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Advanced Materials Interfaces

Ashutosh Tiwari (Editor), Hirak K. Patra (Editor), Xuemei Wang (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-119-24274-1
528 pages
July 2016
Advanced Materials Interfaces (1119242746) cover image

Description

Advanced Material Interfaces is a state-of-the-art look at innovative methodologies and strategies adopted for interfaces and their applications. The 13 chapters are written by eminent researchers not only elaborate complex interfaces fashioned of solids, liquids, and gases, but also ensures cross-disciplinary mixture and blends of physics, chemistry, materials science, engineering and life sciences. Advanced interfaces operate fundamental roles in essentially all integrated devices. It is therefore of the utmost urgency to focus on how newly-discovered fundamental constituents and interfacial progressions can be materialized and used for precise purposes. Interfaces are associated in wide multiplicity of application spectrum from chemical catalysis to drug functions and the advancement is funnelled by fine-tuning of our fundamental understanding of the interface effects.
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Table of Contents

Preface xv

Part 1 Interfaces Design, fabrication, and properties

1 Mixed Protein/Polymer Nanostructures at Interfaces 3
Aristeidis Papagiannopoulos and Stergios Pispas

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Neutral and Charged Macromolecules at Interfaces 4

1.3 Interfacial Experimental Methods 7

1.4 Interactions of Proteins with Polymer-Free Interfaces 9

1.5 Polymers and Proteins in Solution 11

1.6 Proteins at Polymer-Modified Interfaces 14

1.6.1 Steric Effects 15

1.6.2 Polyelectrolyte Multilayers: Electrostatic Nature of Interactions 21

1.6.3 Counterion Release: Charge Anisotropy 23

1.7 Protein-Loaded Interfaces with Potential for Applications 26

1.8 Conclusions 30

References 30

2 Exploitation of Self-Assembly Phenomena in Liquid-Crystalline Polymer Phases for Obtaining Multifunctional Materials 37
M. Giamberini and G. Malucelli

2.1 Introduction 37

2.2 Amphiphilic Self-Assembled LCPs 41

2.3 Self-Assembled LCPs Through External Stimuli 44

2.4 Supramolecular Self-Assembled LCPs 48

2.5 Self-Assembled LCPs Through Surface Effects 54

2.6 Conclusions and Perspectives 57

References 59

3 Scanning Probe Microscopy of Functional Materials Surfaces and Interfaces 63
Pankaj Sharma and Jan Seidel

3.1 Introduction 64

3.2 Scanning Probe Microscopy Approach 65

3.2.1 Piezoresponse Force Microscopy 68

3.2.1.1 Advanced Modes of PFM 73

3.2.1.2 Resonance-Enhanced PFM 73

3.2.1.3 PFM Spectroscopy and Switching Spectroscopy PFM (SS-PFM) 74

3.2.1.4 Multi-Frequency PFM 75

3.2.1.5 Enhancing Temporal Resolution 76

3.2.1.6 Stroboscopic PFM 76

3.2.1.7 High-Speed PFM 78

3.2.2 Conductive-Atomic Force Microscopy 79

3.2.3 Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy 81

3.3 Functional Material Surfaces and Interfaces 85

3.3.1 Ferroelectric Tunnel Junctions 86

3.3.2 Ferroic Domain Walls and Structural-Phase

Boundaries 93

3.3.3 Complex-Oxide Thin Films and Heterostructures 95

3.3.4 Photovoltaics 104

3.4 Conclusion and Outlook 111

References 114

4 AFM Approaches to the Study of PDMS-Au and Carbon-Based Surfaces and Interfaces 127
Giorgio Saverio Senesi, Alessandro Massaro, Angelo Galiano, and Leonardo Pellicani

4.1 Introduction 127

4.2 AFM Characterization of Micro–Nano Surfaces and Interfaces of Carbon-Based Materials and PDMS-Au Nanocomposites 130

4.3 3D Image Processing: ImageJ tools 136

4.4 Scanning Capacitance Microscopy, Kelvin Probe Microscopy, and Electromagnetic Characterization 138

4.5 AFM Artifacts 141

4.6 Conclusions (General Guidelines for Material Characterization by AFM) 143

Acknowledgments 146

References 146

5 One-Dimensional Silica Nanostructures and Metal–Silica Nanocomposites: Fabrication, Characterization, and Applications 149
Francesco Ruffino

