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Materials: Introduction and Applications

ISBN: 978-1-119-28100-9
480 pages
September 2016
Materials: Introduction and Applications (1119281008) cover image

Description

Presents a fully interdisciplinary approach with a stronger emphasis on polymers and composites than traditional materials books

Materials science and engineering is an interdisciplinary field involving the properties of matter and its applications to various areas of science and engineering. Polymer materials are often mixed with inorganic materials to enhance their mechanical, electrical, thermal, and physical properties. Materials: Introduction and Applications addresses a gap in the existing textbooks on materials science.

This book focuses on three Units. The first, Foundations, includes basic materials topics from Intermolecular Forces and Thermodynamics and Phase Diagrams to Crystalline and Non-Crystalline Structures. The second Units, Materials, goes into the details of many materials including Metals, Ceramics, Organic Raw Materials, Polymers, Composites, Biomaterials, and Liquid Crystals and Smart Materials. The third and final unit details Behavior and Properties including Rheological, Mechanical, Thermophysical, Color and Optical, Electrical and Dielectric, Magnetic, Surface Behavior and Tribology, Materials, Environment and Sustainability, and Testing of Materials.

Materials: Introduction and Applications features:

  • Basic and advanced Materials concepts
  • Interdisciplinary information that is otherwise scattered consolidated into one work
  • Links to everyday life application like electronics, airplanes, and dental materials

Certain topics to be discussed in this textbook are more advanced. These will be presented in shaded gray boxes providing a two-level approach. Depending on whether you are a student of Mechanical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Engineering Technology, MSE, Chemistry, Physics, etc., you can decide for yourself whether a topic presented on a more advanced level is not important for you—or else essential for you given your professional profile

Witold Brostow is Regents Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at the University of North Texas. He is President of the International Council on Materials Education and President of the Scientific Committee of the POLYCHAR World Forum on Advanced Material (42 member countries). He has three honorary doctorates and is a Member of the European Academy of Sciences, Member of the National Academy of Sciences of Mexico, Foreign Member of the National Academy of Engineering of Georgia in Tbilisi and Fellow of the Royal Society of Chemistry in London. His publications have been cited more than 7200 times.

Haley Hagg Lobland is the Associate Director of LAPOM at the University of North Texas. She is a Member of the POLYCHAR Scientific Committeee. She has received awards for her research presented at conferences in: Buzios, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil;  NIST, Frederick, Maryland;  Rouen, France;  and Lviv, Ukraine. She has lectured in a number of countries including Poland and Spain. Her publications include joint ones with colleagues in Egypt, Georgia, Germany, India, Israel, Mexico, Poland, Turkey and United Kingdom.

