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Construction Science and Materials, 2nd Edition

Surinder Singh Virdi, Robert Waters (Contributions by)
ISBN: 978-1-119-24510-0
352 pages
January 2017, Wiley-Blackwell
Construction Science and Materials, 2nd Edition (1119245109) cover image

Description

Construction Science & Materials is designed to cover topics studied at levels 2 – 5 on Construction HND courses and is also suitable for first year undergraduates on construction courses as well as Building surveying, Architectural Technology and Quantity Surveying. It is an essential text for those who have done no science since their GCSEs.
Divided into 17 chapters, each with written explanations supplemented by solved examples and relevant diagrams to substantiate the text. Chapters end with numerical questions covering a range of problems and their answers are given at the end of the book and on the book’s website.

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Table of Contents

Preface to the second edition xv

About the companion website xvii

1 Introduction to Physics 1

1.1 Speed and Velocity 1

1.2 Acceleration 1

1.3 Mass 2

1.4 Gravitation 2

1.5 Weight 3

1.6 Volume 4

1.7 Density 4

1.8 Specific Gravity 6

1.9 Newton’s First Law of Motion 6

1.10 Newton’s Second Law of Motion 6

1.11 Newton’s Third Law of Motion 7

1.12 Friction 7

1.13 Work 8

1.14 Energy 9

1.15 Power 11

Exercise 1.1 12

Reference/Further reading 12

2 Introduction to chemistry 13

2.1 Introduction 13

2.2 Electrovalency and covalency 15

2.3 Elements and Compounds 18

2.4 Symbols and Formulae 19

2.5 Acids and bases 20

Exercise 2.1 22

References/Further reading 23

3 Effects of Chemicals and the Atmosphere on Materials 25

3.1 Introduction 25

3.2 Oxidation 25

3.3 Electrolysis 27

3.4 Electrolytic Corrosion 28

3.5 Applications of Electrolysis 32

3.6 Acid rain 33

References/Further Reading 33

4 Electricity 35

4.1 Introduction 35

4.2 Coulomb’s law 35

4.3 Electric current 36

4.4 Potential difference 36

4.5 Electromotive force (e.m.f.) 37

4.6 Ohm’s law 37

4.7 Electrical resistivity and conductivity 39

4.8 Resistors in Series/Parallel 39

4.9 Transformers 43

4.10 Power generation 44

4.11 Power distribution 45

4.12 Supply to small buildings 47

Exercise 4.1 48

Reference/Further reading 49

5 Introduction to Construction Technology 51

5.1 Introduction 51

5.2 Substructure and Superstructure 51

5.3 Foundations 53

5.4 Forms of Construction 55

5.5 The External Envelope 56

References/Further Reading 61

6 Introduction to Building Services 63

6.1 Introduction 63

6.2 Cold Water Supply 63

6.3 Hot Water Supply 65

6.4 Central Heating Systems 65

6.5 Underfloor Heating Systems 66

6.6 Drainage Systems 67

6.7 Integration of Services into Building Design 68

References/Further Reading 72

7 Thermal Energy 1 73

7.1 Introduction 73

7.2 Temperature 73

7.3 Units of Heat 74

7.4 States of Matter 75

7.5 Expansion and Contraction of Solids 77

7.6 Heat Transfer 81

Exercise 7.1 86

References/Further Reading 86

8 Thermal Energy 2 (Including Humidity) 87

8.1 Introduction 87

8.2 Thermal Insulation 87

8.3 Heat Transmission 90

8.4 Thermal Transmittance 92

8.5 Heat Loss from Buildings 98

8.6 Temperature Drop Through Materials 102

8.7 Humidity 104

8.8 Condensation 107

Exercise 8.1 116

References/Further Reading 117

9 Forces and Structures 1 119

9.1 Introduction 119

9.2 Force 119

9.3 Bending 120

9.4 Types of Loading 123

9.5 Stress and Strain 126

9.6 Elasticity 128

Exercise 9.1 132

References/Further Reading 133

10 Forces and structures 2 135

10.1 Moment of a force 135

10.2 Laws of equilibrium 139

10.3 Analysis of beams 139

10.4 Triangle of forces 156

Exercise 10.1 166

References/Further reading 169

11 Forces and structures 3 171

11.1 Introduction 171

11.2 Beams 171

11.3 Reinforced concrete (R.C.) beams 175

11.4 Steel beams 177

11.5 Timber joists 179

11.6 Slabs 182

11.7 Columns 183

11.8 Foundations 188

References/Further reading 192

12 Fluid mechanics 193

12.1 Introduction 193

12.2 Pressure of fluids at rest 193

12.3 Why do Liquids Flow? 196

12.4 Centre of pressure 197

12.5 The flow of a fluid 199

Exercise 12.1 208

References/Further reading 210

13 Sound 211

13.1 Introduction 211

13.2 Frequency, wavelength and velocity of sound 212

13.3 Measurement of sound 214

13.4 Addition of Sound Levels 217

13.5 Transmission of sound in buildings 219

13.6 Sound absorption 225

13.7 Sound?]level Meter 232

Exercise 13.1 232

References/Further reading 233

14 Light 235

14.1 Introduction 235

14.2 Additive and Subtractive Colours 236

14.3 Measuring light 237

14.4 Inverse Square Law of Illuminance 240

14.5 Lambert’s Cosine Law of Illuminance 241

14.6 Lamps and luminaires 243

14.7 Design of Interior Lighting 245

14.8 Light meter 258

14.9 Daylighting 258

Exercise 14.1 261

References/Further reading 263

15 Human Comfort 265

15.1 Introduction 265

15.2 Temperature 265

15.3 Air movement 268

15.4 Humidity 269

15.5 Ventilation 269

15.6 Predicted Mean Vote 269

15.7 Noise 270

15.8 Lighting 271

References/Further Reading 272

16 Construction materials 273

16.1 Introduction 273

16.2 Bricks 274

16.3 Aerated Concrete Blocks 279

16.4 Cement 280

16.5 Concrete 284

16.6 Metals 291

16.7 Timber 296

16.8 Plastics 300

16.9 Glass 303

References/Further reading 306

17 Assignments 307

17.1 Assignments for Level 2 courses 307

17.2 Assignments for Level 3/4 courses 308

Appendix 1 Formulae for Example 8.2 313

Appendix 2 Solutions for Example 13.10 315

Appendix 3 Answers to exercises 317

Index 325

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