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Microbes for Climate Resilient Agriculture

ISBN: 978-1-119-27592-3
350 pages
February 2018, Wiley-Blackwell
Microbes for Climate Resilient Agriculture (111927592X) cover image

Description

A comprehensive, edited volume pulling together research on manipulation of the crop microbiome for climate resilient agriculture

Microbes for Climate Resilient Agriculture provides a unique collection of data and a holistic view of the subject with quantitative assessment of how agricultural systems will be transformed in coming decades using hidden treasure of microbes. Authored by leaders in the field and edited to ensure conciseness and clarity, it covers a broad range of agriculturally important crops, discusses the impact of climate change on crops, and examines biotechnologically and environmentally relevant microbes. The book encapsulates the understanding of microbial mediated stress management at field level, and will serve as a springboard for novel research findings and new applications in the field.

Chapter coverage includes: the role of the phytomicrobiome in maintaining biofuel crop production in a changing climate; the impact of agriculture on soil microbial community composition and diversity in southeast Asia; climate change impact on plant diseases; microalgae; photosynthetic microorganisms and bioenergy prospects; amelioration of abiotic stresses in plants through multi-faceted beneficial microorganisms; role of methylotrophic bacteria in climate change mitigation; conservation agriculture for climate change resilience; archaeal community structure; mycorrhiza-helping plants to navigate environmental stresses; endophytic microorganisms; bacillus thuringiensis; and microbial nanotechnology for climate resilient agriculture.

  • Clear and succinct chapters contributed and edited by leaders in the field
  • Covers microbes' beneficial and detrimental roles in the microbiome, as well as the functions they perform under stress
  • Discusses the crop microbiome, nutrient cycling microbes, endophytes, mycorrhizae, and various pests and diseases, and their roles in sustainable farming
  • Places research in larger context of climate change's effect on global agriculture
Microbes for Climate Resilient Agriculture is an important text for scientists and researchers studying microbiology, biotechnology, environmental biology, agronomy, plant physiology, and plant protection.
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Table of Contents

ABOUT THE AUTHORS xv

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS xix

PREFACE xxiii

1 THE ROLE OF THE PHYTOMICROBIOME IN MAINTAINING BIOFUEL CROP PRODUCTION IN A CHANGING CLIMATE 1
Gayathri Ilangumaran, John R. Lamont and Donald L. Smith

1.1 General Background on Climate Change 1

1.2 More Extreme Weather More Often – More Crop Stress 2

1.3 Biofuel Crops – Alternative to Fossil Fuels 3

1.4 Avoiding Competition with Food Production 4

1.5 Fuel Crops Grown in Marginal Lands – Constraints 4

1.6 Plant Response to Stresses Related to Climate Change and Marginal Lands 6

1.7 Sustaining Biofuel Crops Under Stressed Environment 7

1.8 The Phytomicrobiome and Climate Change Conditions 8

1.9 The Phytomicrobiome and Abiotic Plant Stress 8

1.10 Mechanisms of Stress Tolerance in the Phytomicrobiome 9

1.11 Phytomicrobiome Engineering 11

1.12 The Phytomicrobiome in Biofuel Plants 12

1.13 Role of the Phytomicrobiome in Phytoremediation of Biofuel Plants 14

References 15

2 THE IMPACT OF AGRICULTURE ON SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY COMPOSITION AND DIVERSITY IN SOUTHEAST ASIA 25
Binu M. Tripathi, Itumeleng Moroenyane and Jonathan M. Adams

2.1 Introduction 25

2.2 The Extent of Soil Microbial Diversity and their Status in Tropical Soils 27

2.3 The Composition and Function of Microbial Communities in Tropical Soils of Southeast Asia 29

2.3.1 Unique Soil Microbial Communities of Southeast Asia and their Potential Drivers 29

2.4 The Impact of Land use Change on Soil Microbial Community Structure and Diversity 31

2.5 The Impact of Land use Change on Soil Functional Gene Diversity 34

2.6 Conclusions 35

References 35

3 CLIMATE CHANGE IMPACT ON PLANT DISEASES: OPINION, TRENDS AND MITIGATION STRATEGIES 41
Sachin Gupta, Deepika Sharma and Moni Gupta

3.1 Introduction 41

3.2 Climate Change and Agriculture 42

3.3 Interactions among Global Change Factors 43

3.4 Pathogen–Host Plant Relationship under Changed Scenario 44

3.5 Effect of Climate Change on Plant Diseases 44

3.5.1 Temperature 46

3.5.2 Drought 48

3.5.3 Rainfall 48

3.5.4 CO2 Concentration 48

3.6 Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies for Climate Change 49

