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Printable Solar Cells

ISBN: 978-1-119-28374-4
576 pages
April 2017
Printable Solar Cells (1119283744) cover image

Description

This book provides an overall view of the new and highly promising materials and thin film deposition techniques for printable solar cell applications. The book is organized in four parts. Organic and inorganic hybrid materials and solar cell manufacturing techniques are covered in Part I. Part II is devoted to organic materials and processing technologies like spray coating. This part also demonstrates the key features of the interface engineering for the printable organic solar cells. The main focus of the Part III is the perovskite solar cells, which is a new and promising family of the photovoltaic applications. Finally, inorganic materials and solution based thin film formation methods using these materials for printable solar cell application is discussed in Part IV.

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Table of Contents

Preface xv

Part I Hybrid Materials and Process Technologies for Printable Solar Cells

1 Organic and Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cells 3
Serap Güneş and Niyazi Serdar Sariciftci

1.1 Introduction 4

1.2 Organic/Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cells 5

1.2.1 Introduction to Hybrid Solar Cells 5

1.2.2 Hybrid Solar Cells 5

1.2.2.1 Operational Principles of Bulk

Heterojunction Hybrid Solar Cells 5

1.2.2.2 Bulk Heterojunction Hybrid Solar Cells 8

1.2.2.3 Bilayer Heterojunction Hybrid Solar Cells 12

1.2.2.4 Inverted-Type Hybrid Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells 15

1.2.2.5 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 16

1.2.2.6 Perovskite Solar Cells 21

1.3 Conclusion  23

References 25

2 Solution Processing and Thin Film Formation of Hybrid Semiconductors for Energy Applications 37
J. Ciro, J.F. Montoya, R. Betancur and F. Jaramillo

2.1 Physical Chemical Principles of Film Formation by Solution Processes: From Suspensions of Nanoparticles and Solutions to Nucleation, Growth, Coarsening and Microstructural Evolution of Films 38

2.2 Solution-Processing Techniques for Thin Film Deposition 40

2.2.1 Spin Coating 42

2.2.2 Doctor Blade 43

2.2.3 Slot-Die Coating 44

2.2.4 Spray Coating 46

2.3 Properties and Characterization of Thin Films: Transport, Active and Electrode Layers in Thin Film Solar Cells 46

2.4 Understanding the Crystallization Processes in Hybrid Semiconductor Films: Hybrid Perovskite as a Model 50

2.4.1 Thermal Transitions Revealed by DSC 50

2.4.2 Heat Transfer Processes in a Meso-Superstructured Perovskite Solar Cell 53

2.4.3 Effect of the Annealing Process on Morphology and Crystalline Properties of Perovskite Films 55

2.4.4 Role of Precursor Composition in the Crystallinity of Perovskite Films: Understanding the Role of Additives and Moisture in the Final Properties of Perovskite Layers 56

References  57

3 Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cells Based on Quantum Dots 65
Wenjin Yue

