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CCNA Routing and Switching Complete Study Guide: Exam 100-105, Exam 200-105, Exam 200-125, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-1-119-28828-2
1136 pages
September 2016
CCNA Routing and Switching Complete Study Guide: Exam 100-105, Exam 200-105, Exam 200-125, 2nd Edition (1119288282) cover image

Description

Networking's leading authority joins Sybex for the ultimate CCNA prep guide

CCNA Routing and Switching Complete Study Guide, 2nd Edition is your comprehensive review for the CCNA exams. Written by the leading authority on networking technology, this guide covers 100% of all objectives for the latest ICND1, ICND2, and CCNA Composite exams. Hands-on labs help you gain experience in critical procedures and practices, and the network simulator provides a realistic lab environment so you can practice at your own pace. Gain access to the Sybex online learning environment, featuring a robust set of study tools including: practice questions, flashcards, video instruction, and an extensive glossary of terms to help you better prepare for exam day. The pre-assessment test helps you prioritize your study time, and bonus practice exams allow you to test your understanding. Need more practice? Get 20% off a year subscription and free access to premium Cisco Labs—providing hands-on, real-world experience using Cisco Routers, Switches, and Firewalls. Free online video training is also included, with almost forty hours of Routing and Switching guidance from the experts at ITProTV.

The CCNA certification is essential to a career in networking, and the exam can be taken in two parts or as a composite. Whichever you choose, this book is your essential guide for complete review.

  • Master IP data network operation
  • Troubleshoot issues and keep the network secure
  • Understand switching and routing technologies
  • Work with IPv4 and IPv6 addressing

Full coverage and expert insight makes CCNA Routing and Switching Complete Study Guide your ultimate companion for CCNA prep.

