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Hydrogen Production Technologies

ISBN: 978-1-119-28366-9
656 pages
March 2017
Hydrogen Production Technologies (1119283663) cover image

Description

The book is organized in three parts.  Part I shows how the catalytic and electrochemical principles involve hydrogen production technologies. Part II is devoted to biohydrogen production and introduces gasification and fast pyrolysis biomass, dark fermentation, microbial electrolysis and power production from algae. The last part of the book is concerned with the photo hydrogen generation technologies. Recent developments in the area of semiconductor-based nanomaterials, specifically semiconductor oxides, nitrides and metal-free semiconductors based nanomaterials for photocatalytic hydrogen production are extensively discussed in this part.

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Table of Contents

Preface xvii

Part I Catalytic and Electrochemical Hydrogen Production

1 Hydrogen Production from Oxygenated Hydrocarbons: Review of Catalyst Development, Reaction Mechanism and Reactor Modeling 3
Mohanned Mohamedali, Amr Henni and Hussameldin  Ibrahim

1.1 Introduction 4

1.2 Catalyst Development for the Steam Reforming Process 6

1.3 Kinetics and Reaction Mechanism for Steam Reforming of Oxygenated Hydrocarbons 37

1.4 Reactor Modeling and Simulation in Steam Reforming of Oxygenated Hydrocarbons 48

References 50

2 Ammonia Decomposition for Decentralized Hydrogen Production in Microchannel Reactors: Experiments and CFD Simulations 77
Steven Chiuta, Raymond C. Everson, Hein W.J.P. Neomagus and Dmitri G. Bessarabov

2.1 Introduction 78

2.2 Ammonia Decomposition for Hydrogen Production 80

2.3 Ammonia-Fueled Microchannel Reactors for Hydrogen Production: Experiments 89

2.4 CFD Simulation of Hydrogen Production in Ammonia-Fueled Microchannel Reactors 96

2.5 Summary 104

Acknowledgments 104

References 104

3 Hydrogen Production with Membrane Systems 113
F. Gallucci, A. Arratibel, J.A. Medrano, E. Fernandez, M.v. Sint Annaland and D.A. Pacheco Tanaka

3.1 Introduction 114

3.2 Pd-Based Membranes 115

3.3 Fuel Reforming in Membrane Reactors for Hydrogen Production 125

3.4 Thermodynamic and Economic Analysis of Fluidized Bed Membrane Reactors for Methane Reforming 129

3.5 Conclusions 143

Acknowledgments 144

References 144

4 Catalytic Hydrogen Production from Bioethanol 153
Peng He and Hua Song

4.1 Introduction 154

4.2 Production Technology Overview 155

4.3 Catalyst Overview 166

4.4 Catalyst Optimization Strategies 168

4.5 Reaction Mechanism and Kinetic Studies 174

4.6 Computational Approaches 179

4.7 Economic Considerations 182

4.8 Future Development Directions 185

Acknowledgment 189

References 189

5 Hydrogen Generation from the Hydrolysis of Ammonia Borane Using Transition Metal Nanoparticles as Catalyst 207
Serdar Akbayrak and Saim Özkar

5.1 Introduction 207

5.2 Transition Metal Nanoparticles in Catalysis 209

5.3 Preparation, Stabilization and Characterization of Metal Nanoparticles 209

5.4 Transition Metal Nanoparticles in Hydrogen Generation from the Hydrolysis of Ammonia Borane 212

5.5 Durability of Catalysts in Hydrolysis of Ammonia Borane 218

5.6 Conclusion 221

References 222

6 Hydrogen Production by Water Electrolysis 231
Sergey A. Grigoriev and Vladimir N. Fateev

6.1 Historical Aspects of Water Electrolysis 231

6.2 Fundamentals of Electrolysis 232

6.3 Modern Status of Electrolysis 238

6.4 Perspectives of Hydrogen Production by Electrolysis 266

Acknowledgment 268

References 269

7 Electrochemical Hydrogen Production from SO2 and Water in a SDE Electrolyzer 277
A.J. Krüger, J. Kerres, H.M. Krieg and D. Bessarabov

7.1 Introduction 278

7.2 Membrane Characterization 280

7.3 MEA  Characterization 286

7.4 Effect of Anode Impurities 293

7.5 High Temperature SO2 Electrolysis 295

7.6 Conclusion 297

References 298

Part II Bio Hydrogen Production

8 Biomass Fast Pyrolysis for Hydrogen Production from Bio-Oil 307
K. Bizkarra, V.L. Barrio, P.L. Arias and J.F. Cambra

8.1 Introduction 308

8.2 Biomass Pyrolysis to Produce Bio-Oils 310

8.3 Bio–oil Reforming Processes 331

8.4 Future  Prospects  346

References  348

9 Production of a Clean Hydrogen-Rich Gas by the Staged Gasification of Biomass and Plastic Waste 363
Joo-Sik Kim and Young-Kon Choi

