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Technology and Emergency Management, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-1-119-23552-1
288 pages
August 2017
Technology and Emergency Management, 2nd Edition (1119235529) cover image

Description

The first book devoted to a critically important aspect of disaster planning, management, and mitigation

Technology and Emergency Management, Second Edition describes best practices for technology use in emergency planning, response, recovery, and mitigation. It also describes the key elements that must be in place for technology to enhance the emergency management process. The tools, resources, and strategies discussed have been applied by organizations worldwide tasked with planning for and managing every variety of natural and man-made hazard and disaster. Illustrative case studies based on their experiences appear throughout the book. 

This new addition of the critically acclaimed guide has been fully updated and expanded to reflect significant developments occurring in the field over the past decade. It features in-depth coverage of major advances in GIS technologies, including the development of mapping tools and high-resolution remote sensing imaging. Also covered is the increase in computer processing power and mobility and enhanced analytical capabilities for assessing the present conditions of natural systems and extrapolating from them to create accurate models of potential crisis conditions. This second edition also features a new section on cybersecurity and a new chapter on social media and disaster preparedness, response, and recovery has been added.

  • Explores the role of technology in emergency planning, response, recovery, and mitigation efforts
  • Explores applications of the Internet, telecommunications, and networks to emergency management, as well as geospatial technologies and their applications
  • Reviews the elements of hazard models and the relative strengths and weaknesses of modeling programs
  • Describes techniques for developing hazard prediction models using direct and remote sensing data
  • Includes test questions for each chapter, and a solutions manual and PowerPoint slides are available on a companion website

Technology and Emergency Management, Second Edition is a valuable working resource for practicing emergency managers and an excellent supplementary text for undergraduate and graduate students in emergency management and disaster management programs, urban and regional planning, and related fields.