5.1 Introduction: The Weird World of Silica Nanowires and Metal–Silica Composite Nanowires 150

5.2 Silica Nanowires: Fabrication Methodologies, Properties, and Applications 155

5.2.1 Metal-Catalyzed Growth 158

5.2.2 Oxide-Assisted Growth 174

5.3 Metal NPs-Decorated Silica Nanowires: Fabrication Methodologies, Properties, and Applications 177

5.4 Metal NPs Embedded in Silica Nanowires: Fabrication Methodologies, Properties, and Applications 188

5.5 Conclusions: Open Points and Perspectives 197

References 197

6 Understanding the Basic Mechanisms Acting on Interfaces: Concrete Elements, Materials and Techniques 205
Dimitra V. Achilllopoulou

6.1 Summary 205

6.2 Introduction 207

6.3 Existing Knowledge on Force Transfer Mechanisms on Reinforced Concrete Interfaces 212

6.3.1 Concrete Interfaces 212

6.3.2 Reinforcement Effect on Concrete Interfaces 217

6.3.3 Interfaces of Strengthened RC Structural Elements 224

6.4 International Standards 236

6.4.1 Fib Bulletin 2010 237

6.4.2 ACI 318-08 238

6.4.3 Greek Retrofit Code (Gre. Co.) Attuned to EN-1998/part 3 238

6.5 Conclusions 241

References 242

7 Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives (PSA) Based on Silicone 249
Adrian Krzysztof Antosik and Zbigniew Czech

7.1 Introduction 249

7.2 Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives 250

7.2.1 Goal of Cross-Linking 251

7.3 Significant Properties of Pressure-Sensitive Adhesives 253

7.3.1 Tack (Initial Adhesion) 253

7.3.2 Peel Adhesion (Adhesion) 254

7.3.3 Shear Strength (Cohesion) 255

7.3.4 Shrinkage 255

7.4 Silicone PSAs 256

7.4.1 Properties 256

7.4.2 Effect of Cross-LinkingAgent to the Basic

Properties Si–PSA 260

7.4.3 Application 267

7.5 Conclusion 272

References 273

Part 2 Functional Interfaces: Fundamentals and Frontiers

8 Interfacing Gelatin with (Hydr)oxides and Metal Nanoparticles: Design of Advanced Hybrid Materials for Biomedical Engineering Applications 277
Nathalie Steunou

8.1 Introduction 278

8.2 Physical Gelation of Gelatin 279

8.3 Synthesis of Gelatin-Based Hybrid Nanoparticles and Nanocomposites 282

8.3.1 Preparation of Hybrid Composites by Gelification and Complex Coacervation 282

8.3.2 Processing of Gelatin-Based Hybrid Materials into Monoliths, Films, Foams and Nanofibers 288

8.3.3 Synthesis of Hybrid and Core–Shell Nanoparticles and Nano-Objects 290

8.4 Characterization of Gelatin-Based Hybrid Nanoparticles and Nanocomposites 294

8.5 Mechanical Properties of Gelatin-Based Hybrid Nanoparticles and Nanocomposites 296

8.6 Design of Gelatin-Based Hybrid Nanoparticles for Drug Delivery 302

8.7 Design of Nanostructured Gelatin-Based Hybrid Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering and Regeneration Applications 310

8.8 Conclusions and Outlook 316

References 318

9 Implantable Materials for Local Drug Delivery in Bone Regeneration 325

9.1 Bone Morphology 325

9.2 Bone Fracture Healing Process 326

9.3 Current Materials for Bone Regeneration 327

9.3.1 Metals 329

9.3.2 Ceramics 330

9.3.2.1 Biodegradable Ceramics 330

9.3.2.2 Non-Absorbable Ceramics 332

9.3.3 Polymers 332

9.3.3.1 Natural Polymers 333

9.3.3.2 Synthetic Polymers 334

9.3.4 Composites 335

9.4 Therapeutic Molecules with Interest in Bone Regeneration 336

9.4.1 Antibiotics 337

9.4.2 Growth Factors 339

9.4.3 Bisphosphonates 340

9.4.4 Corticosteroids 341

9.4.5 Hormones 341

9.4.6 Antitumoral Drugs 341

9.4.7 Others 342

9.5 Mechanism for Loading Drugs into Implant Materials and Release Kinetics 343

9.5.1 Unspecific Adsorption 344

9.5.2 Physical Interactions 345

9.5.3 Physical Entrapment 348

9.5.4 Chemical Immobilization 350

9.6 In Vitro Drug Release Studies 350

9.6.1 Drug Release Kinetic Analysis 354

9.7 Translation to the Human Situation 355

9.8 Conclusions (Future Perspectives) 356

Acknowledgments 357

References 357

10 Interaction of Cells with Different Micrometer and Submicrometer Topographies 379
M.V. Tuttolomondo, P.N. Catalano, M.G. Bellino, and M.F. Desimone

