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Integrating Program Management and Systems Engineering: Methods, Tools, and Organizational Systems for Improving Performance

Eric Rebentisch (Editor-in-Chief), Larry Prusak (Foreword by)
ISBN: 978-1-119-25892-6
456 pages
February 2017
Integrating Program Management and Systems Engineering: Methods, Tools, and Organizational Systems for Improving Performance (1119258928) cover image

Description

Integrate critical roles to improve overall performance in complex engineering projects

Integrating Program Management and Systems Engineering shows how organizations can become more effective, more efficient, and more responsive, and enjoy better performance outcomes. The discussion begins with an overview of key concepts, and details the challenges faced by System Engineering and Program Management practitioners every day. The practical framework that follows describes how the roles can be integrated successfully to streamline project workflow, with a catalog of tools for assessing and deploying best practices. Case studies detail how real-world companies have successfully implemented the framework to improve cost, schedule, and technical performance, and coverage of risk management throughout helps you ensure the success of your organization's own integration strategy. Available course outlines and PowerPoint slides bring this book directly into the academic or corporate classroom, and the discussion's practical emphasis provides a direct path to implementation.

The integration of management and technical work paves the way for smoother projects and more positive outcomes. This book describes the integrated goal, and provides a clear framework for successful transition.

  • Overcome challenges and improve cost, schedule, and technical performance
  • Assess current capabilities and build to the level your organization needs
  • Manage risk throughout all stages of integration and performance improvement
  • Deploy best practices for teams and systems using the most effective tools

Complex engineering systems are prone to budget slips, scheduling errors, and a variety of challenges that affect the final outcome. These challenges are a sign of failure on the part of both management and technical, but can be overcome by integrating the roles into a cohesive unit focused on delivering a high-value product. Integrating Program Management with Systems Engineering provides a practical route to better performance for your organization as a whole.

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Table of Contents

List of Figures xxvii

List of Tables xxxiii

Foreword: Practices, Knowledge, and Innovation xxxv

Preface xxxix

Reference xli

Acknowledgments xliii

Introduction xlvii

The Origins of an Important Collaboration xlvii

Creating a Knowledge Foundation through Exploratory Research xlviii

Phase I Study xlix

Phase II and III Studies l

Phase IV Study li

Strengths and Limitations of the Research Foundation lii

Integrating Practitioner Knowledge with Research lii

Overview of the Book liii

References liv

PART I: IN SEARCH OF INTEGRATED SOLUTIONS 1

1 TOWARD A NEW MINDSET 3

1.1 Striving for Perfection in Complex Work 3

1.2 Boldly Going Again Where People Have Gone Before 4

1.3 Strategy Realization Requires Good Management 8

1.4 Workforce + Organizational Capabilities = Competitive Advantage 10

1.5 Rays of Hope 12

1.6 Trekking toward a New Mindset 12

1.7 Summary 14

1.8 Discussion Questions 14

1.9 References 14

2 THE ENGINEERING PROGRAM PERFORMANCE CHALLENGE 17

2.1 Introduction 17

2.2 Making White Elephants Extinct 17

2.3 Large Engineering Programs Are Complex 20

2.4 We Need a Better Solution 31

2.5 Summary 31

2.6 Discussion Questions 33

2.7 References 33

Additional Resources 36

3 THE FEATURES OF SUCCESSFUL INTEGRATION OF PROGRAM MANAGEMENT AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING 37

3.1 A Major Engineering Program Failure? 37

3.2 Bridging Boundaries to Foster Program Success 40

3.3 Contributors to Success in Action 42

3.4 Summary 47

3.5 Discussion Questions 48

3.6 References 48

Additional Resources 49

4 THE CASE FOR INTEGRATING PROGRAM MANAGEMENT AND TECHNICAL MANAGEMENT 51

4.1 The Roots of Nonintegration 51

4.2 Program Management and Systems Engineering Are Different 52

4.3 Program Management 53

4.4 Systems Engineering 62

4.5 Why Divergence Is Such a Problem 69

4.6 Integrating Is Difficult, but Not Impossible 75

4.7 Discussion Questions 76

4.8 References 76

Additional Resources 78

5 KEY CONCEPTS IN INTEGRATION 79

5.1 Introduction 79

5.2 Assessing Integration between Disciplines 79

5.3 Attributes of Integration in Complex Organizations 83

5.4 Practitioner Perspectives on Integration 88

5.5 Summary 93

5.6 Discussion Questions 94

5.7 References 95

PART II: BUILDING CAPABILITIES TO EFFECTIVELY EXECUTE ENGINEERING PROGRAMS 97

6 HOW INTEGRATION WORKS IN PROGRAMS 99

6.1 Introduction 99

6.2 The Integration Framework 99

6.3 Summary 115

6.4 Discussion Questions 115

6.5 References 116

7 INTEGRATION IN PRACTICE IN THE F/A-18E/F SUPER HORNET PROGRAM 119

7.1 Introduction 119

7.2 F/A-18E/F Super Hornet Program Background and the Context of Integration 121

7.3 Twelve Days of August: A Start on the Integration Journey 122

7.4 Enabling Integration by Reducing Program Complexity 124

7.5 A Parallel Process in NAVAIR to Improve Integration 125

7.6 The E/F Program Pilots a New Way of Working Together 126

7.7 Improved Decision Making 128

7.8 Program Delivery 138

7.9 Integration Practices Observed in the F/A-18E/F Program 140

7.10 Summary 140

7.11 Discussion Questions 141

7.12 References 142

8 PROGRAM MANAGEMENT AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING INTEGRATION PROCESSES, PRACTICES, AND TOOLS 143