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Table of Contents

Concept xiii

About the Author xiv

List of Contributors xv

About the Companion Website xvi

1 The Need for Technology in Emergency Management 1

Introduction  2

11 Technology and Disaster Management   2

111 Focus on Current and Emerging Technology  3

12 Technology as a Management Tool  4

121 Response to Complex Disaster Events 5

122 Ease of Use of Technology  5

13 Using Technologies   6

131 Technology in a Changing Environment 8

132 Examples of Technology  8

133 Communicate Quickly  8

134 Develop a Better Understanding of Hazards  9

135 Improve Response  9

136 Increase Coordination  9

137 Improve Efficiency  9

138 Training   9

14 Completing a Needs Assessment  10

141 Nature of a Needs Assessment  10

142 Steps to Complete a Needs Assessment 11

143 Implementing the Needs Assessment 12

144 Impacts of Implementing Innovation 12

Summary  14

Key Terms  14

Assess Your Understanding  14

References  15

2 Computer Networks and Emergency Management 17

Introduction   18

21 What Is a Network?    19

22 Types of Networks   19

221 Local Area Network   19

222 Metropolitan Area Network   20

223 Wide Area Network   20

224 Personal Area Network  21

23 The Internet   21

24 Communication Technologies  24

241 Wired Network Technologies  24

242 Long?]Range Wireless Network Technologies 27

243 Short?]Range Wireless Network Technologies 30

25 The Internet and Emergency Management 32

26 IoT and Emergency Management  35

Summary  38

Key Terms  38

Assess Your Understanding  40

References  40

3 Cyber Security 42

Introduction   43

31 Sources of Attacks   45

32 Attack Vectors   46

321 Vulnerabilities  46

322 Phishing   46

323 Stolen Credentials   47

324 Web Applications  47

325 Point of Sale Intrusions  48

326 Payment Card Skimmers   49

327 Insider and Privilege Misuse  49

328 Physical Theft and Loss  49

329 Denial of Service Attacks   49

33 Overview of Malware    49

331 Malware Propagation  50

332 Malware Payload  51

34 Securing Cyber Systems   52

35 Securing Data    54

36 Cyber Security Attack Recovery  56

Summary  57

Key Terms  57

Assess Your Understanding  59

References  59

4 Social Media and Emergency Management 61

Introduction   62

41 Situational Awareness, Emergency Communications, and the Public Realm    62

42 What Is Social Media?   64

421 The Birth of Web 20  64

43 Types of Social Media Used in Disasters  65

44 Mass Alert Systems   67

45 Mass Media and Social Media Use in Virginia Tech Shooting Response   67

451 Information Communication Technologies  69

46 What Is a Disaster?   69

47 Usage Patterns of Social Media Over Time 70

48 Social Media’s Growth and the Role of Traditional Sources   73

481 Role of Social Media in Disasters 74

482 Use of Social Media by People Affected by Crisis   74

49 Use of Social Media for Preparedness and Planning   74

491 Expansion of Communication Networks  75

410 Use of Social Media Before and During Mass Emergencies   75

4101 Emergency Managers’ Use of Social Media in Response   76

4102 Emergency Managers in Listening Mode 76

4103 Managing the Use of Twitter or Facebook  76

4104 Information?]Vetting Dynamics 76

4105 Building Resiliency   77

4106 Changing Nature of Social Behaviors 78

411 Issues Arising from the Use of Social Media by Emergency Managers During Events  81

4111 Changing Role of PIO  81

412 Using Social Media to Establish Information on Damages and Recovery  81

4121 Evolving Networks   82

4122 Expanding Information Relevant to a Specific Event   82

4123 Expanded Communication Benefits 83

413 The Advantages and Fallbacks of Geotargeting 83

414 Social Media Companies’ Contribution to Emergency Response  84

4141 Information Dissemination and Feedback    84

415 Concerns About and Limitations of Social Media Usage in Disasters   85

4151 Misleading Information  85

4152 Dependable Networks  85

4153 Reliable Information Sources  86

4154 Communicating with a Broad Audience 86

4155 Managing a Large Quantity of Data 86

416 The Future of Social Media in Disasters  87

4161 New Role for the Public in a Crisis  87

4162 Dynamic Nature of Social Media 87

4163 Social Media as a Valuable Resource 88

4164 Self?]correcting Nature of Social Media 88

4165 Accuracy of Information  88

4166 Threats of Technology Failure 88

4167 Case Example: Crowdfunding and Remote Emergency Response: 2010 Haitian Earthquake as a Case Study  89

4168 Examining the Use of Social Media in Haiti   90

417 Looking Forward   91

Key Terms  91

Assess Your Understanding  93

References  94

5 Geospatial Technologies and Emergency Management 97

Introduction   98

51 Geospatial Technologies and Emergency Management    99

511 Elements of GT  99

512 Use of GT to Answer Questions in Emergency Management   100

52 GT Across the Human–Hazard Interface 100

521 Our People   100

522 Limitations of Census Data  101

53 Our Resources   104

531 Understanding Critical Infrastructure 104

532 Understanding Critical Social Infrastructure   105

533 Resources of Social Importance 106

534 Spatial Video Geonarrative   107

54 Understanding Our Hazards  108

541 Natural Hazards Casualties in the United States   108

542 Hazard Zonation  109

543 Our Human–Hazard Interface 110

544 Understanding Overlays and Buffers 110

55 Dissemination and Hazard Communication  112

551 Contribution of Google Earth  113

56 Summary  113

57 Conclusions    115

Key Terms   116

Assess Your Understanding   117

References   117

6 Direct and Remote Sensing Systems: Describing and Detecting Hazards 120

Introduction    121

61 Data Collection   121

62 Weather Stations   124

621 Weather Station Data  125

622 Weather Station Networks   126

623 Geospatial Multi?]agency Coordination Wildfire Application  127

63 Water Data Sensors    128

631 Flood Warning Systems for Local Communities   128

632 Rain and Stream Gauges  130

633 How a USGS Stream Gauge Works  130