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Table of Contents

Introduction xxv

Assessment Test l

Part I ICND1 1

Chapter 1 Internetworking 3

Internetworking Basics 4

Internetworking Models 13

The Layered Approach 13

Advantages of Reference Models 14

The OSI Reference Model 15

The Application Layer 17

The Presentation Layer 18

The Session Layer 18

The Transport Layer 18

The Network Layer 24

The Data Link Layer 26

The Physical Layer 29

Summary 31

Exam Essentials 31

Written Labs 32

Written Lab 1.1: OSI Questions 32

Written Lab 1.2: Defining the OSI Layers and Devices 34

Written Lab 1.3: Identifying Collision and Broadcast Domains 34

Review Questions 36

Chapter 2 Ethernet Networking and Data Encapsulation 41

Ethernet Networks in Review 42

Collision Domain 43

Broadcast Domain 44

CSMA/CD 45

Half- and Full-Duplex Ethernet 47

Ethernet at the Data Link Layer 49

Ethernet at the Physical Layer 55

Ethernet Cabling 59

Straight-Through Cable 59

Crossover Cable 60

Rolled Cable 62

Fiber Optic 64

Data Encapsulation 66

The Cisco Three-Layer Hierarchical Model 69

The Core Layer 71

The Distribution Layer 71

The Access Layer 72

Summary 72

Exam Essentials 73

Written Labs 74

Written Lab 2.1: Binary/Decimal/Hexadecimal Conversion 74

Written Lab 2.2: CSMA/CD Operations 77

Written Lab 2.3: Cabling 78

Written Lab 2.4: Encapsulation 78

Review Questions 79

Chapter 3 Introduction to TCP/IP 85

Introducing TCP/IP 86

A Brief History of TCP/IP 87

TCP/IP and the DoD Model 87

The Process/Application Layer Protocols 89

The Host-to-Host or Transport Layer Protocols 99

The Internet Layer Protocols 108

IP Addressing 116

IP Terminology 116

The Hierarchical IP Addressing Scheme 117

Private IP Addresses (RFC 1918) 122

IPv4 Address Types 123

Layer 2 Broadcasts 124

Layer 3 Broadcasts 124

Unicast Address 125

Multicast Address 126

Summary 127

Exam Essentials 127

Written Labs 129

Written Lab 3.1: TCP/IP 129

Written Lab 3.2: Mapping Applications to the DoD Model 129

Review Questions 131

Chapter 4 Easy Subnetting 135

Subnetting Basics 136

How to Create Subnets 138

Subnet Masks 138

Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) 140

IP Subnet-Zero 142

Subnetting Class C Addresses 142

Subnetting Class B Addresses 154

Subnetting Class A Addresses 163

Summary 166

Exam Essentials 166

Written Labs 167

Written Lab 4.1: Written Subnet Practice #1 167

Written Lab 4.2: Written Subnet Practice #2 168

Written Lab 4.3: Written Subnet Practice #3 169

Review Questions 170

Chapter 5 VLSMs, Summarization, and Troubleshooting TCP/IP 175

Variable Length Subnet Masks (VLSMs) 176

VLSM Design 178

Implementing VLSM Networks 179

Summarization 186

Troubleshooting IP Addressing 189

Determining IP Address Problems 192

Summary 196

Exam Essentials 197

Written Lab 5 198

Lab 5.1: Summarization Practice 198

Review Questions 199

Chapter 6 Cisco’s Internetworking Operating System (IOS) 205

The IOS User Interface 206

Cisco IOS 206

Connecting to a Cisco IOS Device 207

Bringing Up a Switch 209

Command-Line Interface (CLI) 209

Entering the CLI 210

Overview of Router Modes 210

CLI Prompts 211

Editing and Help Features 213

Administrative Configurations 218

Hostnames 219

Banners 219

Setting Passwords 221

Encrypting Your Passwords 227

Descriptions 229

Router and Switch Interfaces 231

Bringing Up an Interface 234

Viewing, Saving, and Erasing Configurations 240

Deleting the Configuration and Reloading the Device 242

Verifying Your Configuration 242

Summary 255

Exam Essentials 256

Written Lab 6: IOS Understanding 259

Hands-on Labs 259

Hands-on Lab 6.1: Erasing an Existing Configuration 260

Hands-on Lab 6.2: Exploring User, Privileged, and Configuration Modes 260

Hands-on Lab 6.3: Using the Help and Editing Features 261

Hands-on Lab 6.4: Saving a Configuration 262

Hands-on Lab 6.5: Setting Passwords 263

Hands-on Lab 6.6: Setting the Hostname, Descriptions, IP Address, and Clock Rate 265