9.1 Introduction 364

9.2 Chemistry of Gasification 365

9.3 Tar Cracking and H2 Production 367

9.4 Staged Gasification 368

9.5 Experimental Results and Discussion 370

9.6 Conclusions 383

References 383

10 Enhancement of Bio-hydrogen Production Technologies by Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria 385
Hugo Iván Velázquez-Sánchez, Pablo Antonio López-Pérez, María Isabel Neria-González and Ricardo Aguilar-López

10.1 Introduction 386

10.2 Sulphate-Reducing Bacteria for H2 Production 387

10.3 Kinetic Modeling of the SR Fermentation 388

10.4 Bifurcation Analysis 394

10.5 Process Control Strategies 398

10.6 Conclusions 403

Acknowledgment 403

Nomenclature 403

References 404

11 Microbial Electrolysis Cells (MECs) as Innovative Technology for Sustainable Hydrogen Production: Fundamentals and Perspective Applications 407
Abudukeremu Kadier, Mohd Sahaid Kalil, Azah Mohamed, Hassimi Abu Hasan, Peyman Abdeshahian, Tayebeh Fooladi and Aidil Abdul Hamid

11.1 Introduction 408

11.2 Principles of MEC for Hydrogen Production 409

11.3 Thermodynamics of MEC 410

11.4 Factors Influencing the Performance of MECs 412

11.5 Current Application of MECs 432

11.6 Conclusions and Prospective Application of MECs 440

Acknowledgments 441

References 441

12 Algae to Hydrogen: Novel Energy-Efficient Co-Production of Hydrogen and Power 459
Muhammad Aziz and Ilman Nuran Zaini

12.1 Introduction 459

12.2 Algae Potential and Characteristics 461

12.3 Energy-Efficient Energy Harvesting Technologies 464

12.4 Pretreatment (Drying) 467

12.5 Conversion of Algae to Hydrogen-Rich Gases 470

12.6 Conclusions 482

References 483

Part III Photo Hydrogen Production

13 Semiconductor-Based Nanomaterials for Photocatalytic Hydrogen Generation 489
Zipeng Xing, Zhenzi Li and Wei Zhou

13.1 Introduction 490

13.2 Semiconductor Oxide-Based Nanomaterials for   Photocatalytic Hydrogen Generation 491

13.3 Semiconductor Sulfide-Based Nanomaterials for Photocatalytic Hydrogen Generation 506

13.4 Metal-Free Semiconductor Nanomaterials for Photocatalytic Hydrogen Generation 517

13.5 Summary and Prospects 527

Acknowledgments 528

References 528

14 Photocatalytic Hydrogen Generation Enabled by Nanostructured TiO2 Materials 545
Mengye Wang, Meidan Ye, James Iocozziaand Zhiqun Lin

14.1 Introduction 546

14.2 Photocatalytic H2  Generation 547

14.3 Main Experimental Parameters in Photocatalytic H2 Generation Reaction 549

14.4 Types of TiO2 Nanostructures 551

14.5 Conclusions and Outlook 568

Acknowledgments 569

References 569

15 Polymeric Carbon Nitride-Based Composites for Visible-Light-Driven Photocatalytic Hydrogen Generation 579
Pablo Martín-Ramos, Jesús Martín-Gil and Manuela Ramos Silva

15.1 Introduction 580

15.2 General Comments on g-C3N4 and its Basic Properties 581

15.3 Synthesis of Bulk g-C3N4 586

15.4 Functionalization of g-C3N4 588

15.5 Photocatalytic Hydrogen Production Using g-C3N4 598

15.6 Conclusions 614

References 615

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Author Information

Mehmet Sankir received his PhD in Macromolecular Science and Engineering from the Virginia Polytechnic and State University, USA in 2005. He is currently an Associate Professor in the Department of Materials Science and Nanotechnology Engineering, TOBB University of Economics and Technology, Ankara, Turkey and group leader of Advanced Membrane Technologies Laboratory. Mehmet has actively carried out research and consulting activities in the areas of membranes for fuel cells, flow batteries, hydrogen generation and desalination.

Nurdan Demirci Sankir is currently an Associate Professor in the Materials Science and Nanotechnology Engineering Department at the TOBB University of Economics and Technology, Ankara, Turkey. She received her M.Eng and PhD degrees in Materials Science and Engineering from the Virginia Polytechnic and State University, USA in 2005. She then joined NanoSonic Inc. in Virginia, USA as R&D engineer and program manager, and in 2007 she enrolled at TOBB ETU where she established the Energy Research and Solar Cell Laboratories. Nurdan has actively carried out research activities in many areas including solar driven water splitting, photocatalytic degradation and nanostructured semiconductors.

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