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Combustion Technology: Essentials of Flames and Burners

ISBN: 978-1-119-24178-2
350 pages
October 2016
Combustion Technology: Essentials of Flames and Burners (1119241782) cover image

Description

A comprehensive review of the fundamentals aspects of combustion, covering fundamental thermodynamics and chemical kinetics through to practical burners.  It provides a detailed analysis of the basic ideas and design characteristics of burners for gaseous, liquid and solid fuels. End of chapter review questions help the reader to evaluate their understanding of both the fundamental as well as the application aspects. Furthermore, a chapter on alternative renewable fuels has been included to bring out the need, characteristics and usage of alternative fuels along with fossil fuels. A section on future trends in fuels and burners is also provided. Several key research articles have been cited in the text and listed in the references.

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Table of Contents

Preface v

Acknowledgements vii

1. Introduction 1–14

1.1. Combustion Process – Basic Definitions 1

1.2. Types of Fuels and Their Characteristics 3

1.2.1. Gaseous Fuels 4

1.2.2. Liquid Fuels 6

1.2.3. Solid Fuels 9

1.3. Modes of Combustion Processes 11

1.4. Emissions and Environment 13

1.5. Suggested Reading 14

Review Questions 14

2. Review of Combustion Thermodynamics 15–48 and Kinetics

2.1. Combustion Stoichiometry 15

2.2. First Law Applied to Combustion 20

2.2.1. Standard Enthalpy 21

2.2.2. Standard Heat of Reaction 23

2.2.3. Adiabatic Flame Temperature 26

2.3. Second Law Applied to Combustion 29

2.3.1. Equilibrium Constant [6, 7, 12] 34

2.3.2. Determination of Equilibrium Composition 35

2.3.3. Equilibrium Flame Temperature 36

2.4. Chemical Kinetics 38

2.4.1. Types of Reactions 38

2.4.2. Reaction Mechanisms [11, 12] 40

2.4.3. Rate Equations 41

Review Questions 48

3. Review of Combustion Phenomena 49–104

3.1. Premixed Flames [1, 2, 5, 7, 11, 12] 49

3.1.1. Laminar Premixed Flames and Flame Speed 51

3.1.2. Basic Characteristics of Turbulent Premixed Flames 62

3.1.3. Stability of Premixed Flames 67

3.1.4. Quenching Distance 70

3.2. Non-premixed Flames 71

3.2.1. Laminar Jet Diffusion Flames 72

3.2.2. Turbulent Diffusion Flames 75

3.2.3. Flame Height Correlations 76

3.3. Flames from Condensed Fuels 83

3.3.1. Evaporation and Burning of Isolated Fuel Droplets 85

3.3.2. Combustion of a Carbon Particle [2, 3, 6, 7, 12] 97

Review Questions 102

4. Burners for Gaseous Fuels 105–138

4.1. Classifications 106

4.2. Co-flow Burners 109

4.3. Swirl Burners 120

4.4. Atmospheric Entrained Air Burners 124

4.5. Stability, Performance and Emission Characteristics 126

4.6. Design Procedure 129

4.7. Several Design Concepts 136

Review Questions 137

5. Burners for Liquid Fuels 139–171

5.1. Types of Liquid Fuel Burners 139

5.2. Basics of Atomization [10, 19] 148

5.2.1. Types of Atomizers [19] 150

5.2.2. Correlations for Droplet Diameters 160

5.3. Introduction to Spray Combustion [9, 10, 19] 163

5.4. General Design Procedure 167

5.5. Operation of Liquid Fuel Burners 169

Review Questions 171

6. Solid Fuel Systems 173–212

6.1. Combustion of Solid Fuels [2, 20] 173

6.1.1. Grate Burners, Fluidized Beds and Pulverized Burners [2, 16, 20] 175

6.1.2. Design, Performance and Emission Characteristics 179

6.2. Gasification of Solid Fuels [16, 20] 205

6.2.1. Types of Gasification Systems 207

6.2.2. Design, Performance and Emission Characteristics 208

Review Questions 211

7. Alternative Fuels 213–219

7.1. Production and Characterization of Alternative Fuels 214

7.2. Performance and Emission Characteristics 216

7.3. Future Scope 218

Review Questions 219

Suggested Reading 221–222

Index 223–225

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