3.1 Introduction 65

3.2 Polymer/QD Solar Cells 67

3.2.1 Working Principle 67

3.2.2 Device Parameters 68

3.2.2.1 Open-Circuit Voltage (Voc) 68

3.2.2.2 Short-Circuit Current (Jsc) 68

3.2.2.3 Fill Factor (FF) 69

3.2.3 Device Structure 70

3.2.4 Progress of Polymer/QD Solar Cells 71

3.2.4.1 Device Based on Cd Compound 71

3.2.4.2 Device Based on Pb Compound 74

3.2.4.3 Device Based on CuInS2 76

3.2.5 Strategy for Improved Device Performance 78

3.2.5.1 QDs Surface Treatment 78

3.2.5.2 In-Situ Synthesis of QDs 81

3.2.5.3 Polymer End-Group Functionalization 82

3.3 Outlooks and Conclusions 83

Acknowledgment 83

4 Hole Transporting Layers in Printable Solar Cells 93
David Curiel and Miriam Más-Montoya

4.1 Introduction 94

4.2 Hole Transporting Layers in Organic Solar Cells 97

4.2.1 Utility of Hole Transporting Layers 97

4.2.1.1 Energy Level Alignment at the Interfaces and Effect on the Open-Circuit Voltage 98

4.1.1.2 Definition of Device Polarity, Charge Transport and Use as Blocking Layer 102

4.1.1.3 Optical Spacer 103

4.1.1.4 Modulation of the Active Layer Morphology and Use as Protective Layer 103

4.1.2 Overview of Materials Used as Hole Transporting Layers 104

4.1.2.1 Polymers 104

4.1.2.2 Small Molecules 109

4.1.2.3 Metals 112

4.1.2.4 Metal Oxides 112

4.1.2.5 Metal Salts 116

4.1.2.6 Carbon Nanotubes 116

4.1.2.7 Graphene-Based Materials 116

4.1.2.8 Self-Assembled Monolayers 119

4.2 Hole Transporting Layers in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 121

4.2.1 Overview of Materials Used as Hole Transporting Layers 123

4.2.1.1 Small Molecules 123

4.2.1.2 Polymers 126

4.3 Hole Transporting Layers in Perovskite Solar Cells 127

4.3.1 Overview of Materials Used as Hole Transporting Layers 128

4.3.1.1 Small Molecules 128

4.3.1.2 Polymers 137

4.3.1.3 Metal Oxides 139

4.3.1.4 Metal Salts 140

4.3.1.5 Carbon Nanotubes 141

4.3.1.6 Graphene-Based Materials 142

4.4 Concluding Remarks 143

5 Printable Solar Cells 163
Alexander Kovalenko and Michal Hrabal

5.1 Introduction 164

5.2 Printable Solar Cells Working Principles 165

5.2.1 CIGS Solar Cells 165

5.2.2 Perovskite Solar Cells 167

5.2.3 Organic Solar Cells 170

5.2.4 Printable Charge-Carrier Selective Layers 172

5.3 Solution-Based Deposition of Thin Film Layers 173

5.3.1 Coating Techniques 174

5.3.1.1 Casting 174

5.3.1.2 Spin Coating 174

5.3.1.3 Blade Coating 176

5.3.1.4 Slot-Die Coating 177

5.3.2 Printing Techniques 179

5.3.2.1 Screen Printing 180

5.3.2.2 Gravure Printing 182

5.3.2.3 Flexographic Printing 184

5.3.2.4 Inkjet Printing 185

5.4 Characterization Techniques 189

5.4.1 Characterization of Thin Layers 189

5.4.2 Electrical Characterization of Solar Cells 190

5.5 Conclusion 194

References 197

Part II Organic Materials and Process Technologies for Printable Solar Cells

6 Spray-Coated Organic Solar Cells 205
Yifan Zheng and Junsheng Yu

6.1 Introduction 205

6.2 Introduction of Spray-Coating Method 206

6.2.1 History of Spray Coating 206

6.2.2 Spray-Coating Equipment 206

6.2.2.1 Airbrush Spray Deposition 206

6.2.2.2 Ultrasonic Spray Deposition 209

6.2.2.3 Electrospray Deposition 210

6.2.3 Spray-Coating Treatment 212

6.2.3.1 Thermal Annealing 213

6.2.3.2 Solvent Treatments 214

6.3 Materials for Spray Coating 216

6.3.1 Organic Materials 216

6.3.2 Metal Oxide and Nanoparticles 220

6.3.3 Perovskite 222

6.4 Application of Spray Coating 224

6.5 Conclusions 226

Acknowledgment 226

References 226

7 Interface Engineering: A Key Aspect for the Potential Commercialization of Printable Organic Photovoltaic Cells 235
Varun Vohra, Nur Tahirah Razali and Hideyuki Murata

7.1 Introduction 236

7.2 SD-PSCs Based on P3HT:PCBM Active Layers 240

7.2.1 Increase in Donor-Acceptor Interface through Nanostructuration of SD-PSCs 240

7.2.2 Generation of Vertical Concentration Gradient by Addition of Regiorandom P3HT in SD-PSCs 242

7.2.3 Generation of Vertical Concentration Gradient and Molecular Orientation by Rubbing P3HT in SD-PSCs 246

7.3 High Performance BHJ-PSCs with Favorable Molecular Orientation Resulting from Active Layer/Substrate

Interactions 248

7.4 Strongly Bond Metal Leaves as Laminated Top Electrodes for Low-Cost PSC Fabrication 252

7.5 Conclusions 257

References 258

8 Structural, Optical, Electrical and Electronic Properties of  PEDOT: PSS Thin Films and Their Application in Solar Cells 263
Sheng Hsiung Chang, Cheng-Chiang Chen, Hsin-Ming Cheng and Sheng-Hui Chen

