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Advanced Ceramic Materials

ISBN: 978-1-119-24244-4
448 pages
August 2016
Advanced Ceramic Materials (1119242444) cover image

Description

Ceramic materials are inorganic and non-metallic porcelains, tiles, enamels, cements, glasses and refractory bricks. Today, "ceramics" has gained a wider meaning as a new generation of materials influence on our lives; electronics, computers, communications, aerospace and other industries rely on a number of their uses. In general, advanced ceramic materials include electro-ceramics, optoelectronic-ceramics, superconductive ceramics and the more recent development of piezoelectric and dielectric ceramics. They can be considered for their features including mechanical properties, decorative textures, environmental uses, energy applications, as well as their usage in bio-ceramics, composites, functionally graded materials, intelligent ceramics and so on.

Advanced Ceramic Materials brings together a group of subject matter experts who describe innovative methodologies and strategies adopted in the research and development of the advanced ceramic materials. The book is written for readers from diverse backgrounds across chemistry, physics, materials science and engineering, medical science, pharmacy, environmental technology, biotechnology, and biomedical engineering. It offers a comprehensive view of cutting-edge research on ceramic materials and technologies.

Divided into 3 parts concerning design, composites and functionality, the topics discussed include:

  • Chemical strategies of epitaxial oxide ceramics nanomaterials
  • Biphasic, triphasic and multiphasic calcium orthophosphates
  • Microwave assisted processing of advanced ceramic composites
  • Continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites
  • Yytria and magnesia doped alumina ceramic
  • Oxidation induced crack healing
  • SWCNTs vs MWCNTs reinforcement agents
  • Organic and inorganic wastes in clay brick production
  • Functional tantalum oxides
  • Application of silver tin research on hydroxyapatite
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Table of Contents

Preface xiii

Part 1 Design, Processing, and Properties

1 Development of Epitaxial Oxide Ceramics Nanomaterials Based on Chemical Strategies on Semiconductor Platforms 3
A. Carretero-Genevrier, R. Bachelet, G. Saint-Girons, R. Moalla, J. M. Vila-Fungueiriño, B. Rivas-Murias, F. Rivadulla, J. Rodriguez-Carvajal, A. Gomez, J. Gazquez, M. Gich and N. Mestres

1.1 Introduction 4

1.2 Integration of Epitaxial Functional Oxides Nanomaterials on Silicon Entirely Performed by Chemical Solution Strategies 8

1.2.1 Integration of Piezoelectric Quartz Thin Films on Silicon by Soft Chemistry 10

1.2.2 Controllable Textures of Epitaxial Quartz Thin Films 13

1.2.3 Integration of Functional Oxides by Quartz Templating 17

1.2.4 Highly Textured ZnO Thin Films 21

1.3 Integration of Functional Oxides by Combining Soft Chemistry and Physical Techniques 22

1.4 Conclusions 23

Acknowledgments 26

References 26

2 Biphasic, Triphasic, and Multiphasic Calcium Orthophosphates 33
Sergey V. Dorozhkin

2.1 Introduction 34

2.2 General Definitions and Knowledge 38

2.3 Various Types of Biphasic, Triphasic, and Multiphasic CaPO4 40

2.4 Stability 42

2.5 Preparation 44

2.6 Properties 51

2.7 Biomedical Applications 53

2.8 Conclusions 59

References 60

3 An Energy Efficient Processing Route for Advance Ceramic Composites Using Microwaves 97
Satnam Singh, Dheeraj Gupta and Vivek Jain

3.1 Introduction 98

3.2 Historical Developments in Materials Processing by Microwaves 99

3.3 Introduction to Microwave Heating Process 101

3.3.1 Microwave–materials Interaction Theory 102

3.3.2 Microwave Heating Mechanisms 104

3.4 Heating Methods by Microwaves 107

3.4.1 Direct Microwave Heating 107

3.4.2 Microwave Hybrid Heating 108

3.4.3 Selective Heating 109

3.4.4 Microwave-assisted Processing of Materials 109

3.5 Advantages/Limitations of Microwave Material Processing 110

3.5.1 Highly Energy Efficient Processing Method 110

3.5.2 Better Quality of Processed Materials 113

3.5.3 Cleaner Energy Processing 114

3.5.4 Compact Processing Unit 114

3.5.5 Restriction in Processing of All Varieties of Materials 115

3.5.6 Restrictions in Processing of Complex Shapes 115

3.5.7 Non-uniformity in Heating 115

3.5.8 Human Safety Issues 115

3.6 Application of Microwave Heating in

Composite Processing 116

3.6.1 Recent Review of Work Carried Out in MMC/CMC/Alloys/Ceramic Processing by Microwaves 119

3.6.2 Microwave Melting/Casting of Metals/Metal Matrix Composites 127

3.7 Future Prospectives 130

3.8 Conclusion 133

References 133

Part 2 Composites: Fundamentals and Frontiers

4 Continuous Fiber-reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites 147
Rebecca Gottlieb, Shannon Poges, Chris Monteleone and Steven L. Suib