Review Questions 267

Chapter 7 Managing a Cisco Internetwork 273

The Internal Components of a Cisco Router and Switch 274

The Router and Switch Boot Sequence 275

Backing Up and Restoring the Cisco Configuration 276

Backing Up the Cisco Configuration 277

Restoring the Cisco Configuration 279

Erasing the Configuration 279

Configuring DHCP 280

DHCP Relay 281

Verifying DHCP on Cisco IOS 282

Syslog 283

Configuring and Verifying Syslog 285

Network Time Protocol (NTP) 288

Exploring Connected Devices Using CDP and LLDP 289

Getting CDP Timers and Holdtime Information 290

Gathering Neighbor Information 291

Documenting a Network Topology Using CDP 295

Using Telnet 298

Telnetting into Multiple Devices Simultaneously 300

Checking Telnet Connections 300

Checking Telnet Users 301

Closing Telnet Sessions 301

Resolving Hostnames 302

Building a Host Table 302

Using DNS to Resolve Names 304

Checking Network Connectivity and Troubleshooting 306

Using the ping Command 306

Using the traceroute Command 307

Debugging 308

Using the show processes Command 310

Summary 311

Exam Essentials 311

Written Labs 7 313

Written Lab 7.1: IOS Management 313

Written Lab 7.2: Router Memory 314

Hands-on Labs 314

Hands-on Lab 7.1: Backing Up the Router Configuration 315

Hands-on Lab 7.2: Using the Cisco Discovery Protocol (CDP) 315

Hands-on Lab 7.3: Using Telnet 316

Hands-on Lab 7.4: Resolving Hostnames 317

Review Questions 319

Chapter 8 Managing Cisco Devices 323

Managing the Configuration Register 324

Understanding the Configuration Register Bits 324

Checking the Current Configuration Register Value 326

Boot System Commands 327

Recovering Passwords 328

Backing Up and Restoring the Cisco IOS 331

Verifying Flash Memory 332

Backing Up the Cisco IOS 333

Restoring or Upgrading the Cisco Router IOS 334

Using the Cisco IOS File System (Cisco IFS) 337

Licensing 341

Right-To-Use Licenses (Evaluation Licenses) 344

Backing Up and Uninstalling the License 347

Summary 348

Exam Essentials 348

Written Lab 8 349

Written Lab 8.1: IOS Management 350

Hands-on Labs 350

Hands-on Lab 8.1: Backing Up Your Router IOS 350

Hands-on Lab 8.2: Upgrading or Restoring Your Router IOS 351

Review Questions 352

Chapter 9 IP Routing 357

Routing Basics 359

The IP Routing Process 361

The Cisco Router Internal Process 366

Testing Your IP Routing Understanding 367

Configuring IP Routing 372

Corp Configuration 373

SF Configuration 375

LA Configuration 379

Configuring IP Routing in Our Network 381

Static Routing 382

Default Routing 387

Dynamic Routing 390

Routing Protocol Basics 390

Routing Information Protocol (RIP) 392

Configuring RIP Routing 393

Holding Down RIP Propagations 396

Summary 399

Exam Essentials 399

Written Lab 9 400

Hands-on Labs 401

Hands-on Lab 9.1: Creating Static Routes 402

Hands-on Lab 9.2: Configuring RIP Routing 403

Review Questions 405

Chapter 10 Layer 2 Switching 411

Switching Services 412

Three Switch Functions at Layer 2 413

Port Security 417

Configuring Catalyst Switches 422

Catalyst Switch Configuration 423

Verifying Cisco Catalyst Switches 430

Summary 433

Exam Essentials 433

Written Lab 10 434

Hands-on Labs 434

Lab 10.1: Configuring Layer 2 Switches 435

Lab 10.2: Verifying Layer 2 Switches 436

Lab 10.3: Configuring Port Security 437

Review Questions 438

Chapter 11 VLANs and Inter-VLAN Routing 443

VLAN Basics 444

Broadcast Control 447

Security 448

Flexibility and Scalability 448

Identifying VLANs 449

Frame Tagging 451

VLAN Identification Methods 452

Routing between VLANs 454

Configuring VLANs 456

Assigning Switch Ports to VLANs 459

Configuring Trunk Ports 461

Configuring Inter-VLAN Routing 465

Summary 472

Exam Essentials 472

Written Lab 11 473

Hands-on Labs 473

Hands-on Lab 11.1: Configuring and Verifying VLANs 474

Hands-on Lab 11.2: Configuring and Verifying Trunk Links 474

Hands-on Lab 11.3: Configuring Router on a Stick Routing 475

Hands-on Lab 11.4: Configuring IVR with a Layer 3 Switch 476

Review Questions 477

Chapter 12 Security 483

Perimeter, Firewall, and Internal Routers 484

Introduction to Access Lists 485

Mitigating Security Issues with ACLs 488

Standard Access Lists 489

Wildcard Masking 490

Standard Access List Example 492

Controlling VTY (Telnet/SSH) Access 496

Extended Access Lists 497

Extended Access List Example 1 501

Extended Access List Example 2 503

Extended Access List Example 3 504

Named ACLs 505

Remarks 507

Monitoring Access Lists 508

Summary 510

Exam Essentials 511

Written Lab 12 511

Hands-on Labs 512

Hands-on Lab 12.1: Standard IP Access Lists 513

Hands-on Lab 12.2: Extended IP Access Lists 514

Review Questions 517

Chapter 13 Network Address Translation (NAT) 521

When Do We Use NAT? 522

Types of Network Address Translation 524

NAT Names 524

How NAT Works 525

Static NAT Configuration 527

Dynamic NAT Configuration 527

PAT (Overloading) Configuration 528

Simple Verification of NAT 529

Testing and Troubleshooting NAT 529

Summary 535

Exam Essentials 535

Written Lab 13 535

Hands-on Labs 536

Lab 13.1: Preparing for NAT 537

Lab 13.2: Configuring Dynamic NAT 538

Lab 13.3: Configuring PAT 540

Review Questions 542

Chapter 14 Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) 547