8.1 Introduction 264

8.2 Chemical Structure of PEDOT:PSS 265

8.3 Optical and Electrical Characteristics of PEDOT:PSS 267

8.4 Electronic Characteristics of PEDOT:PSS 270

8.5 Highly Conductive PEDOT:PSS Thin Films 271

8.6 Hole-Transporting Materials: PEDOT:PSS Thin Films 273

8.6.1 Effect of PEDOT/PSS Ratio 274

8.6.2 Effect of Spin Rate 275

8.6.3 Effect of Thermal Annealing Temperature 277

8.6.4 Effects of Viscosity of PEDOT:PSS Solutions 278

8.7 Directions for Future Development 281

8.8 Conclusion 282

Reference 283

Part III Perovskites and Process Technologies for Printable Solar Cells

9 Organometal Trihalide Perovskite Absorbers: Optoelectronic Properties and Applications for Solar Cells 291
Timur Sh. Atabaev and Nguyen Hoa Hong

9.1 Introduction 291

9.2 Optical Properties of Organic-Inorganic Perovskite Materials 293

9.3 Charge Transport Properties 294

9.4 Electron Transporting Materials (ETM) 295

9.5 Hole-Transporting Materials (HTM) 295

9.6 Perovskite Solar Cells Architectures 296

9.7 Perovskite Deposition Methods 298

9.8 Photoexcited States 300

9.9 Hysteresis 300

9.10 Stability in Humid Environment 302

9.11 Stability Under UV Light Exposure 302

9.12 Stability at High Temperatures 303

9.13 Additives 304

9.14 Conclusions and Outlook 305

Acknowledgment 306

References 306

10 Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells with Scalable and Roll-to-Roll Compatible Printing/Coating Processes 313
Dechan Angmo, Mei Gao and Doojin Vak

10.1 Introduction 314

10.2 Optoelectronic Properties 316

10.3 History 317

10.4 Device Configurations 318

10.5 Functional Materials 321

10.5.1 The Organic-Inorganic Halide Perovskites 322

10.5.2 Electron-Selective Layer 324

10.5.3 Hole-Selective Layer 325

10.5.4 Transparent Electrode 325

10.5.5 Counter Electrode 326

10.6 Spin Coating 327

10.7 Roll-to-Roll Processing 331

10.8 Substrate Limitation 331

10.9 Printing and Coating Methods 333

10.9.1 Coating Methods 335

10.9.1.1 Slot-Die Coating 335

10.9.1.2 Spray Coating 339

10.9.1.3 Doctor Blade Coating 342

10.9.1.4 Knife Coating 344

10.9.1.5 Reverse Gravure Coating 345

10.9.2 Printing Methods 346

10.9.2.1 Gravure Printing 346

10.9.2.2 Flexographic Printing 347

10.9.2.3 Screen Printing 349

10.9.2.4 Inkjet Printing 350

10.10 Future Outlook 352

References 352

11 Inkjet Printable Processes for Dye-Sensitized and Perovskite Solar Cells and Modules Based on Advanced Nanocomposite Materials 363
Theodoros Makris, Argyroula Mourtzikou, Andreas Rapsomanikis and Elias Stathatos

11.1 Introduction 364

11.1.1 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells 364

11.1.2 Perovskite Solar Cells 367

11.2 Inkjet Printing Process 369

11.2.1 Inkjet Printing in DSSC Technology 370

11.2.1.1 Inkjet Printing of Transition Metal Oxides 372

11.2.1.2 Inkjet Printing of Dyes on Semiconducting Oxides 373

11.2.1.3 Inkjet Printing of Ionic Liquid-Based Electrolytes 374

11.2.2 Inkjet Printing in Perovskite Solar Cell Technology 377

11.2.2.1 Inkjet Printing of Perovskite Material 378

11.3 Conclusions 379

References 379

Part IV Inorganic Materials and Process Technologies for Printable Solar Cells 383

12 Solution-Processed Kesterite Solar Cells 385
Fangyang Liu

12.1 Introduction 385

12.2 Fundamental Aspects of Kesterite Solar Cells 386

12.2.1 Crystal Structure 386

12.2.2 Phase Space and Secondary Phases 388

12.2.3 Optical and Electrical Properties 390

12.2.4 Device Architecture 391

12.3 Keterite Absorber Deposition Strategies 393

12.4 Electrodeposition 395

12.4.1 Stacked Elemental Layer (SEL) Electrodeposition 396

12.4.2 Metallic Alloy Co-electrodeposition 398

12.4.3 Chalcogenide Co-electrodeposition 399

12.5 Direct Solution Coating 400

12.5.1 Hydrazine Solution Coating 401

12.5.2 Particulate-Based Solution Coating 402

12.5.3 Molecular-Based Solution Coating 405

12.6 Conclusion 409

References 409

13 Inorganic Hole Contacts for Perovskite Solar Cells: Towards High-Performance Printable Solar Cells 423
Xingtian Yin and Wenxiu Que

