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Tunnel Field-effect Transistors (TFET): Modelling and Simulation

ISBN: 978-1-119-24629-9
208 pages
November 2016
Tunnel Field-effect Transistors (TFET): Modelling and Simulation (1119246296) cover image


Research into Tunneling Field Effect Transistors (TFETs) has developed significantly in recent times, indicating their significance in low power integrated circuits. This book describes the qualitative and quantitative fundamental concepts of TFET functioning, the essential components of the problem of modelling the TFET, and outlines the most commonly used mathematical approaches for the same in a lucid language.

Divided into eight chapters, the topics covered include: Quantum Mechanics, Basics of Tunneling, The Tunnel FET, Drain current modelling of Tunnel FET: The task and its challenges, Modeling the Surface Potential in TFETs, Modelling the Drain Current, and Device simulation using Technology Computer Aided Design (TCAD). The information is well organized, describing different phenomena in the TFETs using simple and logical explanations.

Key features:

* Enables readers to understand the basic concepts of TFET functioning and modelling in order to read, understand, and critically analyse current research on the topic with ease.

* Includes state-of-the-art work on TFETs, attempting to cover all the recent research articles published on the subject.

* Discusses the basic physics behind tunneling, as well as the device physics of the TFETs.

* Provides detailed discussion on device simulations along with device physics so as to enable researchers to carry forward their study on TFETs.

Primarily targeted at new and practicing researchers and post graduate students, the book would particularly be useful for researchers who are working in the area of compact and analytical modelling of semiconductor devices.

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Table of Contents

Preface viii

1 Quantum mechanics 1

1.1 Introduction to quantum mechanics 1

1.1.1 The double slit experiment 1

1.1.2 Basic concepts of quantum mechanics 4

1.1.3 Schrodinger’s equation 10

1.2 Basic quantum physics problems 13

1.2.1 Free particle 13

1.2.2 Particle in a one-dimensional box 14

Reference 17

2 Basics of tunnelling 18

2.1 Understanding tunnelling 18

2.1.1 Qualitative description 18

2.1.2 Rectangular barrier 20

2.2 WKB approximation 23

2.3 Landauer’s tunnelling formula 26

2.4 Advanced tunnelling models 29

2.4.1 Non-local tunnelling models 30

2.4.2 Local tunnelling models 30

References 38

3 The tunnel FET 39

3.1 Device structure 39

3.1.1 The need for tunnel FETs 39

3.1.2 Basic TFET structure 41

3.2 Qualitative behaviour 42

3.2.1 Band diagram 42

3.2.2 Device characteristics 52

3.2.3 Performance dependence on device parameters 59

3.3 Types of TFETs 63

3.3.1 Planar TFETs 63

3.3.2 Three-dimensional TFETs 70

3.3.3 Carbon nanotube and graphene TFETs 72

3.3.4 Point versus line tunnelling in TFETs 73

3.4 Other steep subthreshold transistors 74

References 74

4 Drain current modelling of tunnel FET: the task and its challenges 78

4.1 Introduction 78

4.2 TFET modelling approach 81

4.2.1 Finding the value of ψC 82

4.2.2 Modelling the surface potential in the source–channel junction 83

4.2.3 Finding the tunnelling current 85

4.3 MOSFET modelling approach 87

References 89

5 Modelling the surface potential in TFETs 90

5.1 The pseudo-2D method 91

5.1.1 Parabolic approximation of potential distribution 91

5.1.2 Solving the 2D Poisson equation using parabolic approximation 94

5.1.3 Solution for the surface potential 95

5.2 The variational approach 98

5.2.1 The variational form of Poisson’s equation 99

5.2.2 Solution of the variational form of Poisson’s equation in a TFET 101

5.3 The infinite series solution 107

5.3.1 Solving the 2D Poisson equation using separation of variables 107

5.3.2 Solution of the homogeneous boundary value problem 109

5.3.3 The solution to the 2D Poisson equation in a TFET 112

5.3.4 The infinite series solution to Poisson’s equation in a TFET 114

5.4 Extension of surface potential models to different TFET structures 119

5.4.1 DG TFET 119

5.4.2 GAA TFET 122

5.4.3 Dual material gate TFET 125

5.5 The effect of localised charges on the surface potential 131

5.6 Surface potential in the depletion regions 132

5.7 Use of smoothing functions in the surface potential models 135

References 137

6 Modelling the drain current 140

6.1 Non-local methods 142

6.1.1 Landauer’s tunnelling formula in TFETs 142

6.1.2 WKB approximation in TFETs 143

6.1.3 Obtaining the drain current 144

6.2 Local methods 147

6.2.1 Numerical integration 148

6.2.2 Shortest tunnelling length 148

6.2.3 Constant polynomial term assumption 150

6.2.4 Tangent line approximation 152

6.3 Threshold voltage models 157

6.3.1 Constant current method 158

6.3.2 Constant tunnelling length 159

6.3.3 Transconductance change (TC) method 160

References 161

7 Device simulation using ATLAS 163

7.1 Simulations using ATLAS 164

7.1.1 Inputs and outputs 165

7.1.2 Structure specification 166

7.1.3 Material parameters and model specification 169

7.1.4 Numerical method specification 170

7.1.5 Solution specification 170

7.2 Analysis of simulation results 171

7.3 SOI MOSFET example 174

Reference 180

8 Simulation of TFETs 181

8.1 SOI TFET 181

8.2 Other tunnelling models 188

8.2.1 Schenk band-to-band tunnelling model 188

8.2.2 Non-local band-to-band tunnelling 188

8.3 Gate all around nanowire TFET 190

References 193

Index 194

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Author Information

Dr. M. Jagadesh Kumar obtained his MS in Electrical Engineering (EE) and PhD in EE from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Madras. He is currently the NXP (Philips) Chair Professor at IIT Delhi by Philips Semiconductors, Netherlands (now NXP Semiconductors India Pvt Ltd). He works in the area of Nanoelectronic Devices, Nanoscale Device modeling and simulation, Innovative Device Design and Power semiconductor devices. He has published extensively in the above areas with four book chapters and more than 200 publications in refereed journals and conference proceedings including 70 IEEE Journal papers. Six patent applications have been filed based on his research.

Rajat Vishnoi received his B.Tech degree in EE from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kanpur, in 2012. He is currently pursuing his Ph.D. degree in Electrical Engineering at the Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi. His research interests include semiconductor device modelling, design and fabrication.

Pratyush Pandey completed his undergraduate in Electrical Engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology (IIT), Kanpur, in 2011. In 2007 he received a Silver Medal in the International Physics Olympiad, and a Gold Medal in the Indian National Chemistry Olympiad. During his undergraduate studies, he worked on quantum error correction codes, quantum cryptography, and applied information theory. Subsequently, he worked as a Research Assistant at IIT Delhi on the analytical modelling of TFETs. He has developed analytical models for Double Gate, Dual Material Gate, and Nanowire TFETs. He is currently a graduate student advised by Dr. Alan Seabaugh at Notre Dame, where he is involved in the simulation, modelling, characterisation, and fabrication of TMD TFETs. He is also a reviewer for IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, and the Journal of Computational Electronics.

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