) cover image

Description

The sounds produced by geophonic, biophonic and technophonic sources are relevant to the function of natural and human modified ecosystems. Passive recording is one of the most non-invasive technologies as its use avoids human intrusion during acoustic surveys and facilitates the accumulation of huge amounts of acoustical data.

For the first time, this book collates and reviews the science behind ecoaucostics; illustrating the principles, methods and applications of this exciting new field. Topics covered in this comprehensive volume include;

  • the assessment of biodiversity based on sounds emanating from a variety of environments
  • the best technologies and methods necessary to investigate environmental sounds
  • implications for climate change and urban systems
  • the relationship between landscape ecology and ecoacoustics
  • the conservation of soundscapes and the social value of ecoacoustics
  • areas of potential future research.

An invaluable resource for scholars, researchers and students, Ecoacoustics: The Ecological Role of Sounds provides an unrivalled set of ideas, tools and references based on the current state of the field.

 

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Table of Contents

List of Contributors xiii

Preface xv

1 Ecoacoustics: A New Science 1
Almo Farina and Stuart H. Gage

1.1 Ecoacoustics as a New Science 1

1.2 Characteristics of a Sound 1

1.3 Sound and Its Importance 2

1.4 Ecoacoustics and Digital Sensors 3

1.5 Ecoacoustics Attributes 3

1.5.1 Population Census 4

1.5.2 Biological Diversity 4

1.5.3 Habitat Health 4

1.5.4 Time of Arrival/Departure of Migratory Species 4

1.5.5 Diurnal Change 5

1.5.6 Seasonal Change 5

1.5.7 Competition for Frequency 5

1.5.8 Trophic Interactions 5

1.5.9 Disturbance 5

1.5.10 Sounds of the Landscape and People 6

1.6 Ecoacoustics and Ecosystem Management 6

1.7 Quantification of a Sound 7

1.7.1 Species Identification 7

1.7.2 Acoustic Indices 7

1.8 Archiving Ecoacoustics Recordings 8

1.9 Ecological Forecasting 9

References 9

2 The Duality of Sounds: Ambient and Communication 13
Almo Farina and Stuart H. Gage

2.1 Introduction 13

2.2 Vegetation and Ecoacoustics 14

2.2.1 Vegetation Quality and Ecoacoustics 15

2.2.2 Soundscape Indices and Biodiversity 15

2.2.3 Applications of Remote Sensing of Vegetation and Ecoacoustics 16

2.3 Acoustic Resources, Umwelten, and Ecofields 17

2.4 Sounds as Biological Codes 20

2.5 Sound as a Compass for Navigation 21

2.6 Geophonies from Sacred Sites – How to Incorporate Archeoacoustics into Ecoacoustics 22

2.6.1 The Characteristics of Geophonies 23

2.6.2 Geophonies and Sacred Sites 23

2.6.3 Human Versus Other Animals’ Perception of Sound: The Role of Archeoacoustics 24

References 24

3 The Role of Sound in Terrestrial Ecosystems: Three Case Examples from Michigan, USA 31
Stuart H. Gage and Almo Farina

3.1 Introduction 31

3.2 C1 Visualization of the Soundscape at Ted Black Woods, Okemos, Michigan during May 2016 31

3.2.1 C1 Background 31

3.2.2 C1 Objectives 32

3.2.3 C1 Methods 32

3.2.3.1 C1 Soundscape Metrics 33

3.2.3.2 C1 Weather Factors Affecting Sounds 33

3.2.4 C1 Results 33

3.2.4.1 C1 Patterns of Soundscape Power for Six Frequency Intervals 33

3.2.4.2 C1 Patterns of Soundscape Indices 37

