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The Practice of Silviculture: Applied Forest Ecology, 10th Edition

ISBN: 978-1-119-27095-9
792 pages
March 2018
The Practice of Silviculture: Applied Forest Ecology, 10th Edition (1119270952) cover image

Description

The most up-to-date, comprehensive resource on silviculture that covers the range of topics and issues facing today’s foresters and resource professionals 

The tenth edition of the classic work, The Practice of Silviculture: Applied Forest Ecology, includes the most current information and the results of research on the many issues that are relevant to forests and forestry. The text covers such timely topics as biofuels and intensive timber production, ecosystem and landscape scale management of public lands, ecosystem services, surface drinking water supplies, urban and community greenspace, forest carbon, fire and climate, and much more. 

In recent years, silvicultural systems have become more sophisticated and complex in application, particularly with a focus on multi-aged silviculture. There have been paradigm shifts toward managing for more complex structures and age-classes for integrated and complementary values including wildlife, water and open space recreation. Extensively revised and updated, this new edition covers a wide range of topics and challenges relevant to the forester or resource professional today. This full-color text offers the most expansive book on silviculture and: 

  • Includes a revised and expanded text with clear language and explanations
  • Covers the many cutting-edge resource issues that are relevant to forests and forestry
  • Contains boxes within each chapter to provide greater detail on particular silvicultural treatments and examples of their use
  • Features a completely updated bibliography plus new photographs, tables and figures

The Practice of Silviculture: Applied Forest Ecology, Tenth Edition is an invaluable resource for students and professionals in forestry and natural resource management.

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Table of Contents

Preface

PART ONE: INTRODUCTION TO SILVICULTURE

CHAPTER 1 THE HISTORY AND PHILOSOPHY OF SILVICULTURE

Introduction 

Silviculture, Its Origin and Development as an Applied Ecology

The Philosophies of Silviculture as a Practice

Silviculture as a Body of Knowledge

CHAPTER 2 SILVICULTURE AND ITS PLACE IN MANAGING CURRENT FORESTS AND WOODLANDS

Introduction

The Purpose of Silviculture Today

Scope and Terminology of Silvicultural Practice

The Silvicultural Framework for Managing a Forest

PART TWO: ECOLOGICAL FOUNDATIONS OF SILVICULTURE

CHAPTER 3 ECOLOGICAL SITE CLASSIFICATION, STANDS AS MANAGEMENT UNITS, AND LANDSCAPE-SCALE PLANNING

Introduction

Ecological Methods of Identifying and Classifying Sites

Stands as Management Units

New Developments in Landscape-Level Ecological Planning

CHAPTER 4 STAND DYNAMICS: THE ECOLOGY OF FOREST SUCCESSION

Introduction

Initiating disturbances and sources of regeneration

Stages of stand development

Defining cohorts and age-classes

Defining canopy stratification by age-class

Relationship of stand dynamics to other interpretations of vegetational development

Choice of development patterns

CHAPTER 5 ECOLOGY OF REGENERATION

Introduction

ECOLOGICAL ROLE OF NATURAL DISTURBANCE

Kinds of natural regenerative disturbances

Disturbance and the environment of the microsite

THE REGENERATION PROCESS

Mechanisms of essential stages of natural regeneration

Provisions for initiating natural regeneration

DISTURBANCE, CLIMATE, AND REGIONAL PATTERNS IN FLORISTICS OF FOREST REGENERATION

Fire, wind and water

REGENERATION METHODS AS ANALOGS TO NATURAL DISTURBANCE

PART THREE: METHODS OF REGENERATION

CHAPTER 6 DEVELOPMENT OF SILVICULTUREAL SYSTEMS AND METHODS OF REGENERATION

Introduction

Conceptual Formation of Silvicultural Systems: The Science of Place

Classification of natural methods of regeneration

Classification of plantations and artificial seeding

CHAPTER 7 SITE TREATMENTS

Introduction

Disposal of logging slash

Treatment of the forest floor and competing vegetation

PART 3A: NATURAL REGENERATION METHODS

CHAPTER 8 NATURAL REGENERATION: THE CLEARCUTTING METHOD

Introduction

The protocol

Regeneration of pure stands from natural seeding

Applications of true clearcutting: case studies from North America

CHAPTER 9 NATURAL REGENERATION: THE SEED-TREE METHOD

Introduction

The protocol

Variations in spatial patterns of stand structure

Application of seed-tree methods

CHAPTER 10 NATURAL REGENERATION: THE SHELTERWOOD METHOD

Introduction

The protocol for the uniform shelterwood

Protocols for alternative arrangements

Application of shelterwood methods

CHAPTER 11  NATURAL REGENERATION: MULTI-AGED SYSTEMS (IRREGULAR SEED-TREE AND SHELTERWOOD METHODS)

Introduction

Development of two- or three-aged stands

Regeneration methods including reserve trees within irregular seed-tree and shelterwood systems

