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Urban Sustainability and River Restoration: Green and Blue Infrastructure

ISBN: 978-1-119-24495-0
288 pages
December 2016, Wiley-Blackwell
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Description

Urban Sustainability and River Restoration: Green and Blue Infrastructure considers the integration of green and blue infrastructure in cities as a strategy useful for acting on causes and effects of environmental and ecological issues. River restoration projects are unique opportunities for sustainable development and smart growth of communities, providing multiple environmental, economic, and social benefits.This book analyzes initiatives and actions carried out and developed to improve environmental conditions in cities and better understand the environmental impact of (and in) dense urban areas in the United States and in Europe.
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Table of Contents

Preface ix

About the Authors xi

Acknowledgements xiii

Foreword xiv

PART A DEFINITION OF THE ISSUE 1

1 Green and Blue Infrastructure in Cities 3

1.1 Definitions 3

1.2 Economic and environmental benefits 5

References 7

2 Climate Change: Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies 10

2.1 Climate change and sustainable development 10

2.2 Impacts and risks in (of) urban areas 11

2.3 Mitigation and adaptation strategies 12

References 14

3 Environmental and Ecological Imbalances in Dense Urban Areas 17

3.1 Sustainable urban design 17

3.2 Imbalances in cities 19

3.3 Benefits connected to vegetation 20

References 22

4 Water in Urban Areas: Ecological and Environmental Issues and Strategies 26

4.1 Urbanisation and the water cycle 26

4.2 Perspectives and strategies 30

References 33

5 Ecosystem Services in Urban Areas – Social, Environmental, and Economic Benefits 36

5.1 Human activities and ecosystems 36

5.2 Green and blue infrastructure supporting ecosystem health 37

5.3 Economic value of urban ecosystems 37

References 42

PART B STRATEGIES AND TECHNIQUES 45

6 Green and Blue Infrastructure – Vegetated Systems 47

6.1 The role of GBI vegetation 47

6.2 Multifunctional ecological systems in urban areas 48

6.3 Vegetative biofilters 52

6.4 Infiltration basins 55

6.5 Bioretention Systems 56

6.6 Wetland ponds 57

6.7 Green roofs 58

References 60

7 Green and Blue Infrastructure – Unvegetated Systems 63

7.1 Unvegetated green and blue infrastructure 63

7.2 Water squares 64

7.3 Porous paving/pervious paving 66

7.4 Infiltration trenches 67

7.5 Treatment train 70

References 73

8 Urban River Restoration 76

8.1 Watershed processes and functions 76

8.2 Degraded river ecosystems 77

8.3 Techniques and strategies for river restoration 80

8.4 Restoring connectivity within urbanised areas 84

References 87

9.1 The Bronx River, USA – Strategies and Techniques 93

9.1.1 Context 93

9.1.2 Ecological and environmental issues 98

9.1.3 Strategies, techniques and results 99

References 104

9.2 Los Angeles River, USA – Strategies and Techniques 106

9.2.1 Context 106

9.2.2 Ecological and environmental issues 109

9.2.3 Strategies and techniques 111

References 115

9.3 Madrid Río, Spain – Strategies and Techniques 117

9.3.1 Context 117

9.3.2 Ecological and environmental issues 120

9.3.3 Strategies, techniques, and results 121

References 126

9.4 Paillon River, France – Strategies and Techniques 127

9.4.1 Context 127

9.4.2 Ecological and environmental issues 129

9.4.3 Strategies, techniques, and results 133

References 137

9.5 River Thames, England – Strategies and Technique 138

9.5.1 Context 138

9.5.2 Ecological and environmental issues 141

9.5.3 Strategies and techniques 145

References 149

9.6 Emscher River, Germany – Strategies and Techniques 151

9.6.1 Context 151

9.6.2 Ecological and environmental issues 154

9.6.3 Strategies, techniques, and results 155

References 158

PART C OPPORTUNITIES AND POLICIES 161

10 Green and Blue Infrastructure Top?]Down Policies 163

10.1 European environmental and water policy 163

10.2 American environmental and water policy 168

References 173

11 Bottom?]Up Initiatives for Green and Blue Infrastructure 177

11.1 Bottom?]up and top?]down approaches 177

11.2 Bottom?]up initiatives in the United States 178

11.3 Bottom?]up initiatives in the European Union 185

References 187

12 Selection of Management Practices and Guidelines 190

12.1 Sustainable urban development 190

12.2 Best Management Practices (BMPs) 191

12.3 Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) strategies 193

12.4 Low Impact Development (LID) 195

12.5 Sustainable Drainage System (SuDS) 198

References 200

13.1 The Bronx River, USA – Opportunities and Policies 203

13.1.1 Project development 203

13.1.2 The greenway 208

13.1.3 Policies and local community 210

References 212

13.2 Los Angeles River, USA – Opportunities and Policies 214

13.2.1 River revitalization plans 214

13.2.2 Costs and benefits 220

13.2.3 Community involvement 224

References 225

13.3 Madrid Río, Spain – Opportunities and Policies 227

13.3.1 Project development 227

13.3.2 Project costs and benefits 231

References 233

13.4 Paillon River, France – Opportunities and Policies 235

13.4.1 Framework of French water policies 235

13.4.2 Local policies and projects 236

References 242

13.5 River Thames, England – Opportunities and Policies 244

13.5.1 Water policy framework and planning strategies 244

13.5.2 Local policies and projects 247

13.5.3 Project costs and benefits 250

References 254

13.6 Emscher River, Germany – Opportunities and Policies 256

13.6.1 Project development 256

13.6.2 Policies and participation 262

13.6.3 Project costs and benefits 263

References 264

Index 266

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