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Table of Contents

Foreword by Ulf W. Gedde xv

Preface xvii

Acknowledgments xix

Part 1 Foundations 1

1 Introduction 3

1.1 History of Materials Science and Engineering (MSE), 3

1.2 Role of MSE in Society, 4

1.3 Teaching MSE, 5

1.4 Basic Rules of MSE, 5

1.5 States of Matter, 6

1.6 Materials in Everyday Life, 7

1.7 How to Make New Materials, 8

1.8 How to Use this Book, 9

1.9 Self?-Assessment Questions, 9

References, 9

2 Intermolecular Forces 11

2.1 Interactions: The First Vertex of the Triangle, 11

2.2 Primary Chemical Bonds, 12

2.3 Physical Interactions, 12

2.4 Force and Energy, 15

2.5 Interactions and States of Matter, 16

2.6 Contactless Transport, 18

2.7 Self?-Assessment Questions, 19

References, 19

3 Thermodynamics and Phase Diagrams 21

3.1 What is Thermodynamics and Why is it Useful? 21

3.2 Definitions, 22

3.3 Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics, 23

3.4 First Law of Thermodynamics, 23

3.5 Second Law of Thermodynamics, 24

3.6 The So?-Called Third Law of Thermodynamics, 25

3.7 Still More Laws of Thermodynamics? 26

3.8 Thermodynamic Potentials, 26

3.9 Thermodynamic Stability Criteria, 28

3.10 Unary Phase Diagrams and Supercritical States, 29

3.11 Liquid?-Vapor Equilibria, 32

3.12 Liquid?-Liquid Equilibria, 37

3.13 Solid?-Liquid Equilibria, 38

3.14 Self?-Assessment Questions, 42

References, 43

4 Crystal Structures 45

4.1 The Nature of Solid Phases, 45

4.2 Formation of Solid Phases, 48

4.3 Crystal Structures, 50

4.4 Defects in Crystals, 60

4.5 Self?-Assessment Questions, 65

References, 66

5 Non?-Crystalline and Porous Structures 67

5.1 Quasicrystals, 67

5.2 Mineraloids, 68

5.3 Diffractometry, 69

5.4 The Binary Radial Distribution Function, 70

5.5 Voronoi Polyhedra, 73

5.6 The Glass Transition, 76

5.7 Glasses and Liquids, 79

5.8 Aging of Glasses, 81

5.9 Porous Materials and Foams, 82

5.10 Self?-Assessment Questions, 86

References, 86

Part 2 Materials 89

6 Metals 91

6.1 History and Composition, 91

6.2 Methods of Metallurgy, 94

6.3 Alloys, 104

6.4 Phase Diagrams of Metal Systems, 105

6.5 Ferrous Metals: Iron and Steel, 105

6.6 Non?-Ferrous Metallic Engineering Materials, 107

6.7 Structures of Metals in Relation to Properties, 109

6.8 Glassy Metals and Liquid Metals, 110

6.9 Self?-Assessment Questions, 116

References, 116

7 Ceramics 119

7.1 Classification of Ceramic Materials, 119

7.2 History of Ceramics, 120

7.3 Crystalline Ceramics, 121

7.4 Network Ceramics: Silicates and Sialons, 127

7.5 Carbon, 129

7.6 Glassy Ceramics, 133

7.7 Glass?-Bonded Ceramics, 136

7.8 Cements, 139

7.9 Advanced and Engineering Ceramics, 141

7.10 General Properties of Ceramics, 146

7.11 Self?-Assessment Questions, 147

References, 148

8 Organic Raw Materials 151

8.1 Introduction, 151

8.2 Natural Gas, 152

8.3 Petroleum, 154

8.4 Coal and Coal Tar, 158

8.5 General Remarks, 160

8.6 Self?-Assessment Questions, 161

References, 162

9 Polymers 163

9.1 Polymers among other Classes of Materials, 165

9.2 Inorganic and Organic Polymers, 166

9.3 Thermoplastics and Thermosets, 167

9.4 Polymerization Processes, 172

9.5 Molecular Mass Distribution, 177

9.6 Molecular Structures of Important Polymers, 178

9.7 Spatial Structures of Macromolecules and Associated Properties, 178

9.8 Computer Simulation of Polymers, 183

9.9 Polymer Solutions, 184

9.10 Polymer Processing and the Role of Additives, 185

9.11 Applications of Specialty Polymers, 187

9.12 Self?-Assessment Questions, 188

References, 188

10 Composites 191

10.1 Introduction, 191

10.2 Fiber Reinforced Composites, 193

10.3 Cermets and other Metal Matrix Composites (MMCs), 196

10.4 Ceramic Matrix Composites (CMCs), 198

10.5 Carbon–Carbon Composites, 199

10.6 Polymer Matrix Composites (PMCs), 199

10.7 Hybrid Composites, 200

10.8 Laminar and Sandwich Composites, 200

10.9 Concretes and Asphalts, 202

10.10 Natural Composites, 205

10.11 A Comparison of Composites, 208

10.12 Self?-Assessment Questions, 209

References, 209

11 Biomaterials 211

11.1 Definitions, 211

11.2 Overview of Biomaterials and Applications, 213

11.3 Joint Replacements, 214

