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Food Safety in China: Science, Technology, Management and Regulation

Joseph Jwu-Shan Jen (Editor), Junshi Chen (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-119-23796-9
696 pages
May 2017
Food Safety in China: Science, Technology, Management and Regulation (1119237963) cover image

Description

From contaminated infant formula to a spate of all-too familiar headlines in recent years, food safety has emerged as one of the harsher realities behind China's economic miracle. Tainted beef, horse meat and dioxin outbreaks in the western world have also put food safety in the global spotlight.

Food Safety in China: Science, Technology, Management and Regulation presents a comprehensive overview of the history and current state of food safety in China, along with emerging regulatory trends and the likely future needs of the country. Although the focus is on China, global perspectives are presented in the chapters and 33 of the 99 authors are from outside of China.

Timely and illuminating, this book offers invaluable insights into our understanding of a critical link in the increasingly globalized complex food supply chain of today's world.
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Table of Contents

Part 1 Introduction 1

1 Shared Responsibility of Food Safety 3
Joseph J. Jen

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 History 5

1.3 The Food Chain and Food Safety Laws 6

1.4 Current Status 8

1.5 The Future 11

2 Overview of Food Safety Situation in China 15
Junshi Chen and Zhiqiang Zhang

2.1 Introduction 15

2.2 The Past (1995–2009) 16

2.3 Present (2009–2015) 19

2.4 Major Food Safety Issues at Present 22

2.5 Looking Forward 26

2.6 Summary 27

3 Food Safety Education and Training Programs in China 29
Yao ]wen Huang

3.1 Introduction 29

3.2 Definitions of Food Safety Problems 30

3.3 Food Poisoning Incidents 31

3.4 Food Safety Education and Training 32

3.5 Summary 41

4 Development of the Food Industry in China 43
Suhe Meng and Joseph J. Jen

4.1 Introduction 43

4.2 Background Information 43

4.3 Current Status 45

4.5 Challenges 48

4.6 Future Development 50

Part 2 Food Microbiology 53

5 Food-borne Diseases and Surveillance 55
Yunchang Guo, Shuyu Wu and Jianghui Zhu

5.1 Introduction 55

5.2 The Past (–2010) 56

5.3 Present (2010~) 57

5.4 The Future 60

5.5 Brief Summary 61

6 Food-borne Pathogenic Bacteria 65
Xianming Shi, Yanping Xie and Xiujuan Zhou

6.1 Introduction to Bacterial Food Poisoning 65

6.2 Important Food-borne Pathogenic Bacteria 66

6.3 Frequent Vehicles of Food-borne Pathogens 70

6.4 Prevention and Control of Bacterial Food Poisoning 73

6.5 Principles of Prevention and Control 74

6.6 Future Aspects 76

6.7 Risk Assessment of Food-borne Pathogens 77

7 Mycotoxins in China: Occurrence and Exposure 83
Yunyun Gong, Fengqin Li and Michael N. Routledge

7.1 Introduction to Mycotoxins 83

7.2 Aflatoxin 84

7.3 Fumonisins 87

7.4 DON 89

7.5 T-2 Toxin 92

7.6 ZEN 92

7.7 Combined Exposures 94

7.8 Regulations, Control and Surveillance 95

7.9 Challenges 96

8 Viruses 103
Jennifer L. Cannon, Lingling Liu and Wei Kang

8.1 Introduction 103

8.2 Overview of Specific Food-borne Viruses Important in China and Globally 104

8.3 The Current Status of Food-borne Viruses in China 111

8.4 Future Perspectives for Food-borne Viruses in China 117

9 Food-borne Parasitic Diseases in China 127
Xue Bai, Xiaolei Liu, Xiaonong Zhou, Jiaxu Chen, Xiuping Wu, Pascal Boireau and Mingyuan Liu

