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Piezoelectric Materials: Applications in SHM, Energy Harvesting and Biomechanics

ISBN: 978-1-119-26514-6
300 pages
November 2016
Piezoelectric Materials: Applications in SHM, Energy Harvesting and Biomechanics (1119265142) cover image

Description

Piezoelectric materials are attracting significant research efforts and resources worldwide. The major thrust areas include structural health monitoring, bio-mechanics, bio-medicine and energy harvesting. Engineering and technological applications of this smart material warrants multi-dimensional theoretical and experimental knowledge and expertise in fields of mechanics, instrumentation, digital electronics and information technology, over and above the specific domain knowledge. This book presents, from theory to practice, the application of piezoelectric smart materials in engineering domains such as structural health monitoring (SHM), bio-mechanics, bio-medical engineering and energy harvesting.

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Table of Contents

Preface v

Acknowledgements vii

1. Introduction 1–6

1.1 What are ‘Smart Materials’? 1

1.2 ‘Smartness’ of Piezoelectric Materials 2

1.3 Structural Health Monitoring and Non-Destructive Evaluation 3

1.4 Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting 4

1.5 Extension of SHM Technologies to Bio-mechanics and Bio-medical Engineering 5

1.6 Concluding Remarks 5

2. Piezo-Transducers for Structural Health 7–43

Monitoring and Non-Destructive Evaluation

2.1 Introduction 7

2.2 More About Piezoelectric Materials 9

2.2.1 Mathematical Formulations 9

2.2.2 Practical Aspects 13

2.3 Piezo-Patch as Dynamic Strain Sensor for SHM 14

2.4 Electro-Mechanical Impedance (EMI) Technique for SHM and NDE 19

2.4.1 EMI Technique: Theory 21

2.4.2 EMI technique: Practical aspects 24

2.5 Development of 2D Impedance Models 28

2.6 Structural Impedance Extraction and System Identification 33

2.7 EMI Technique: Hardware Related Developments 38

2.8 New Variants of EMI Technique 40

2.9 Summary and Concluding Remarks 43

3. Piezo Bond-Structure Elasto-Dynamic Interaction: Refined Model 45–65

3.1 Introduction 45

3.2 Review of Shear Lag Effect and Early Models 46

3.3 Refined Model: 1D Case 51

3.4 Extension of Refined Shear Lag Formulations to 2D 54

3.5 Effect of Inclusion of Adhesive Mass 62

3.6 Summary and Concluding Remarks 65

4. Piezo-Structure Elasto-dynamic Interaction: Continuum Model 67–80

4.1 Introduction 67

4.2 Admittance Formulations Based on Continuum Approach 68

4.3 Experimental Verification 70

4.4 Parametric Study Based on Continuum Approach 74

4.5 Effect of Adhesive Mass 78

4.6 Summary and Concluding Remarks 80

5. Fatigue Damage Monitoring in Steel Joints Using Piezo-Transducers 81–111

5.1 Introduction 81

5.2 Experimental Details 83

5.3 Statistical Analysis of Conductance Signatures 89

5.4 Fatigue Life Assessment Using Equivalent Stiffness Parameter (ESP) Identified by Piezo-Transducers 99

5.5 Summary and Concluding Remarks 110

6. Chloride Induced Rebar Corrosion Monitoring Using Piezo-Transducers 113–137

6.1 Introduction 113

6.2 Rebar Corrosion in RC Structures 114

6.3 Experimental Study: Specimen Preparation 117

6.4 Accelerated Chloride Induced Corrosion Exposure 119

6.5 Analysis Based on Equivalent Structural Parameters 126

6.6 Calibration of Equivalent Parameters 130

6.6.1 Equivalent Stiffness Parameter (ESP) 130

6.6.2 Equivalent Mass Parameter (EMP) for Corrosion Rates 133

6.7 Summary and Concluding Remarks 137

7. Carbonation Induced Corrosion Monitoring Using Piezo-Transducers 139–153

7.1 Introduction 139

7.2 Accelerated Carbonation Tests: Experimental Procedure 140

7.3 Equivalent Stiffness Parameters (ESP) 146

7.4 Equivalent Mass Parameter (EMP) 149

7.5 Correlation with Microscopic Image Analysis 150

7.6 Summary and Concluding Remarks 152

8. Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting: Analytical Models 155–192

8.1 Introduction 155

8.2 Evolution and Recent Advances in Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting 157

8.3 Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Devices 159

8.4 Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting (PEH) Model for Surface Bonded PZT Patch 162

8.4.1 Losses Associated with Surface-Bonded PZT Patch 165

8.4.2 Comparison of Analytical and Experimental Results 167

8.5 PEH Model for Embedded PZT Patch 171

8.5.1 Details of CVS 171

8.5.2 Coupled Electro-Mechanical Model for CVS 172

8.5.3 Comparison of Voltage Response of Surface-Bonded and Embedded PZT Patches 178

8.6 Energy Harvesting: Power Measurement Across Surface-Bonded and Embedded PZT Patch 186

8.6.1 Power Measurement Across Surface-Bonded PZT Patch 189

8.6.2 Power Measurement Across Embedded CVS 190

8.7 Concluding Remarks 192

9. Energy Harvesting Using Thin PZT Patches on Real-Life Structures 193–205

9.1 Introduction 193

9.2 Integrated SHM and Energy Harvesting by PZT Patches 194

9.3 Feasibility of PEH From Typical City Flyover: Semi Analytical Study 196

9.4 Extension to Existing Real-Life Bridges/Flyovers 201

9.4.1 Steel Bridges 202

9.4.2 RC Bridges 202

9.4.3 Computation of Charging Time 204

9.5 Summary and Concluding Remarks 205

10. Extension of Structural Health Monitoring Technologies to Bio-mechanics and Bio-medical Engineering 207–224

10.1 Introduction 207

10.2 Plantar Pressure Measurement 212

10.3 Instrumentation Details 214

10.4 Experimentation on Human Subject 218

10.5 Summary and Concluding Remarks 224

11. Piezoelectric Materials: What Lies in Future? 225–233

11.1 Introduction 225

11.2 Newer Versions of Piezoelectric Materials 225

11.3 Advances in SHM 226

11.4 Advances in Energy Harvesting 227

11.5 Advances in Bio-Medical Engineering 228

11.6 Educational Aspects of Piezoelectric Materials 230

11.7s Summary and Concluding Remarks 233

Appendix-A 235–238

1D Admittance Formulations 235

Appendix-B 239–242

2D Effective Impedance Formulations 239

Appendix-C 243–251

Shear Lag Model of Bhalla and Soh (2004c) 243

1D Case 243

2D Case 248

References 253–267

Index 269–275

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Author Information

Dr. Suresh Bhalla, Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India 

Dr. Sumedha Moharana, Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiv Nader University, Uttar Pradesh, India

Dr. Visalakshi Talakokula, Associate Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Galgotias University,Uttar Pradesh, India

Dr. Naveet Kaur, Senior Project Scientist, Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India

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