3.2.4.3 C1 Wind Patterns During May 2016 37

3.2.4.4 C1 Rain Patterns During May 2016 37

3.2.4.5 C1 Spectrogram Patterns 41

3.2.5 C1 Discussion 42

3.3 C2 Implications for Climate Change – Detecting First Call of the Spring Peeper 44

3.3.1 C2 Background 44

3.3.2 C2 Methods 44

3.3.3 C2 Results 45

3.3.4 C2 Discussion 48

3.4 C3 Disturbance in Terrestrial Systems: Tree Harvest Impacts on the Soundscape 49

3.4.1 C3 Background 49

3.4.2 C3 Methods 51

3.4.3 C3 Results 52

3.4.3.1 C3 Changes in the Soundscape 52

3.4.3.2 C3 Statistical Influence of Forest Harvest 55

3.4.4 C3 Discussion 55

References 59

4 The Role of Sound in the Aquatic Environment 61
Francesco Filiciotto and Giuseppa Buscaino

4.1 Overview on Underwater Sound Propagation 61

4.1.1 Sound Speed in the Sea 61

4.1.2 Transmission Loss 61

4.1.3 Deep and Shallow Sound Channel and Animal Communication 62

4.2 Sound Emissions and Their Ecological Role in Marine Vertebrates and Invertebrates 63

4.2.1 Marine Mammals 63

4.2.2 Fish 64

4.2.3 Crustaceans 65

4.3 Impacts of Anthropogenic Noise in Aquatic Environments 67

4.3.1 Main Anthropogenic Sources of Noise in the Sea 67

4.3.2 The Effects of Anthropogenic Noise on Marine Organisms 68

4.3.2.1 Acoustic Masking and Damage to Hearing System of Marine Organisms 68

4.3.2.2 Biochemical Impacts and Stress Responses 69

4.3.2.3 Behavior Alterations 70

References 71

5 The Acoustic Chorus and its Ecological Significance 81
Almo Farina and Maria Ceraulo

5.1 Introduction 81

5.2 Time of Chorus 82

5.3 The Chorus Hypothesis 86

5.4 Choruses in Birds 87

5.5 Choruses in Amphibians 87

5.6 Choruses in the Marine Environment 88

5.7 Conclusions and Discussion 89

References 89

6 The Ecological Effects of Noise on Species and Communities 95
Almo Farina

6.1 Introduction 95

6.2 The Nature of Noise 96

6.3 Natural Sources of Noise 96

6.4 Anthropogenic Sources of Noise 97

6.5 Effects of Noise on the Animal World 97

6.6 How Animals Neutralize the Effect of Noise 100

6.6.1 Changing Amplitude 100

6.6.2 Changing Frequency 100

6.6.3 Changing Signal Redundancy 101

6.6.4 Changing Behavior 101

6.7 Noise in Marine and Freshwater Systems 101

6.8 Conclusions 102

References 103

7 Biodiversity Assessment in Temperate Biomes using Ecoacoustics 109
Almo Farina and Nadia Pieretti

7.1 Introduction 109

7.2 Sound as Proxy for Biodiversity 110

7.3 Methods and Application of Ecoacoustics 111

7.4 Acoustic Communities as a Proxy for Biodiversity 113

7.5 Problems and Open Questions 114

7.6 Ecoacoustic Events: Concepts and Procedures 116

7.7 Conclusion 122

References 122

8 Biodiversity Assessment in Tropical Biomes using Ecoacoustics: Linking Soundscape to Forest Structure in a Human-dominated Tropical Dry Forest in Southern Madagascar 129
Lyndsay Rankin and Anne C. Axel

8.1 Introduction 129

8.2 Methods 131

8.2.1 Study Area 131

8.2.2 Forest Sampling 132

8.2.3 Soundscape Survey 133

8.2.4 Acoustic Indices 133

8.2.5 Mixed Model Analysis 134

8.3 Results 135

8.3.1 Seasonal Acoustic Indices 135

8.3.2 Mixed Model Analyses 137

8.4 Discussion 137

Acknowledgments 141

References 142

9 Biodiversity Assessment and Environmental Monitoring in Freshwater and Marine Biomes using Ecoacoustics 145
Denise Risch and Susan E. Parks