10.1 Introduction 379

10.2 Synthesis of Substrates with Controlled Topography 380

10.3 Methods for Creating Micro- and Nanotopographical Features 381

10.4 Litography 381

10.4.1 Photolithography 381

10.4.2 Electron-Beam Lithography 382

10.4.3 Nanoimprint Lithography 383

10.4.4 Soft Lithography 384

10.5 Polymer Demixing 384

10.6 Self-Assembly 385

10.7 Cell Material Interactions 386

10.7.1 Lithography Method 386

10.7.2 Polymer Demixed 390

10.7.3 Cell Behaviour onto EISA obtained films 390

10.7.4 Biological Evidence 395

10.8 Conclusions 397

Acknowledgements 399

References 399

11 Nanomaterial—Live Cell Interface: Mechanism and Concern 405
Ark Mukhopadhyay and Hirak K. Patra

11.1 Introduction 405

11.2 Protein Destabilization 407

11.3 Nanomaterials-Induced Oxidative Stress 408

11.3.1 Transitional Metal–Oxide Nanomaterials and ROS 409

11.3.2 Prooxidant Effects of Metal Oxide Nanoparticles 409

11.3.3 CNT-Induced ROS Formation 412

11.3.3.1 CNT-Induced Inflammation and Genotoxicity and ROS 415

11.4 Nucleic Acid Damage 415

11.5 Damage to Membrane Integrity and Energy Transduction 418

11.6 Conclusions 418

References 419

12 Bioresponsive Surfaces and Interfaces Fabricated by Innovative Laser Approaches 427
F. Sima, E. Axente, C. Ristoscu, O. Gallet, K. Anselme, and I.N. Mihailescu

12.1 Introduction 428

12.2 Pulsed Laser Methods Applied for the Grown of

Inorganic and Organic Coatings 430

12.3 Combinatorial Laser Approaches: New Tool for the Fabrication of Compositional Libraries of Hybrid

Coatings 434

12.4 Thin Bioresponsive Coatings Synthesized by Lasers 437

12.4.1 Bioactive Inorganic Coatings Obtained by PLD 438

12.4.2 Bioactive Organic Coatings Obtained by MAPLE 439

12.4.3 Bioactive Inorganic–Organic Coatings Obtained by Pulsed Laser Techniques 440

12.4.4 Combinatorial Thin Coatings Libraries Synthesized by C-MAPLE 442

12.4.4.1 Tailoring Cell Signaling Response by Compositional Gradient Bioactive Coatings 442

12.4.4.2 Coatings for Protein Immobilization and Controlled Release 448

12.5 Conclusion and Perspectives 452

Acknowledgments 453

References 453

13 Polymeric and Non-Polymeric Platforms for Cell Sheet Detachment 463
Ana Civantos, Enrique Martinez-Campos, Maria E. Nash, Alberto Gallardo, Viviana Ramos and Inmaculada Aranaz

13.1 Introduction 463

13.2 The Extracellular Matrix 465

13.3 Platforms for Cell Detachment 466

13.3.1 Electroresponsive Platforms 466

13.3.1.1 Electroactive Self-Assembled Monolayers 466

13.3.1.2 Polyelectrolyte-Modified Surfaces 469

13.3.2 Light-Induced Detachment 469

13.3.2.1 Photosensitive Inorganic-Based Surfaces 469

13.3.2.2 Photosensitive Organic-Based Surfaces 471

13.3.3 pH-Sensitive Surfaces 472

13.4 Degradable Platforms 474

13.4.1 Other Detaching Systems 476

13.4.2 Mechanical Platforms 476

13.4.3 Magnetic Platforms 479

13.4.4 Thermoresponsive Platforms 479

13.4.5 Clinical Translation 485

13.5 Conclusions 487

References 487

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Author Information

Ashutosh Tiwari is Chairman and Managing Director of Tekidag AB; Group Leader, Advanced Materials and Biodevices at the world premier Biosensors and Bioelectronics Centre at IFM, Linköping University; Editor-in-Chief, Advanced Materials Letters and Advanced Materials Reviews; Secretary General, International Association of Advanced Materials; a materials chemist and docent in the Applied Physics with the specialization of Biosensors and Bioelectronics from Linköping University, Sweden. He has more than 400 publications in the field of materials science and nanotechnology with h-index of 30 and has edited/authored over 25 books on advanced materials and technology.

Hirak K Patra completed his PhD in 2007 on "Synthetic Nanoforms as Designer and Explorer for Cellular Events" at the University of Calcutta. He moved to the Applied Physics Division of Linköping University with the prestigious Integrative Regenerative Medicine fellowship at Sweden to work with the Prof. Anthony Turner at his Biosensors and Bioelectronics Center. He has published 17 articles in top journals, 4 patents, and has been honored with several ‘Young Scientist’ awards globally.

Xiumei Wang is an Associate Professor of Biomaterials at Southeast University, China.

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