9.1 Epidemic Features of Major Food-borne Parasitic Diseases in China 129

9.2 Diagnostic Technologies for Food-borne Parasitic Diseases in China 134

9.3 Management and Regulation of Food-borne Parasitic Diseases in China 138

10 Natural Antimicrobials from Herbs and Spices 147
P. Michael Davidson

10.1 Food Preservation 147

10.2 Antimicrobial Food Preservatives 147

10.3 Spices and Herbs as Natural Antimicrobials 148

10.4 Considerations in Using Essential Oils as Natural Antimicrobials in Foods 156

11 Antimicrobial Resistance in Food-Related Bacteria 163
Fengqin Li and Seamus Fanning

11.1 Introduction 163

11.2 Salmonella Species 165

11.3 Escherichia coli 169

11.4 Staphylococcus aureus 171

11.5 Campylobacter species 172

11.6 Listeria monocytogenes 173

11.7 Enterococcus species 176

11.8 Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) 178

11.9 Concluding Remarks and Future Direction in China 179

Part 3 Food Chemistry 185

12 Food Additives 187
Baoguo Sun and Jing Wang

12.1 Introduction 187

12.2 The Development History of Food Additives 189

12.3 The Status Quo for Food Additives 192

12.4 The Status and Development of Food Additives in Foreign Countries 196

12.5 The Development Trend of Food Additives in the Future 198

13 Pesticide Residues 201
Xiongwu Qiao

13.1 Introduction 201

13.2 The Impact of Pesticide Residues on Food Safety 201

13.3 Past Events and Evolution of Pesticide Residue Issues: Changing Across the Centuries 202

13.4 The Current Status of Pesticide Residues in Food Safety and Management Measures 210

13.5 The Future of Risk Management for Pesticide Residues in Foods 213

14 Veterinary Drug Residues in China 219
Zhenling Zeng, Fan Yang and Liqi Wang

14.1 Introduction 219

14.2 The Regulations Used in China to Prevent and Control Veterinary Drug Residues 221

14.3 The Measures Used in China to Prevent and Control Veterinary Drug Residues 222

14.4 Measures and Policies that Should be Applied in Future to Monitor and Control Veterinary Drug Residues in China 227

15 Heavy Metal Contamination 237
Dajin Yang, Kai Zhao, Fabrizis Suarez, Lawrence Pacquette and Daniel Schmitz

15.1 Food Safety Concerns in the Past 238

15.2 Heavy Metal Contamination at Present 244

15.3 Prospects for Heavy Metal Contamination Control 247

16 Food Fraud 253
Yongning Wu, Hong Miao, Bing Shao, Jing Zhang, John W. Spink and Douglas C. Moyer

16.1 Introduction 253

16.2 Overview of Food Fraud in China 255

16.3 Influential Factors and Characteristics of Food Fraud in China 257

16.4 China’s Management of Food Fraud 258

16.5 The Future of Combating Food Fraud 262

16.6 Conclusion 267

Part 4 Risk Assessment and Communication 271

17 Risk Assessment in China: Capacity Building and Practices 273
Ning Li and Zhaoping Liu

17.1 Introduction 273

17.2 Laws on Risk Assessment in China 274

17.3 Risk Assessment Organizations in China 275

17.4 Capacity Building for Risk Assessment 275

17.5 Practices and Roles of Risk Assessment in China 276

17.6 Gaps and the Future 283

18 Microbiological Risk Assessment in Food 287
Xinan Jiao, Jianghui Zhu, Jinlin Huang and Qingli Dong

18.1 Overview of Microbiological Risk Assessment in Food 287

18.2 Basic Procedures for Food Microbiological Risk Assessment 291

18.3 Achievements and Shortcomings of Food Quantitative Microbiological Risk Assessment 295

18.4 Future Outlook for Food Microbiological Risk Assessment 299

19 Food Safety Risk Communication Practices and Exploration in China 307
Kai Zhong and Yue Zheng

19.1 The Importance of Food Safety Risk Communication 307

19.2 Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs) and Consciousness of Public Rights 309