9.1 Introduction 145

9.2 Freshwater Habitats 147

9.2.1 Rivers 147

9.2.1.1 Remote Monitoring of Biotic Signals in the Environment 147

9.2.1.2 Remote Monitoring of the Environment Using Sound in River Habitats 148

9.2.1.3 Anthropogenic Sources of Noise in River Systems 148

9.2.2 Lakes and Ponds 148

9.2.2.1 Remote Monitoring of Biotic Signals in the Environment 149

9.2.2.2 Remote Monitoring of the Environment Using Sound in Lakes and Ponds 149

9.2.2.3 Anthropogenic Sources of Noise in Lakes and Ponds 149

9.3 Marine Neritic Habitats 150

9.3.1 Estuaries and Coastal Habitats 150

9.3.1.1 Remote Monitoring of Biotic Signals in the Environment 150

9.3.1.2 Remote Monitoring of the Environment Using Sound in Estuarine and Coastal Habitats 150

9.3.1.3 Anthropogenic Sources of Noise in Estuarine and Coastal Habitats 152

9.3.2 Coral Reefs 152

9.3.2.1 Remote Monitoring of Biotic Signals in the Environment 152

9.3.2.2 Remote Monitoring of the Environment Using Sound in Coral Reef Environments 153

9.3.2.3 Anthropogenic Sources of Noise in Coral Reef Environments 153

9.4 Marine Oceanic Habitats 153

9.4.1 Open Ocean and Deep Sea Habitats 153

9.4.1.1 Remote Monitoring of Biotic Signals in the Environment 154

9.4.1.2 Remote Monitoring of the Environment Using Sound in the Open Ocean 154

9.4.1.3 Anthropogenic Sources of Noise in the Open Ocean 154

9.4.2 Polar Oceans 155

9.4.2.1 Remote Monitoring of Biotic Signals in the Environment 155

9.4.2.2 Remote Monitoring of the Environment with Sound in Polar Regions 155

9.4.2.3 Anthropogenic Sources of Noise in the Polar Regions 156

9.5 Summary and Future Directions 156

References 158

10 Integrating Biophony into Biodiversity Measurement and Assessment 169
Brian Michael Napoletano

10.1 Introduction 169

10.1.1 Biodiversity and Its Parameterization 170

10.2 Biological Information in the Soundscape 171

10.2.1 Physiology: Sound Production and Detection 173

10.2.2 Communication: Medium and Context 176

10.2.3 Coordination: Evolution of the Biophony 178

10.2.4 Adaptation: Mechanization of the Soundscape 180

10.3 Ecoacoustics in Biodiversity Assessment 182

10.3.1 Developing a Soundscape Monitoring Network 182

10.3.2 Acoustic Data Processing and Management 183

10.4 Conclusion 184

References 184

11 Landscape Patterns and Soundscape Processes 193
Almo Farina and Susan Fuller

11.1 An Introduction to Landscape Ecology (Theories and Applications) 193

11.1.1 Patch Size, Shape, and Isolation 193

11.1.2 Patch‐Matrix Context 194

11.2 Relationship Between Landscape Ecology and Soundscape Ecology: A Semantic Approach 195

11.2.1 The Contribution of Landscape Ecology to the Development of Ecoacoustics 196

11.2.2 Acoustic Heterogeneity in a Landscape Across Space and Time 197

11.3 Acoustic Community and Landscape Mosaics 199

11.4 Ecoacoustics in a Changing Landscape 202

11.5 Conclusion 203

References 204

12 Connecting Soundscapes to Landscapes: Modeling the Spatial Distribution of Sound 211
Timothy C. Mullet

12.1 Introduction 211

12.2 Conceptualizing Soundscapes in Space and Time 211

12.3 Capturing Soundscapes in Time and Space 212

12.4 Sound Metrics and Interpreting Nature 213

12.5 A Soundscape Metric for Modeling 215

12.6 Discriminating the Components of a Soundscape 216

12.7 Generating a Predictive Soundscape Model 217

12.8 Conclusion 219

Disclaimer 221

References 221

13 Soil Acoustics 225
Marisol A. QuintanillaTornel

13.1 Introduction 225

13.2 Soil Insect Acoustics 226

13.3 Compost Activating Agent Acoustics 226

13.4 Soil Aggregate Slaking Acoustics 227

13.5 Conclusion 230

References 231

14 Fundamentals of Soundscape Conservation 235
Gianni Pavan

14.1 Introduction 235

14.2 Nature Sounds in Science and Education 238