4.1 Introduction 148

4.2 Parts of a CMC 149

4.2.1 Fibers 150

4.2.2 Interphase 151

4.2.3 Matrix 152

4.3 Modern Uses of CMCs 154

4.4 History 155

4.5 Ceramic Fibers 158

4.5.1 Oxide Fibers 158

4.5.1.1 Alumina Fibers 159

4.5.1.2 Stabilized Alumina Fibers 160

4.5.1.3 Alumina Silicate Fibers 160

4.5.1.4 Other Oxide Fibers 164

4.5.2 Non-oxide Fibers (SiC) 164

4.5.2.1 Oxidation 164

4.5.2.2 Irradiation 165

4.5.2.3 Sintering 165

4.5.3 Carbon Fibers 166

4.5.3.1 Polyacrylonitrile 167

4.5.3.2 Pitch 167

4.6 Interface/Interphase 168

4.6.1 Requirements 169

4.6.2 Non-oxide 170

4.6.3 Oxide 171

4.7 Matrix Materials 172

4.7.1 Carbon 172

4.7.2 Silicon Carbide 175

4.7.3 Oxides 178

4.8 Matrix Fabrication Techniques 179

4.8.1 Polymer Impregnation and Pyrolysis 180

4.8.2 Chemical Vapor Infiltration 181

4.8.3 Melt Infiltration 183

4.8.4 Slurry Infiltration 184

4.8.5 Metal Oxidation 185

4.9 Toughness of CMCs 185

4.9.1 Fiber/Matrix Interface 186

4.9.2 Modes of Failure 186

4.9.3 Energy-Absorbing Mechanisms 187

4.9.4 Stress Testing of Composites 188

4.10 Applications 188

4.10.1 Brakes and Friction 190

4.10.2 Biomedical Applications 191

Acknowledgments 193

References 193

5 Yytria- and Magnesia-doped Alumina Ceramic Reinforced with Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes 201
Iftikhar Ahmad and Yanqiu Zhu

5.1 Introduction 202

5.2 Dispersions and Stability of MWCNTs 202

5.3 Influence of Yytria (Y2O3) Doping on MWCNT/Al2O3 Nanocomposites 205

5.3.1 Densification and Microstructure Development 205

5.3.2 Mechanical Performance and Toughening Mechanism 210

5.4 Magnesia (MgO)-Tuned MWCNT/Al2O3 Nanocomposites 215

5.4.1 Role of MgO on the Densification and Microstructural Features 215

5.4.2 Effect of MgO on the Grain Size and Fracture Behavior 217

5.4.3 Mechanical Response of MgO-Doped MWCNT/Al2O3   Nanocomposite 221

5.5 Conclusions 225

Acknowledgments 226

References 227

6 Oxidation-induced Crack Healing in MAX Phase Containing Ceramic Composites 231
Guoping Bei and Peter Greil

6.1 History of Crack Healing in Ceramics 232

6.2 High-temperature Crack Healing in MAX Phases 233

6.2.1 MAX Phases 233

6.2.2 Crack Healing in Al-contained MAX Phases 234

6.2.2.1 Ti3AlC2 234

6.2.2.2 Ti2AlC 235

6.2.2.3 Cr2AlC 238

6.3 Lower-temperature Crack Healing in MAX Phase-based Ceramics 241

6.3.1 Oxidation Behavior of Ti2Al(1–x)SnxC MAX Phase Solid-solution Powders 241

6.3.2 Oxidation-induced Crack Healing in Thermal-shocked Ti2SnC MAX Phase 244

6.3.3 Crack Healing in Ti2Al0.5Sn0.5C–Al2O3 Composites 249

6.4 Conclusions 255

Acknowledgments 256

References 256

7 SWCNTs versus MWCNTs as Reinforcement Agents in Zirconia- and Alumina-based Nanocomposites: Which One to Use 261
M.H. Bocanegra-Bernal, C. Dominguez-Rios, A. Garcia-Reyes, A. Aguilar-Elguezabal and J. Echeberria

7.1 Introduction 262

7.2 Single-walled Carbon Nanotubes 266

7.3 Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes 269

7.4 The Effects of CNTs Types on the Mechanical Properties of Al2O3- and ZrO2-based Ceramics 274

7.5 Why SWCNTs? or Why MWCNTs? 285

7.6 Conclusions 287

Acknowledgments 289

References 289

Part 3 Functional and Applied Ceramics

8 Application of Organic and Inorganic Wastes in Clay Brick Production: A Chemometric Approach 301
Milica V. Vasić, Zagorka Radojević, and Lato Pezo