13.1 Introduction 424

13.2 Transition Metal Oxides 426

13.2.1 Molybdenum Oxide (MoOx, x < 3) 426

13.2.2 Nickel Oxide (NiO) 428

13.2.2.1 Mesoscopic NiO Perovskite Solar Cells 428

13.2.2.2 Planar NiO Perovskite Solar Cells 429

13.2.3 Binary Copper Oxide (CuO and Cu2O) 439

13.2.4 Other Transition Metal Oxides 440

13.3 Non-Oxide Copper Compounds 440

13.3.1 Cuprous Iodide (CuI) 441

13.3.2 Cuprous Rhodanide (CuSCN) 441

13.3.3 Copper Sulfide (CuS) 442

13.3.4 CuAlO2 443

13.3.5 CuInS2 and Cu2ZnSnS4 444

13.4 Other Inorganic HTMs 444

13.4.1 PdS Quantum Dots (QDs)  444

13.4.2 Two-Dimensional (2D) Materials  445

13.5 Towards Printable Solar Cells  446

13.6 Conclusions and Perspectives  449

Acknowledgment 450

References 450

14 Electrode Materials for Printable Solar Cells 457
Lijun Hu, Ke Yang, Wei Chen, Falin Wu, Jiehao Fu, Wenbo Sun, Hongyan Huang, Baomin Zhao, Kuan Sun and Jianyong Ouyang

14.1 Introduction 458

14.2 Transparent Conjugated Polymers 459

14.2.1 Solvent Additive Method 460

14.2.2 Post-Treatment of PEDOT:PSS Films 461

14.2.3 Printing PEDOT:PSS Inks 463

14.3 Carbon-Based Nanomaterials 463

14.3.1 Graphene 466

14.3.2 Carbon Nanotubes 472

14.4 Metallic Nanostructures 476

14.4.1 Metal Nanomeshes 476

14.4.2 Metal Nanowire Networks 480

14.4.3 Ultrathin Metal Films 482

14.5 Multilayer Thin Films 486

14.6 Printable Metal Back Electrodes 491

14.7 Carbon-Based Back Electrodes 494

14.8 Summary and Outlook 497

Acknowledgment 498

References 498

15 Photonic Crystals for Photon Management in Solar Cells 513
Shuai Zhang, Zhongze Gu and Jian-Ning Ding

15.1 Introduction 513

15.2 Fundamentals of PCs 515

15.3 Fabrication Strategies of PCs for Photovoltaics 518

15.3.1 1D Multilayer PCs 519

15.3.2 2D PCs 524

15.3.3 3D PCs 527

15.4 Different Functionalities of PCs in Solar Cells 530

15.4.1 PC Reflectors 531

15.4.2 PC Absorbers 535

15.4.3 Front-Side PCs 538

15.4.4 PCs for Other Functionalities 540

15.5 Summary and Outlook 540

Acknowledgment 542

References 542

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Author Information

Nurdan Demirci Sankir is currently an Associate Professor in the Materials Science and Nanotechnology Engineering Department at the TOBB University of Economics and Technology (TOBB ETU), Ankara, Turkey. She received her M.Eng and PhD degrees in Materials Science and Engineering from the Virginia Polytechnic and State University, USA in 2005. She then joined NanoSonic Inc. in Virginia, USA as R&D engineer and program manager, and in 2007 she enrolled at TOBB ETU where she has been a faculty member since then. She established the Energy Research and Solar Cell Laboratories at TOBB ETU. Nurdan has actively carried out research and consulting activities in the areas of photovoltaic devices, solution based thin film manufacturing, solar driven water splitting, photocatalytic degradation and nanostructured semiconductors

Mehmet Sankir received his Ph.D in Macromolecular Science and Engineering from the Virginia Polytechnic and State University, USA in 2005.  Dr. Sankir is currently an Associate Professor in the Department of Materials Science and Nanotechnology Engineering, TOBB University of Economics and Technology, Ankara, Turkey and group leader of Advanced Membrane Technologies Laboratory. Dr. Sankir has actively carried out research and consulting activities in the areas of membranes for fuel cells, flow batteries, hydrogen generation and desalination.

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