Application of two- or three-aged systems

CHAPTER 12 NATURAL REGENERATION: THE COPPICE METHOD

Introduction

Vegetative regeneration and the nature of disturbance

The physiology and morphology of sprouting

Types of vegetative regeneration

Simple coppice systems

Coppice systems with irregular structures and age classes

The role of coppice stands in the past, present, and future

Conversion of coppice stands to high forests

CHAPTER 13  NATURAL REGENERATION: SELECTION METHOD

Introduction

The protocol

The selection regeneration method and its variation

Managing for balanced all-aged stands

Managing for unbalanced all-aged stands

PART 3B: METHODS BASED ON ARTIFICIAL REGENERATION

CHAPTER 14  SPECIES SELECTION AND GENETIC IMPROVEMENT

Introduction

Selection of species and provenances

Genetic improvement

CHAPTER 15 NURSERY, PLANTING, AND SEEDING TECHNIQUES

Introduction

Part one: Propagation

Part two: Planting and seeding

CHAPTER 16 THE ARRANGEMENT, COMPOSITION AND METHODS OF PLANTING

Introduction

The role of planting

Density of plantings

Spatial arrangement of plantings

High forest plantations

Single-species, single-aged plantations

Mixed-species, single-aged plantations

Mixed-species with all-aged or multiple-aged (two- or three-aged) systems

Enrichment planting and underplanting in native forests

Low forest plantations

Single-aged, single-species plantations

Single-aged, mixed-species plantations

Protection of new plantations

PART FOUR: POST-ESTABLISHMENT (INTERMEDIATE) TREATMENTS

CHAPTER 17 TREE AND STAND GROWTH

Introduction

Growth within individual trees

Stand scale patterns of production

The effect of thinning on stand production

The effect of thinning on the economic yield of stands

CHAPTER 18 POST-ESTABLISHMENT TOOLS IN SILVICULTURE

Introduction

Cutting and girdling

Use of herbicides

Methods of applying herbicides

Use of insecticides

Prescribed burning

Use of fertilizer

Irrigation

CHAPTER 19 PRUNING METHODS AND APPLICATIONS

Introduction

The ecology of natural pruning processes

Pruning trees to improve timber quality in forests

Techniques of pruning open-grown trees within urban and agricultural lands

Training and pruning fruit and shade trees in orchards and agroforestry systems

CHAPTER 20 RELEASE OPERATIONS IN SEEDLING AND SAPLING STANDS

Introduction

Competing vegetation

Concept of free-to-grow

Early use of release treatments

Vegetation control methods

Timing and extent of release treatments

Ecological impact of release treatments on plant communities

Liberation treatments

Release treatments that control invasives

CHAPTER 21 METHODS OF THINNING

Introduction

The different approaches to thinning

Low thinning

Crown thinning

Dominant thinning

Free-form thinning

Variable density thinning

Geometric thinning

Application of thinnings

CHAPTER 22 QUANTITATIVE GUIDELINES FOR STAND DENSITY MANAGEMENT

PART FIVE: SILVICULTURAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR MANAGING ALL FORESTS

CHAPTER 23 CONSERVATION MANAGEMENT PRACTICES

Introduction

Management practices

CHAPTER 24 SILVICULTURE FOR WILDLIFE HABITAT

Introduction

Habitat elements within stands

Landscape elements across stands

Examples of application

CHAPTER 25 SILVICULTURAL APPLICATIONS TO FOREST RETORATION: REHABILITATION AND RECLAMATION

Introduction

Degradation and restoration processed of forests

CATEGORIES OF FOREST DEGRADATION AND THEIR RESTORATION TREATMENTS

Least severity degradation: Rehabilitation through assisted natural regeneration and enrichment planting

Medium severity degradation: Rehabilitation through natural regeneration, direct seeding, or planting

High severity degradation: Forest reclamation

Synthesis

CHAPTER 26 approaches AND treatmentS TO MAINTAINING HEALTHY FOREST ECOSYSTEMS

The Concept of Forest Ecosystem Health within Stand Dynamics

Protection against Biotic Agencies: Insects and Disease

Protection against Abiotic Agencies

Using Silviculture to Control Damage

CHAPTER 27 MANAGING FOREST CARBON IN CHANGING CLIMATES

Introduction

The Ecology of Forest Carbon

Avoiding deforestation and increasing reforestation

Carbon management in existing forests

The use of wood as biomass energy or in wood products for carbon storage

PART SIX: SILVICULTURAL APPLICATIONS FOR DIFFERENT LAND USES

CHAPTER 28 ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT: MANAGING PUBLIC NATURAL FORESTS FOR MULTIPLE VALUES

Introduction

Regional and global differences in public land ownership

MANAGING COMPLEX LARGE-SCALE FORESTS

The ecosystem management paradigm

REGIONAL EXAMPLES OF ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT

Sustainable forest management in the Canadian Boreal, Quebec

Managing for complexity in the longleaf pine ecosystem, Southeastern United States

Managing ponderosa pine for a Pre-European landscape in the U. S. Southwest

CHAPTER 29 APPLICATION OF SILVICULTURE TO WATERSHED MANAGEMENT

Introduction

Baseline watershed conditions

Paired watershed studies: impacts of land clearance and forest disturbance

Managing forests for water quality: examples from the U.S.

Managing forest for water yield: examples form the U.S.

Summary

CHAPTER 30 INDUSTRIAL TIMBER MANAGEMENT

Introduction

PRINCIPLES OF REGULATING TIMBER MANAGEMENT HARVESTS

Considerations for timber production in forests

GLOBAL AND NATIONAL TRENDS IN PLANTATION FORESTRY

Industrial plantation forestry

CHAPTER 31 APPLICATION OF SILVICULTURE TO AGROFORESTRY

Introduction

Stages of stand development and agroforestry

Successional agrisilvicultural practices

Permanent agrisilvicultural practices

Selection of tree species for agroforestry

CHAPTER 32 APPLICATION OF SILVICULTURE TO URAN ECOSYSTEMS AND THE URBAN-RURAL INTERFACE

Introduction

Aesthetics and landscape design of urban forests

Mitigating urban meso- and micro-environments

The application of silviculture to urban watersheds

CHAPTER 33 SYNTHESIS

Glossary

Index

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Author Information

Mark S. Ashton, Morris K. Jesup Professor of Silviculture and Forest Ecology and Director of School Forests, Yale School of Forestry & Environmental Studies, New Haven, CT, USA.

Matthew J. Kelty, Professor Emeritus, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA.

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