634 The USGS Stream Gaging Program  131

635 Using USGS Stream?]flow Data for Emergency Management   131

64 Air Sensors   132

641 Outdoor Air Quality Sensors  132

642 Chemical Sensors  133

65 Evaluating the Technology  133

66 Remote Sensing   134

661 An Overview of Remote Sensing 135

662 Optical Satellite Remote Sensing 136

663 Satellite Remote Sensing of Weather 145

664 Radar Imaging  147

665 Manned and Unmanned Airborne Remote Sensing   147

67 Using and Assessing Data  150

68 Trends in Remote and Direct Sensing

Technology    151

Summary  151

Key Terms   152

Online Resources   154

Assess Your Understanding   155

References   155

7 Emergency Management Decision Support Systems: Using Data to Manage Disasters 157

Introduction    158

71 Emergency Management Information Systems and Networks   158

72 Evaluating Information Systems  161

721 Quality   161

722 Timeliness    161

723 Completeness   162

724 Performance   162

73 Federal, State, and Local Information Systems 163

731 Management Information Systems  163

732 The National Emergency Management Information System  163

733 Computer Aided Management of Emergency Operations  164

74 Using Data   165

741 Databases    166

742 Data Dictionary (Meta?]data)  166

75 Evaluating Databases   168

76 Using Emergency Management Databases 169

761 HAZUS?]MH Datasets  171

77 Management Roles in Decision Support Systems 171

78 Obtaining Data from Public Federal Data Sources  172

79 The Future of Decision Support Systems: The Intelligent Community   173

Summary  174

Key Terms   174

Assess Your Understanding   174

References   175

8 Warning Systems: Alerting the Public to Danger 177

Introduction    178

81 Warning Systems   178

811 Key Information  178

812 Key Components of Warning Systems 178

813 Warning Subsystems  179

82 Detection and Management   180

821 Case Study: Detection at a Local Level 180

822 National Weather Service   182

823 Case Study: Detection at a National Level   184

83 Issuing Warnings   185

831 Technical Issues  185

832 Organizational Issues  185

833 Societal Issues  187

84 Types of Warning Systems  187

841 Sirens   188

842 The Emergency Alert System  188

843 Phone Alert Systems: Reverse 911  190

844 Disadvantages of Phone Notification Systems   190

845 Communicating with Those with Disabilities    190

846 Barriers to Warnings  191

847 Case Example: A Nuclear Disaster  191

85 Response  193

851 Case Study: Response to Hurricane Katrina   194

Summary  194

Key Terms   195

Assess Your Understanding   195

References   195

9 Hazards Analysis and Modeling: Predicting the Impact of Disasters197

Introduction    198

91 Modeling and Emergency Management 198

911 The Technology behind Modeling  199

912 Mathematical Models  201

913 Understanding the Results of Modeling 202

914 Fast Exchange of Model Results to Users   203

92 Using a Hurricane Model (SLOSH)   203

921 SLOSH for Planning, Response, Recovery, and Mitigation  205

922 SLOSH Display Program   206

923 Strengths of SLOSH  206

924 Limitations of SLOSH  206

925 Saffir–Simpson Scale  208

93 Using the ALOHA Chemical Dispersion Model 209

931 How ALOHA Works  210

932 Model Outputs  210

933 Threat Zone Estimates and Threat at a Point  210

934 Strengths of ALOHA  211

935 Limitations of ALOHA  212

936 Terms Used in ALOHA  213

937 Concentration Patchiness, Particularly Near the Source  215

94 Hazards United States—Multi Hazard Model 216

941 Strengths of HAZUS?]MH   219

942 Limitations of HAZUS?]MH   220

943 Multirisk Assessment  220

95 Evacuation Modeling   220

96 Centralized Hazard Modeling Initiatives 221

961 Fire Potential Modeling  221

962 Drought Modeling   223

97 Evaluating Hazard Models  224

Summary  225

Key Terms   225

Assess Your Understanding   226

References   226

10 Operational Problems and Technology: Making Technology Work for You228

Introduction    229

101 Barriers in Implementing Technology in Emergency Management   229

102 The Role of the Emergency Manager in Using

Technology    231

1021 Managing an Organization   233

103 Using Technology to Overcome Organizational Boundaries   234

104 Pitfalls of Technology   235

1041 Reliance on Technology  235

1042 Obsolescence   236

1043 Information Overload  236

1044 Data Integration  236

1045 Real?]Time Response Data   237

1046 Security   237

105 Managing the Technology  237

Summary  240

Key Terms   240

Assess Your Understanding   240

References   240

11 Trends in Technology: New Tools for Challenges to Emergency Management242

Introduction    243

111 Using Technology for Information Exchange 243

1111 Emergency Preparedness Information

Exchange    244

1112 Television and Internet Information 244

1113 Digital Libraries and Publications 244

112 Distance Learning    246

1121 Using Remote Technology   246

1122 Disaster Situational Maps   247

1123 Federal Agency Situational Mapping Programs   249

1124 Innovative Visualization Efforts 252

1125 Updating Outputs   252

113 Managing the Technology  253

1131 Organizational Coordination and Collaboration Strategies  254

1132 Technology Life Cycles  254

1133 Engaging Stakeholders  255

1134 Information Exchange  255

1135 Dealing with Information Overload 256

Summary  257

Key Terms   257

Assess Your Understanding   257

References   257

Figure Credits260

Index 261

 

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Author Information

John C. Pine, Ed.D, is a professor in the Department of Geography and Planning at Appalachian State University, and formerly Director of the Research Institute for Environment, Energy & Economics at Appalachian. He joined the Appalachian faculty in 2009 after serving thirty years at Louisiana State University in Baton Rouge where he directed a graduate and undergraduate Disaster Science and Management Program and served as a Professor with the Department of Environmental Science in the School of the Coast and Environment.

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