19.3 The Rise of the New Media Era and Opinion Leaders 310

19.4 The Proposal of Social Participation and the Concept of Cooperated and Joint Efforts 311

19.5 The Germination Stage of Government Agencies Risk Communication System 312

19.6 The Food Division of the Health and Family Planning Commission has Set Up a Risk Communication Position 313

19.7 The Current Situation of Food Safety Risk Communication in China 314

19.8 Future Perspectives for Risk Communication 318

20 Consumer Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior Toward Food Safety 323
Li Bai and Shunlong Gong

20.1 Introduction 323

20.2 Materials and Methods 324

20.3 Consumer Perception and Confidence in Food Safety 324

20.4 Consumer Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior Toward Safe Food Purchase 327

20.5 Home Food Safety and Consumer Knowledge, Attitude and Behavior 331

20.6 Discussion and Future Research 335

20.7 Conclusions 337

Part 5 Risk Management 345

21 Food Safety Laws and Regulations 347
Yunbo Luo and Guangfeng Wu

21.1 Overview: The Importance of Laws and Regulations for Food Safety 347

21.2 History 349

21.3 Current Situation (January 2014 to June 2015) 353

21.4 The Future 358

22 Food Safety Standards 363
Zhutian Wang, Yongxiang Fan, Zhe Zhang and Samuel Godefroy

22.1 China’s Food Standards before Promulgation of the Food Safety Law 363

22.2 Setup and Development of the Food Safety Standard System 370

22.3 Future Directions and Trends in Food Safety Standards Development 376

22.4 Conclusion 379

23 Lessons for China from US Food Safety History 381
Fred Gale and Sandra Hoffmann

23.1 Introduction 381

23.2 Food Safety Then and Now 382

23.3 Urbanization and Food Safety 383

23.4 Development of US Food Safety Regulation 384

23.5 Lessons from History 386

23.6 Concluding Remarks 391

24 Food Safety Regulatory Inspection in China 397
Zhenhua Gu, Congqian Qiu and Zhinong Yan

24.1 Overview of Food Safety Regulatory Inspection 397

24.2 The History of Chinese Food Safety Regulatory Inspection 399

24.3 The Current Status of Food Safety Regulatory Inspection 405

24.4 The Future of Food Safety Regulatory Inspection 408

24.5 Global Food Safety Regulatory Systems and their Relevance to China 409

25 Food Safety in Restaurants and Catering 419
Zhaohui Ma and Duncan Lap ]Yan Tung

25.1 Introduction 419

25.2 Changes in Food Safety in Catering in the Past 10 Years 422

25.3 Current Food Safety in Catering 427

25.4 The Future of Food Safety in Catering 430

25.5 Food Safety Regulatory Systems in Other Countries 433

26 Food Safety and International Trade: Regulatory Challenges 439
Shawn S. Arita, Fred Gale and Xuedan Mao

26.1 Introduction 439

26.2 Overview of China’s SPS regime 440

26.3 Case Study: China’s Experience Regulating Beta Agonists at Home and at the Border 443

26.4 Conclusion 448

Part 6 Commodities 453

27 Meat Safety in China 455
Guanghong Zhou, Keping Ye and Ronald Keith Tume

27.1 Introduction 455

27.2 Hazards Associated with Meat Safety in China 456

27.3 Control Technologies for Meat Safety 464

27.4 Ensuring Meat is Safe to Eat 468

27.5 Summary 470

28 A New Epoch of Dairy Product Safety in China 477
Yujun Jiang and Jin Yue

28.1 Food Safety is the Top Priority for Dairy Products 477

28.2 Crises Create Concerns: The History of China’s Dairy Product Safety 478

28.3 Reinforcing Management and Pursuing Safety: The Present Status of China’s Dairy Products 483

28.4 Metamorphosis in a New Epoch: The Future of DP Safety in China 485

29 The Importance of Food Safety for Fruits and Vegetables 489
Xiaosong Hu, Fang Chen, Pan Wang and Zhao Chen

29.1 The Present Situation for Fruit and Vegetable Safety, Domestic and Abroad 489

29.2 Pre-Harvest Routes for Fresh Produce Contamination in Soils 490

29.3 Post-Harvest Routes for Fresh Produce Contamination 495

29.4 Global Perspective 498

30 Safety of Fats and Oils 503
Yu Wang, Bo ]Yang Hsu, Chi ]Tang Ho and Lucy Sun Hwang

30.1 Introduction to Lipids 503

30.2 Safety of Saturated Fat 503

30.3 Safety of Trans Fat 504

30.4 3-Chloro-1,2-Propanediol and Glycidol Fatty Acid Esters 509

30.5 Safety Issues of Fat-Soluble Components and Contaminants 511

31 Grain and Grain Products Safety 521
Xiaonan Sui, Yan Zhang, Zhongjiang Wang, Baokun Qi, Yang Li and Lianzhou Jiang

31.1 Introduction 521

31.2 Past Grain Safety Problems in China 521

31.3 Current Grain Safety Problems in China 524

31.4 Potential Future Grain Safety Problems in China 529

31.5 Conclusion 531

32 Food Safety Aspects of Aquatic Products in China 537
Felicia Kow and Junrong Liu

32.1 Chinese Aquatic Products: Supply and Consumption 537

32.2 Development of Chinese Aquatic Product Quality 540

32.3 Current Status 547

32.4 Gaining Consumer Confidence on Food Safety 549

Part 7 New Technology 559

33 Food Safety Traceability 561
Yimin Wei, Boli Guo, Hongyan Liu, Shuai Wei and Jianrong Zhang

33.1 Introduction 561

33.2 Legal Regulations 562

33.3 Food Safety Traceability System 564

33.4 Food Traceability and Verification Technology 565

33.5 Problems and Recommendations 569

34 New Techniques for Genetically Engineered Organism Analysis 575
Litao Yang, Dabing Zhang and Sheng Quan

34.1 Status of GEO Commercialization 575

34.2 The Worldwide Regulations for GEO Labeling 576

34.3 Currently Used Methods and Technologies for GEO Analysis 578

34.4 Standardization of GEO Detection Methods 586

34.5 Database for GEO Analysis 587

34.6 Prospects 587

35 Safety of Food Contact Materials and Articles in China 593
Rongfang Chen and Yanyun Zhao

35.1 Introduction 593

35.2 Legislation on Food Contact Materials in China 594

35.3 Safety of Some Food Contact Substances 600

35.4 Food Safety in the Use of Emerging Packaging Technologies and Materials 604

35.5 Challenges and Strategies for Ensuring the Safety of Food Packaging 606

36 Nanotechnology Applications to Improve Food Safety 609
Boce Zhang, Yaguang Luo and Hongda Chen

36.1 Introduction 609

36.2 Recent Advances in Nanotechnology Applications for Improving Food Safety 610

36.3 Current Efforts and Future Directions 627

Index 637

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Author Information

About the editors
Joseph J. Jen
is the co-chair of the Food Safety Expert Panel of the International Union of Food Science and Technology, chair of the Advisory Council of Bor S. Luh Food Safety Research Center, Shanghai Jaio Tong University, and the editor of Food Control. Dr. Jen was also a former undersecretary of US Department of Agriculture in charge of Research, Education and Economics.

Junshi Chen is a senior advisor at the China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment. Dr. Chen is first academician from the food science and nutrition field in China, and the most respected scientist in these fields. He is also the official representative of China for the CODEX Alimentarius.

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