8.1 Introduction 302

8.2 Materials and Methods 305

8.2.1 Raw Materials and Laboratory Brick Samples 305

8.2.2 Macro Oxides Content of the Used Raw Materials 306

8.2.3 Response Surface Method 307

8.2.4 Fuzzy Synthetic Evaluation Algorithm 308

8.2.5 Artificial Neural Network modeling 309

8.3 Results and Discussion 312

8.3.1 Characteristics of Raw Materials 312

8.3.2 Changes Observed in Shaping and Drying in the Air 314

8.3.3 Characteristics of Fired Products 318

8.3.4 RSM and ANOVA Analysis 321

8.3.5 Neurons in the ANN Hidden Layer 323

8.3.6 Simulation of the ANNs 325

8.3.7 Principal Component Analysis 328

8.3.8 Optimization 330

8.4 Conclusions 331

Acknowledgments 332

References 332

9 Functional Tantalum-based Oxides: From the Structure to the Applications 337
Sebastian Zlotnik, Alexander Tkach and Paula M. Vilarinho

9.1 Functional Materials: Current Needs 338

9.2 Importance of Tantalum and Tantalum-based Oxides 342

9.3 Properties of Alkali Tantalates 343

9.3.1 Crystal and Electronic Structures 343

9.3.2 Thermochemistry 347

9.4 Processing of Alkali Tantalate Ceramics for Electronic Applications 351

9.5 Potential Applications of Alkali Tantalates 358

9.5.1 Sodium Tantalate as a Photocatalyst 358

9.5.2 Lithium Tantalate as a Piezoelectric Biomaterial 366

9.6 Conclusions 370

Acknowledgement 371

References 371

10 Application of Silver Tin Research on Hydroxyapatite 385
Ewa Skwarek

10.1 Introduction 386

10.1.1 Properties of Silver 386

10.1.2 Application of Silver 387

10.1.3 Hydroxyapatite (HAP)–Silver 391

10.2 Materials and Methods 399

10.2.1 Synthesis of Hydroxyapatite Using the Co-precipitation  Method 399

10.2.2 Synthesis of Silver-doped Hydroxyapatite 400

10.2.3 Characteristics of Surfaces of Obtained Materials 400

10.3 Results and Discussion 402

10.3.1 The Results of XRD and Surface 402

10.3.2 Zeta Potential at the Hydroxyapatite/NaNO3 Electrolyte Solution Interface 404

10.3.3 Surface Charge Density 408

10.3.4 Adsorption of Silver Ions on Hydroxyapatite 410

10.3.5 Kinetics of Ag+ Ions Adsorption on the Hydroxyapatite Surface 413

10.4 Conclusion 414

References 415

Index 419

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Author Information

Ashutosh Tiwari is Secretary General, International Association of Advanced Materials; Chairman and Managing Director of Tekidag AB (Innotech); Associate Professor and Group Leader, Smart Materials and Biodevices at the world premier Biosensors and Bioelectronics Centre, IFM-Linköping University; Editor-in-Chief, Advanced Materials Letters; a materials chemist and docent in the Applied Physics with the specialization of Biosensors and Bioelectronics from Linköping University, Sweden. He has more than 100 peer-reviewed primary research publications in the field of materials science and nanotechnology and has edited/authored more than 35 books on advanced materials and technology. He is the founder member and chair of American, Asian, European and Advanced Materials World Congress, Smart Materials and Surfaces, Global & European Graphene Forum, International Conference on Smart Energy Technologies, International Conference on Material Science and Technology and World Technology Forum.

Rosario A. Gerhardt is currently Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology, where she has taught introductory materials science to over 2000 undergraduates over the years. She was named Goizueta Foundation Faculty Chair in 2015 in recognition of her teaching, research and service contributions.  She was also the recipient of an IAAM Medal in 2015. Her research group has characterized the properties and microstructure of many materials including porous silica, bulk ferroelectrics and thin film heterostructures, as well as numerous ceramic matrix and polymer matrix composites as a function of size, shape and distribution of the fillers

Magdalena Szutkowska isaProfessor at the Institute of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and head of the Materials Testing Laboratory, Cracow, Poland. She also served for six years as the Head of the Department of Engineering and Materials Technology at the Pedagogical University of Cracow. She is currently involved in the manufacturing and testing of new composite ceramics based on alumina, hard metals and superhard materials in order to improve the fracture toughness of ceramics designed for cutting tools.
She is the author and co-author of more than 120 papers, three monographs, a few chapters in books and the co-author of 5 patents. She has been awarded the Golden Cross of Merit by the President of the Polish Republic and honoured with the prestigious "IAAM Scientist Award".

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