8.1 Introduction 143

8.2 Episodic Integration Mechanisms 144

8.3 Pervasive Integration Mechanisms 151

8.4 A Note on Tailoring 164

8.5 Summary 165

8.6 Discussion Questions 166

8.7 References 166

Additional Resources 168

9 THE ORGANIZATIONAL ENVIRONMENT 169

9.1 Introduction 169

9.2 Structural Dimensions of Integration 169

9.3 Organizational Environmental Factors 174

9.4 The Challenges of Integration in Large-Scale Programs: Systems Failure 178

9.5 Characteristics of Successful Program Integration 180

9.6 The International Space Station: A Model in Systems Integration 182

9.7 Summary 185

9.8 Discussion Questions 186

9.9 References 186

Additional Resources 189

10 DEVELOPING INTEGRATION COMPETENCIES IN PEOPLE 191

10.1 Introduction 191

10.2 Identifying Integration Competencies 194

10.3 Developing Integration Competencies 198

10.4 Managing Integration Competencies 207

10.5 Summary 210

10.6 Discussion Questions 211

10.7 References 211

Additional Resources 215

11 INTEGRATION THROUGHOUT THE PROGRAM LIFE CYCLE 217

11.1 Introduction 217

11.2 Integration and the Generic Life Cycle 217

11.3 Life Cycle Stages for Systems Engineering 219

11.4 Program Management Life Cycle Characteristics 220

11.5 Large-Scale Infrastructure Programs 225

11.6 Life Cycle Integration 227

11.7 Leadership Styles for the Big Dig’s Five Stages of Program Management 232

11.8 Summary 233

11.9 Discussion Questions 233

11.10 References 234

Additional Resources 236

12 THE IMPACT OF EFFECTIVE INTEGRATION ON PROGRAM PERFORMANCE 237

12.1 Introduction 237

12.2 Program Performance 237

12.3 Measuring Integration in Programs 240

12.4 Integration as a Catalyst for Program Performance 244

12.5 Case Study: Electronic Support Upgrade for the Royal Australian Navy’s Anzac Class Frigate 249

12.6 Summary 255

12.7 Discussion Questions 256

12.8 References 256

PART III: DEVELOPING INTEGRATION COMPETENCIES IN YOUR ORGANIZATION 259

13 INTEGRATION MEANS CHANGE 261

13.1 Introduction: The Case for Change 261

13.2 The Need to Be Thoughtful about Change 262

13.3 Frameworks and Models for Change 265

13.4 Readiness Assessment 271

13.5 The Road Ahead and How to Prepare for It 273

13.6 Summary 273

13.7 Discussion Questions 274

13.8 References 275

Additional Resources 276

14 SUCCESSFUL CHANGE PROGRAMS THAT IMPROVED INTEGRATION 279

14.1 Introduction 279

14.2 Redefining What Is Possible: The Marriage of Systems Engineering and Program Management at Lockheed Missiles & Space Company 280

14.3 Using Certification to Foster Integration in U.S. Government Agency Acquisition Programs 284

14.4 Integrating Software Engineering and Program Management at Nationwide 287

14.5 Managing Change in Engineering Program Organizations: Boosting Productivity in BMW’s Engineering Department 291

14.6 Delivering the World’s Most Complex Inner-City Infrastructure Program: Boston’s Big Dig 299

14.7 Summary 303

14.8 Discussion Questions 305

14.9 References 306

15 LEADING AN INTEGRATION CHANGE PROGRAM 309

15.1 Introduction 309

15.2 Understanding the Work Ahead: The Organizational Context 310

15.3 Planning for Change within the Organizational Context 312

15.4 Putting the Four Input Dimensions for Change Together 329

15.5 Practices to Consider 334

15.6 Summary 338

15.7 References 339

PART IV: A CALL TO ACTION 341

16 CALLS TO ACTION 343

16.1 Call to Action for Academia: Help Budding Professionals Learn to Adapt 344

16.2 Call to Action for Enterprise: Build the Right Engine for Strategy Implementation 349

16.3 Call to Action for Policymakers: Refocus Oversight and Accountability in the Right Ways 353

16.4 Call to Action for Industry and Professional Societies: Take an Interdisciplinary View 357

16.5 Call to Action for Researchers: Explore Interdisciplinary Systems 359

16.6 References 361

AFTERWORD: TOWARD AN INTEGRATED FUTURE 365

The Case for Integration 365

New Insights Gained Along the Way 366

The Path Forward 368

GLOSSARY 371

INDEX 381

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Author Information

Eric Rebentisch leads research projects at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's (MIT) Sociotechnical Systems Research Center (SSRC). His research focuses on improving the performance of technically driven organizations and their product offerings.

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