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Universities as Complex Enterprises: How Academia Works, Why It Works These Ways, and Where the University Enterprise Is Headed

ISBN: 978-1-119-24487-5
216 pages
June 2016
Universities as Complex Enterprises: How Academia Works, Why It Works These Ways, and Where the University Enterprise Is Headed (1119244870) cover image

Description

Explores the nature of academic enterprises, including why they work the way they do and where such enterprises are headed, with the goal of gaining insights into where change can and will happen

This book looks at universities from a whole-enterprise perspective. It explores the steady escalation of the costs of higher education and uses a computational economic model of complex academic enterprises. This model includes component models of research, teaching, administration, and brand value. Understanding the relationships among practices, processes, structure, and ecosystem provides the basis for transforming academia, leveraging its strengths and overcoming its limitations. More specifically, this architecture helps the reader understand how various elements of the enterprise system either enable or hinder other elements of the system, all of which are embedded in a complex behavioral and social ecosystem. Each topic is explored in terms of the levels of the architecture at which it primarily functions.  Levers of change within each area are discussed, using many experiences of pursuing such issues in a range of academic enterprises.

• Provides a new methodology by taking a more systems-oriented approach to education systems as a whole

• Shows how various elements of the enterprise system either enable or hinder other elements of the system

• Offers alternative strategies for transformation of academic enterprises

Universities as Complex Enterprises: How Academia Works, Why It Works These Ways, and Where the University Enterprise Is Headed is a reference for systems scientists and engineers, economists, social scientists, and decision makers.

William B. Rouse is the Alexander Crombie Humphreys Chair within the School of Systems & Enterprises and Director of the Center for Complex Systems and Enterprises at Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, New Jersey.  He is also Professor Emeritus, and former Chair, of the School of Industrial and Systems Engineering at the Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia. Rouse has written hundreds of articles and book chapters, and has authored many books, including most recently Modeling and Visualization of Complex Systems and Enterprises (Wiley, 2015).

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Table of Contents

Preface xi

1 Introduction and Overview 1

Overall Approach, 4

Universities as Complex Systems, 5

Complex Adaptive Systems, 6

Universities as Complex Adaptive Systems, 8

Nonlinear, Dynamic Behavior, 8

Independent Agents, 8

Goals and Behaviors That Differ or Conflict, 8

Intelligent and Learning Agents, 9

Self‐Organization, 9

No Single Point(s) of Control, 9

Implications, 9

Overview of Chapters, 10

Chapter 1: Introduction and Overview, 10

Chapter 2: Evolution of the Research University, 10

Chapter 3: Mission and Structure, 10

Chapter 4: Leadership and Governance, 11

Chapter 5: Administration, 11

Chapter 6: Money and Space, 11

Chapter 7: Promotion and Tenure, 11

Chapter 8: Education Programs, 12

Chapter 9: Research and Intellectual Property, 12

Chapter 10: Rankings and Brand Value, 12

Chapter 11: Transformation Scenarios, 12

Chapter 12: Exploring the Future, 13

References, 13

2 Evolution of the Research University 15

Early Universities in Europe, 16

University of Bologna, 16

University of Paris, 17

University of Oxford, 17

University of Padua, 17

University of Cambridge, 18

Summary, 18

Early Universities in America, 19

Humboldt’s Innovation, 19

Morrill Acts, 20

Bush and NSF, 22

Engineering Science, 24

Today’s Research Universities, 24

Conclusions, 26

References, 27

3 Mission and Structure 29

Mission, 29

Athletics, 31

Structure, 32

Ecosystem: Society and Government, 32

Structure: Campuses, Colleges, Schools, and Departments, 33

Processes: Education, Research, and Service, 34

Practices: Education, Research, and Service, 35

Research Centers, 35

Appointments, 38

Conclusions, 39

References, 39

4 Leadership and Governance 41

Leadership, 42

Leadership and Change, 42

Leadership and Time, 44

Stewards of the Status Quo, 46

Leading Research Centers, 48

Leadership Experiences, 49

Governance, 51

Governing Boards, 51

Administration and Faculty, 51

Other Players, 52

Governance Experiences, 52

Conclusions, 55

References, 55

5 Administration 57

Number of Administrators and Costs, 59

Performance Evaluation, 61

Conflict Management, 64

Conflicts within Organizations, 64

Conflicts across Organizations, 64

People Conflicts, 65

Compliance and Abuse, 66

Marketing and Communications, 66

Book Series, 67

The Costs of Conformity, 67

Conclusions, 68

References, 69

6 Money and Space 71

Economics of Higher Education, 72

Value of Education, 72

Economists’ Views, 73

Government Subsidies, 74

Higher Education Bubble, 74

Public Endowment, 75

Costs of Higher Education, 75

Cost Disease, 75

Cost Analyses, 76

Indirect Costs, 77

Staffing Patterns, 77

Student and Institutional Debt, 78

Revenue: Tuition, 79

Revenue: Government Dependencies, 80

Revenue: Fundraising, 81

Fundraising Experiences, 82

Summary, 83

Lessons Learned, 83

Overall Economic Model, 85

Space, 86

Conclusions, 87

References, 87

7 Promotion and Tenure 89

Nature and Roles of Faculty, 90

Academic Disciplines, 90

Faculty Impact, 91

TT versus NTT Faculty, 92

Availability of Faculty Positions, 92

Faculty Turnover, 93

Nature of Tenure Decisions, 95

Promotion and Tenure Experiences, 97

What Really Counts, 98

Making the Case, 98

Model of Tenure Decision Making, 99

Conclusions, 103

References, 103

8 Education Programs 105

Stem Challenges, 106

Student Population, 106

Value of Education, 107

Degree Programs, 108

Curricula and Courses, 109

Delivery of Education, 110

Teaching Experiences, 112

Workforce Model, 114

Conclusions, 118

References, 119

9 Research and Intellectual Property 121

Challenges, 122

Peer Review, 122

Bibliometrics, 122

Funding, 124

Research Experiences, 125

Libraries and Networks, 125

Limits of Modeling, 125

Healthcare Delivery, 126

Interactive Visualization, 126

Government Sponsors, 127

Industry Sponsors, 127

Research Model, 128

Submission of Articles, 128

Citation of Articles, 130

Submission of Proposals, 131

Overall Model, 132

Intellectual Property, 135

Spin‐Off Experiences, 135

Conclusions, 137

References, 137

10 Rankings and Brand Value 139

Ranking Schemes, 140

Example of Moving Up, 142

Determinants of Rankings, 143

Brand Value, 146

Model of Brand Value, 146

More on Metrics, 148

Example, 149

Conclusions, 150

References, 151

11 Transformation Scenarios 153

Forces for Change, 153

Costs and Benefits, 154

Globalization, 154

A Tsunami of Talent, 156

Technology, 157

Organizational Change, 158

Theory and Practice, 159

Four Scenarios, 160

Driving Forces, 161

Clash of Titans, 161

Hot, Flat, and Crowded, 162

Lifespan Mecca, 162

Network U., 163

Implications, 163

Transforming Academia, 164

Clash of Titans, 165

Hot, Flat, and Crowded, 165

Lifespan Mecca, 166

Network U., 166

How Change Happens, 167

Conclusions, 168

References, 169

12 Exploring the Future 173

Sensitivity Analyses, 176

Scenario Variations, 180

Clash of Titans, 180

Hot, Flat, and Crowded, 180

Lifespan Mecca, 181

Network U., 181

Projections, 182

Policy Implications, 185

Across Scenarios, 185

Within Scenarios, 186

Summary, 187

Extensions, 187

Conclusions, 189

References, 189

Index 191

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