11.4 Dental Materials, 218

11.5 Vascularization in Cardiac and other Applications, 219

11.6 Intraocular Lenses and Contact Lenses, 222

11.7 Drug Delivery Systems, 224

11.8 Biological and Natural Materials, 226

11.9 Bio?-Based Materials, 231

11.10 Other Aspects of Biomaterials, 233

11.11 Self?-Assessment Questions, 236

References, 236

12 Liquid Crystals and Smart Materials 241

12.1 Introduction, 241

12.2 Liquid Crystals, 242

12.3 Field?-Responsive Composites, 248

12.3.1 Magnetorheological Fluids, 249

12.3.2 Electrorheological (ER) Fluids, 252

12.3.3 Electrorheological and Magnetorheological Elastomers, 254

12.4 Electrochromic Materials, 255

12.5 Piezoelectric and Pyroelectric Materials, 256

12.6 Shape?-Memory Materials, 260

12.7 Self?-Assessment Questions, 263

References, 263

Part 3 Behavior and Properties 267

13 Rheological Properties 269

13.1 Introduction, 269

13.2 Laminar and Turbulent Flow and the Melt Flow Index, 270

13.3 Viscosity and How it is Measured, 273

13.4 Linear and Nonlinear Viscoelasticity, 277

13.5 Drag Reduction, 281

13.6 Suspensions, Slurries, and Flocculation, 285

13.7 Self?-Assessment Questions, 287

References, 288

14 Mechanical Properties 289

14.1 Mechanics at the Forefront, 289

14.2 Quasi?-Static Testing, 290

14.3 Properties: Strength, Stiffness, and Toughness, 298

14.4 Creep and Stress Relaxation, 299

14.5 Viscoelasticity, Dynamic Mechanical Analysis, and Brittleness, 302

14.6 Fracture Mechanics, 305

14.7 Impact Testing, 309

14.8 Hardness and Indentation, 312

14.9 Self?-Assessment Questions, 315

References, 316

15 Thermophysical Properties 319

15.1 Introduction, 319

15.2 Volumetric Properties and Equations of State, 320

15.3 Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), 323

15.4 Thermogravimetric Analysis, 326

15.5 Thermal Conductivity, 327

15.6 Negative Temperatures, 330

15.7 Self?-Assessment Questions, 333

References, 334

16 Color and Optical Properties 335

16.1 Introduction, 335

16.2 Atomic Origins of Color, 335

16.3 Color and Energy Diagrams, 339

16.4 Light and Bulk Matter, 344

16.5 Optical Properties and Testing Methods, 345

16.6 Lasers, 348

16.7 Electro?-Optical Effects and Luminescence, 348

16.8 Photoinduction, 351

16.9 Invisibility, 352

16.10 Self?-Assessment Questions, 355

References, 355

17 Electronic Properties 357

17.1 Introduction, 357

17.2 Conductivity, Resistivity, and Band Theory, 358

17.3 Conductivity in Metals, Semiconductors, and Insulators, 363

17.4 Semiconductors: Types and Electronic Behavior, 364

17.5 Superconductivity, 371

17.6 Phenomena of Dielectrical Polarization, 371

17.7 Self?-Assessment Questions, 375

References, 375

18 Magnetic Properties 379

18.1 Magnetic Fields and their Creation, 379

18.2 Classes of Magnetic Materials, 383

18.3 Diamagnetic Materials, 384

18.4 Paramagnetic Materials, 384

18.5 Ferromagnetic and Antiferromagnetic Materials, 384

18.6 Ferrimagnetic Materials, 386

18.7 Applications of Magnetism, 386

18.8 Self?-Assessment Questions, 389

References, 389

19 Surface Behavior and Tribology 391

19.1 Introduction and History, 391

19.2 Surfaces: Topography and Interactions, 393

19.3 Oxidation, 395

19.4 Corrosion, 399

19.5 Adhesion, 400

19.6 Friction, 404

19.7 Scratch Resistance, 411

19.8 Wear, 418

19.9 Lubrication and Nanoscale Tribology, 419

19.10 Final Comments, 421

19.11 Self?-Assessment Questions, 422

References, 423

20 Materials Recycling and Sustainability 427

20.1 Introduction, 427

20.2 Water, 428

20.3 Nuclear Energy, 430

20.4 Energy Generation from Sunlight, 432

20.5 Energy Generation from Thermoelectricity, 435

20.6 Degradation of Materials, 437

20.7 Recycling, 438

20.8 Final Thoughts, 439

20.9 Self?-Assessment Questions, 440

References, 441

21 Materials Testing and Standards 443

21.1 Introduction, 443

21.2 Standards and Metrics, 443

21.3 Testing, 444

21.4 Microscopy Testing, 445

21.5 Sensors in Testing, 447

21.6 Summary, 448

21.7 Self?-Assessment Questions, 448

References, 448

Numerical Values of Important Physical Constants 449

Name Index 451

Subject Index 455

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