3.6.1 Adaptation Strategies 49

3.6.2 Mitigation Strategies 50

3.7 Conclusion and Future Directions 51

References 51

4 MICROALGAE: POTENTIAL AGENTS FOR CARBON DIOXIDE MITIGATION 61
Preeti Singh, Rahul Kunwar Singh and Dhananjay Kumar

4.1 Introduction 61

4.2 Carbon Capture and Storage 64

4.3 Carbon Capture by Photosynthesis 64

4.4 CO2 Mitigation by Microalgal Culture 64

4.4.1 The Open Pond System 65

4.4.2 The Closed Photobioreactor System 66

4.4.3 The Environmentally Controlled System 66

4.5 Advantages 66

4.5.1 Integration of Microalgal Culture in Waste Water Treatment 66

4.5.2 Ability of Microalgae to Tolerate the Greenhouse Gases 66

4.6 Carbon Concentrating Mechanism of Microalgae 69

4.7 CO2 Sequestration by Microalgae 69

4.7.1 Cost Effectiveness 70

4.8 Biofertilizer 70

4.9 Biofuel 71

4.10 Other Products 72

4.11 Conclusion 72

References 72

5 PHOTOSYNTHETIC MICROORGANISMS AND BIOENERGY PROSPECTS: CHALLENGES AND POTENTIAL 79
Balkrishna Tiwari, Sindhunath Chakraborty, Ekta Verma andArun Kumar Mishra

5.1 Introduction 79

5.2 Photosynthetic Microbes 82

5.2.1 Anoxigenic Photosynthetic Microbes 83

5.2.2 Green Photosynthetic Bacteria 83

5.2.3 Green Sulfur Bacteria (Chlorobiaceae) 83

5.2.4 Green Non ]Sulfur Bacteria (Chloroflexaceae) 85

5.2.5 Purple Bacteria 86

5.2.6 Purple Sulfur Bacteria 87

5.2.7 Purple Non ]Sulfur Bacteria 87

5.2.8 Heliobacteria 88

5.3 Prospects of Anoxigenic Photosynthetic Microbes in Bioenergy Production 90

5.3.1 Hydrogen Production 90

5.4 Prospects of Cyanobacteria in Bioenergy Production 93

5.4.1 Biodiesel Production 93

5.4.2 Alcohol Production 95

5.4.3 Hydrocarbon Production 95

5.4.4 Hydrogen Production 96

5.5 Microalgae 97

5.5.1 Prospects of Microalgae in Bioenergy Production 98

5.6 Biomass Production and Challenges 99

5.7 Some Important Issues Associated with Biofuel Production 100

5.7.1 Use of Water 100

5.7.2 Nutrients and Competition with Crops 100

5.7.3 Minimizing Algae Death from Biotic and Abiotic Factors 101

5.7.4 Competition with Petroleum in Terms of Price 101

5.8 Conclusions 101

Acknowledgements 102

References 102

6 AMELIORATION OF ABIOTIC STRESSES IN PLANTS THROUGH MULTI ]FACETED BENEFICIAL MICROORGANISMS 111
Usha Chakraborty, Bishwanath Chakraborty and Jayanwita Sarkar

6.1 Introduction 111

6.2 Temperature Stress Alleviation 113

6.2.1 Alleviation by Bacteria 113

6.2.2 Alleviation by Fungi 116

6.3 Water and Salinity Stress Alleviation 118

6.3.1 Alleviation by Bacteria 118

6.3.2 Alleviation by Fungi 124

6.4 Alleviation of Heavy Metal Toxicity 130

6.5 Conclusions 137

References 138

7 ROLE OF METHYLOTROPHIC BACTERIA IN CLIMATE CHANGE MITIGATION 155
Manish Kumar, Raghvendra Saxena, Rajesh Singh Tomar, Pankaj K. Rai and Diby Paul

7.1 Introduction 155

7.2 Methylotrophic Bacteria and their Role in Agriculture 157

7.3 Volatile Organic Carbon Mitigation and Methylotrophs 158

7.4 Carbon Cycling and Climate Change 158

7.5 Methylotrophs Mitigating Methane 160

7.6 Methylotrophs Mitigating Methane in Paddy Fields 164

7.7 Conclusions 166

Acknowledgements 166

References 166

8 CONSERVATION AGRICULTURE FOR CLIMATE CHANGE RESILIENCE: A MICROBIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE 171
Raj Pal Meena and Ankita Jha