14.3 The Role of Sound Libraries 242

14.4 Noise Pollution, the Acoustic Habitat, and the Biology of Disturbance 243

14.5 Soundscapes, Nature Conservation, and Public Awareness 244

14.6 Marine Soundscapes 245

14.6.1 Ship Noise 246

14.7 Conclusion 251

14.7.1 Terrestrial Soundscapes 252

14.7.2 Marine and Aquatic Soundscapes 252

Acknowledgment 252

References 252

15 Urban Acoustics: Heartbeat of Lansing, Michigan, USA 259
Stuart H. Gage and Wooyeong Joo

15.1 Introduction 259

15.2 Objectives 260

15.3 Methods 261

15.3.1 Sampling Design 261

15.3.2 Recording at Sample Sites 262

15.3.3 Data Conversion 262

15.3.4 Data Processing 262

15.4 Results 264

15.4.1 The NDSI 264

15.4.2 The H, ADI, AEI, ACI, and BIO Indices 267

15.5 Discussion and conclusions 267

References 271

16 Analytical Methods in Ecoacoustics 273
Stuart H. Gage, Michael Towsey and Eric P. Kasten

16.1 Introduction 273

16.2 Components of an Acoustic Recording 275

16.3 Visualization of an Acoustic Recording 276

16.3.1 Frequency Analysis 276

16.3.2 Three‐Dimensional Spectrogram 277

16.4 Processing Multiple Recordings 277

16.5 Analyzing Acoustic Time Series 279

16.6 Time Series of Acoustic Indices 281

16.7 Searching and Symbolic Methods 282

16.7.1 Searching a Recording for Anomalies 284

16.7.2 Symbolic Representations and Unsupervised Learning 285

16.8 Visualization and Navigation of Long‐Duration Recordings 286

16.9 Spectrogram Pyramids 289

16.9.1 Diel Plots 289

16.10 New Approaches to Analysis 291

16.11 Web Platforms for the Visualization of Environmental Audio 291

References 293

17 Soundscape Ecology and its Expression through the Voice of the Arts: An Essay 297
David Monacchi and Bernie Krause

17.1 Introduction 297

17.2 Immersive Art as a Science Dissemination Tool 299

17.3 Examples of Ecoacoustic Works by Bernie Krause 302

17.4 Examples of Ecoacoustics Works by David Monacchi 305

17.4.1 Designing Temples for the Ear: The Ecoacoustic Theater 308

17.4.2 Soundscape Projection Ambisonics Control Engine (S.P.A.C.E.) 309

17.5 Conclusion 310

References 311

18 Ecoacoustics Challenges 313
Stuart H. Gage and Almo Farina

18.1 Introduction 313

18.2 Philosophical Issues 313

18.3 Ecological Issues 314

18.4 Sensor Technology 315

18.5 Acoustic Computations and Modeling 316

18.6 Public Information 316

18.7 Monetary Issues 317

References 317

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Author Information

Almo Farina is Professor of Ecology, Department of Pure and Applied Sciences, Urbino University, Italy. He is interested in developing theories in landscape ecology and ecoacoustics. He has published more than 270 reports, articles and books on zoology, eco-ethology, bird community ecology, landscape ecology, landscape changes, rural landscape modification, eco-semiotics, code biology, ecoacoustics,  soundscape ecology, and ecological theories.

Stuart H. Gage is Professor Emeritus, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA. Stuart retired after about 30 years as Professor of Entomology. He received the University Distinguished Faculty Award and the University Outreach and Engagement Campus Fellow at Michigan State University. Stuart continues as Director of the Remote Environmental Assessment Laboratory. His current research focuses on application of ecological sensors, analysis of acoustic sensor observations and cyber infrastructure and he collaborates with colleagues in all realms of acoustics. The study of ecological acoustics has enabled Stuart to record the soundscape in many places using automated sensors. Many of these recordings are analyzed, stored, and are publicly accessible in a digital acoustics library (http://www.real.msu.edu).

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