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Analysis and Design of Transimpedance Amplifiers for Optical Receivers

ISBN: 978-1-119-26375-3
592 pages
October 2017
Analysis and Design of Transimpedance Amplifiers for Optical Receivers (1119263751) cover image

Description

An up-to-date, comprehensive guide for advanced electrical engineering studentsand electrical engineers working in the IC and optical industries

This book covers the major transimpedance amplifier (TIA) topologies and their circuit implementations for optical receivers. This includes the shunt-feedback TIA, common-base TIA, common-gate TIA, regulated-cascode TIA, distributed-amplifier TIA, nonresistive feedback TIA, current-mode TIA, burst-mode TIA, and analog-receiver TIA. The noise, transimpedance, and other performance parameters of these circuits are analyzed and optimized. Topics of interest include post amplifiers, differential vs. single-ended TIAs, DC input current control, and adaptive transimpedance. The book features real-world examples of TIA circuits for a variety of receivers (direct detection, coherent, burst-mode, etc.) implemented in a broad array of technologies (HBT, BiCMOS, CMOS, etc.). 

The book begins with an introduction to optical communication systems, signals, and standards. It then moves on to discussions of optical fiber and photodetectors. This discussion includes p-i-n photodetectors; avalanche photodetectors (APD); optically preamplified detectors; integrated detectors, including detectors for silicon photonics; and detectors for phase-modulated signals, including coherent detectors. This is followed by coverage of the optical receiver at the system level: the relationship between noise, sensitivity, optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR), and bit-error rate (BER) is explained; receiver impairments, such as intersymbol interference (ISI), are covered. In addition, the author presents TIA specifications and illustrates them with example values from recent product data sheets. The book also includes:

  • Many numerical examples throughout that help make the material more concrete for readers
  • Real-world product examples that show the performance of actual IC designs
  • Chapter summaries that highlight the key points
  • Problems and their solutions for readers who want to practice and deepen their understanding of the material
  • Appendices that cover communication signals, eye diagrams, timing jitter, nonlinearity, adaptive equalizers, decision point control, forward error correction (FEC), and second-order low-pass transfer functions

Analysis and Design of Transimpedance Amplifiers for Optical Receivers belongs on the reference shelves of every electrical engineer working in the IC and optical industries. It also can serve as a textbook for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students studying integrated circuit design and optical communication. 

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Table of Contents

Preface vii

References xi

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Optical Transceivers 1

1.2 Modulation Formats 5

1.3 Transmission Modes 12

References 20

2 Optical Fibers 25

2.1 Loss and Bandwidth 25

2.2 Dispersion 29

2.3 Nonlinearities 34

2.4 Pulse Spreading due to Chromatic Dispersion 37

2.5 Summary 40

Problems 41

References 42

3 Photodetectors 45

3.1 pin Photodetector 46

3.2 Avalanche Photodetector 60

3.3 pin Detector with Optical Preamplifier 67

3.4 Integrated Photodetectors 78

3.5 Detectors for Phase-Modulated Optical Signals 86

3.6 Summary 94

Problems 96

References 97

4 Receiver Fundamentals 107

4.1 Receiver Model 108

4.2 Noise and Bit-Error Rate 110

4.3 Signal-to-Noise Ratio 116

4.4 Sensitivity 120

4.5 Noise Bandwidths and Personick Integrals 134

4.6 Optical Signal-to-Noise Ratio 138

4.7 Power Penalty 146

4.8 Inter-symbol Interference and Bandwidth 151

4.9 Frequency Response 162

4.10 Summary 167

Problems 168

References 171

5 Transimpedance Amplifier Specifications 177

5.1 Transimpedance 177

5.2 Input Overload Current 182

5.3 Maximum Input Current for Linear Operation 183

5.4 Bandwidth 184

5.5 Phase Linearity and Group Delay Variation 186

5.6 Timing Jitter 187

5.7 Input Referred Noise Current 187

5.8 Crosstalk 193

5.9 Product Examples 195

5.10 Summary 195

Problems 197

References 198

6 Basic Transimpedance Amplifier Design 201

6.1 Low and High Impedance Front Ends 202

6.2 Shunt Feedback TIA 205

6.3 Noise Analysis 224

6.4 Noise Optimization 236

6.5 Noise Matching 248

6.6 Summary 260

Problems 262

References 265

7 Advanced Transimpedance Amplifier Design I 271

7.1 TIA with Post Amplifier 271

7.2 TIA with Differential Inputs and Outputs 276

7.3 TIA with DC Input Current Control 281

7.4 TIA with Adaptive Transimpedance 284

7.5 Common Base and Common Gate TIAs 292

7.6 Regulated Cascode TIA 303

7.7 TIA with Inductive Broadbanding 311

7.8 Distributed Amplifier TIA 315

7.9 Summary 321

Problems 323

References 324

8 Advanced Transimpedance Amplifier Design II 331

8.1 TIA with Nonresistive Feedback 331

8.2 Current Mode TIA 337

8.3 TIA with Bootstrapped Photodetector 339

8.4 Burst Mode TIA 340

8.5 Analog Receiver TIA 347

8.6 Summary 351

Problems 352

References 352

9 Transimpedance Amplifier Circuit Examples 359

9.1 BJT, HBT, and BiCMOS Circuits 359

9.2 CMOS Circuits 366

9.3 MESFET and HFET Circuits 373

9.4 Summary 375

References 378

A Communication Signals 383

A.1 NonReturn-to-Zero Signal 384

A.2 Return-to-Zero Signal 387

A.3 Pulse Amplitude Modulated Signal 389

A.4 Analog Television Signal 391

A.5 Digital Television Signal 394

References 396

B Eye Diagrams 397

References 404

C Timing Jitter 405

C.1 Data Jitter 405

C.2 Clock Jitter 415

C.3 Jitter, Phase Noise, and BitError Rate 419

Problems 422

References 422

D Nonlinearity 425

D.1 Gain Compression 426

D.2 Harmonic Distortions 427

D.3 Intermodulation Distortions 429

D.4 Composite Distortions 430

Problems 433

References 433

E Adaptive Equalizers 435

E.1 Feedforward and Decision Feedback Equalizers 436

E.2 Adaptation Algorithms 440

E.3 Hardware Implementations 444

Problems 447

References 447

F Decision Point Control 453

Problems 457

References 457

G Forward Error Correction 459

Problems 464

References 465

H Second Order Low Pass Transfer Functions 467

References 479

I Answers to the Problems 481

References 514

J Notation 517

K Symbols 519

L Acronyms 529

Index 537

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Author Information

EDUARD SÄCKINGER, PhD, is Principal Analog Engineer at MACOM USA. For more than ten years, Dr. Säckinger worked at Bell Laboratories (AT&T and Lucent Technologies). After that, he joined Agere Systems (a Lucent spin-off), Conexant Systems, and Ikanos Communications (through an acquisition). He has conducted seminars on broadband circuits for optical fiber communication at Agere Systems, Lucent Technologies, MEAD Microelectronics, and the VLSI Symposium. He served as an Associate Editor for IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits for six years.He is the author of the book Broadband Circuits for Optical Fiber Communication.

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