8.1 Introduction 171

8.2 The Effect of Climate Change on Agricultural Production 175

8.3 Concepts and Principles of Conservation Agriculture 179

8.4 The Ecological Role of Microbial Biodiversity in Agro ]Ecosystems 183

8.5 Role of Microbial Population in C ]Sequestration, N, P Cycle 185

8.6 Restoring Diversity in Large ]Scale Monocultures 186

8.7 Enhancing Crops vis ]a ]vis Microbial Biodiversity to Reduce Vulnerability 187

8.8 Conclusions 189

References 189

9 ARCHAEAL COMMUNITY STRUCTURE: RESILIENCE TO CLIMATE CHANGE 197
M. Thomas, K.K. Pal and Rinku Dey

9.1 Introduction 197

9.2 Possible Role of Archaea in Agricultural Sustainability 198

9.3 Ecology and Phylogeny of Domain Archaea 199

9.4 Archaeal Contribution to Global Climate Change 200

9.4.1 Archaeal Response to Increased Temperatures 201

9.4.2 Archaeal Response to Biogeochemical Cycles 202

9.5 Archaeal Mechanisms of Adaptation with Respect to Abiotic Changes 206

9.6 Conclusions 206

References 207

10 MYCORRHIZA – HELPING PLANTS TO NAVIGATE ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSES 211
Raghvendra Pratap Singh, Geetanjali Manchanda, Mian Nabeel Anwar, Jun Jie Zhang and Yue Zhang Li

10.1 Introduction 211

10.2 Arbuscular Mycorrhizae 213

10.3 Elevated CO2 Levels 215

10.4 High Temperature 217

10.5 Salinity 220

10.6 Conclusions 225

References 226

11 ENDOPHYTIC MICROORGANISMS: FUTURE TOOLS FOR CLIMATE RESILIENT AGRICULTURE 241
Rinku Dey, Pal Kamal Krishna, M. Thomas, D.N. Sherathia, V.B. Mandaliya, R.A. Bhadania, M.B. Patel, P. Maida, D.H. Mehta, B.D. Nawade and S.V. Patel

11.1 Introduction 241

11.1.1 Climate Change – Impact and Need for Adaptation 242

11.2 Endophytes and Climate Resilience 245

11.2.1 High Temperature Stress 245

11.2.2 Low Temperature Stress 246

11.2.3 Moisture ]Deficit Stress 246

11.2.4 Salinity Stress 248

11.2.5 Waterlogging Stress 250

11.3 Endophytes and Biotic Stress 251

11.3.1 Plant Diseases 251

11.3.2 Nematode Infestation 253

11.3.3 Insect Pests 253

11.4 Conclusions 253

References 254

12 BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS: GENETIC ENGINEERING FOR INSECT PEST MANAGEMENT 261
Gothandapani Sellamuthu, Prabhakaran Narayanasamy and Jasdeep Chatrath Padaria

12.1 Introduction 261

12.2 Biology of Bacillus Thuringiensis 263

12.2.1 Natural Occurrence of Bacillus thuringiensis 263

12.2.2 Classification of Bt Toxins 264

12.2.3 Mode of Action 266

12.3 Biotechnological Approaches of Microbial Genes for Insect Pest Management 267

12.3.1 Microbial Genes and Gene Pyramiding 267

12.3.2 Alternative Insecticidal Genes 268

12.3.3 Gene Pyramiding 268

12.4 Methods for Development of Transgenic Crops 269

12.4.1 Direct Gene Transfer 270

12.4.2 Indirect Gene Transfer 272

12.5 Field Evaluation and Commercially Available Insecticidal Crops 273

12.5.1 Environmental Safety 275

12.5.2 Ecological Balance and Food Safety 276

12.6 Insecticide Resistance 276

12.7 Conclusions 277

References 277

13 MICROBIAL NANOTECHNOLOGY FOR CLIMATE RESILIENT AGRICULTURE 285
Prem Lal Kashyap, Pallavi Rai, Raj Kumar, Shikha Sharma, Poonam Jasrotia, Alok Kumar Srivastava and Sudheer Kumar

13.1 Introduction 285

13.2 Microbe Mediated Fabrication of Nanoparticles 287

13.2.1 Bacteria 287

13.2.2 Fungi 292

13.2.3 Algae 293

13.2.4 Viruses 298

13.2.5 Actinomycetes 299

13.4 Nanomaterials for Biotic and Abiotic Stress Management 301

13.4.1 Biotic Stress Management 301

13.4.2 Abiotic Stress Management 312

13.5 Nano ]Fertilizers for Balanced Crop Nutrition 320

13.6 Conclusion and Future Directions 321

References 322

INDEX

 

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Author Information

Prem Lal Kashyap, Division of Crop Protection, ICAR- Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research (IIWBR), Karnal, India

Alok Kumar Srivastava, ICAR-National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Microorganisms (NBAIM), Pradesh, India

Shree Prakash Tiwari, Department of Microbiology, Veer Bahadur Singh Purvanchal University, Uttar Pradesh, India

Sudheer Kumar, Division of Crop Protection, ICAR- Indian Institute of Wheat and Barley Research (IIWBR), Karnal, India

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