Why Do We Need IPv6? 549

The Benefits and Uses of IPv6 549

IPv6 Addressing and Expressions 551

Shortened Expression 551

Address Types 552

Special Addresses 554

How IPv6 Works in an Internetwork 555

Manual Address Assignment 555

Stateless Autoconfiguration (eui-64) 556

DHCPv6 (Stateful) 559

IPv6 Header 559

ICMPv6 561

IPv6 Routing Protocols 565

Static Routing with IPv6 565

Configuring IPv6 on Our Internetwork 566

Configuring Routing on Our Internetwork 569

Summary 572

Exam Essentials 573

Written Labs 14 573

Written Lab 14.1 573

Written Lab 14.2 574

Hands-on Labs 574

Hands-on Lab 14.1: Manual and Stateful Autoconfiguration 574

Hands-on Lab 14.2: Static and Default Routing 576

Review Questions 577

Part II ICND2 581

Chapter 15 Enhanced Switched Technologies 583

VLAN Review 584

Assigning Switch Ports to VLANs 587

Configuring Trunk Ports 589

VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) 593

VTP Modes of Operation 594

VTP Pruning 596

Configuring VTP 597

Troubleshooting VTP 598

Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) 602

Spanning-Tree Terms 603

Spanning-Tree Operations 607

Types of Spanning-tree Protocols 610

Common Spanning Tree 610

Per-VLAN Spanning Tree+ 611

Modifying and Verifying the Bridge ID 618

Spanning-Tree Failure Consequences 623

PortFast and BPDU Guard 625

BPDU Guard 627

EtherChannel 629

Configuring and Verifying Port Channels 630

Summary 634

Exam Essentials 635

Written Lab 15 635

Hands-on Labs 636

Hands-on Lab 15.1: Verifying STP and Finding Your Root Bridge 637

Hands-on Lab 15.2: Configuring and Verifying Your Root Bridge 638

Hands-on Lab 15.3: Configuring PortFast and BPDU Guard 640

Hands-on Lab 15.4: Configuring and Verifying EtherChannel 641

Review Questions 643

Chapter 16 Network Device Management and Security 649

Mitigating Threats at the Access Layer 650

External Authentication Options 653

RADIUS 653

TACACS+ 654

SNMP 655

Management Information Base (MIB) 656

Configuring SNMP 657

Client Redundancy Issues 659

Introducing First Hop Redundancy Protocols (FHRPs) 661

Hot Standby Router Protocol (HSRP) 662

Virtual MAC Address 664

HSRP Timers 665

Group Roles 667

Configuring and Verifying HSRP 669

Summary 675

Exam Essentials 675

Written Lab 16 676

Review Questions 677

Chapter 17 Enhanced IGRP 681

EIGRP Features and Operations 682

Neighbor Discovery 683

Reliable Transport Protocol (RTP) 688

Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) 689

Route Discovery and Maintenance 689

Configuring EIGRP 690

VLSM Support and Summarization 693

Controlling EIGRP Traffic 696

Split Horizon 707

Verifying and Troubleshooting EIGRP 709

Troubleshooting Example with EIGRP 715

Simple Troubleshooting EIGRP for the CCNA 725

EIGRPv6 727

Summary 732

Exam Essentials 733

Written Lab 17 733

Hands-on Labs 734

Hands-on Lab 17.1: Configuring and Verifying EIGRP 734

Hands-on Lab 17.2: Configuring and Verifying EIGRPv6 735

Review Questions 737

Chapter 18 Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) 745

Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) Basics 746

OSPF Terminology 749

OSPF Operation 751

Configuring OSPF 753

Enabling OSPF 753

Configuring OSPF Areas 754

Configuring Our Network with OSPF 757

OSPF and Loopback Interfaces 762

Configuring Loopback Interfaces 763

Verifying OSPF Configuration 765

The show ip ospf Command 766

The show ip ospf database Command 767

The show ip ospf interface Command 768

The show ip ospf neighbor Command 769

The show ip protocols Command 770

Summary 771

Exam Essentials 771

Written Lab 18 772

Hands-on Labs 772

Hands-on Lab 18.1: Enabling the OSPF Process 773

Hands-on Lab 18.2: Configuring OSPF Interfaces 774

Hands-on Lab 18.3: Verifying OSPF Operation 775

Review Questions 776

Chapter 19 Multi-Area OSPF 783

OSPF Scalability 784

Categories of Multi-area Components 786

Adjacency Requirements 786

OSPF Router Roles 787

Link-State Advertisements 788

OSPF Hello Protocol 790

Neighbor States 791

Basic Multi-area Configuration 793

Verifying and Troubleshooting Multi-area OSPF Networks 796

The show ip ospf Command 797

The show ip ospf interface Command 798

The show ip protocols Command 801

The show ip route Command 801

The show ip ospf database Command 802

Troubleshooting OSPF Scenario 804

Simple Troubleshooting OSPF for the CCNA 812

OSPFv3 814

Verifying OSPFv3 816

Summary 819

Exam Essentials 819

Written Lab 19 820

Hands-on Labs 820

Hands-on Lab 19.1: Configuring and Verifying OSPF Multi-Area 821

Hands-on Lab 19.2: Configuring and Verifying OSPFv3 824

Review Questions 826

Chapter 20 Troubleshooting IP, IPv6, and VLANs 831

Troubleshooting IP Network Connectivity 832

Using IP SLA for Troubleshooting 843

Using SPAN for Troubleshooting 845

Configuring and Verifying Extended Access Lists 847

Troubleshooting IPv6 Network Connectivity 850

ICMPv6 850

Troubleshooting IPv6 Extended Access Lists 858

Troubleshooting VLAN Connectivity 862

VLAN Troubleshooting 862

Trunk Troubleshooting 867

Summary 874

Exam Essentials 875

Written Lab 20 875

Review Questions 877

Chapter 21 Wide Area Networks 881

Introduction to Wide Area Networks 882

WAN Topology Options 883

Defining WAN Terms 885

WAN Connection Bandwidth 886

WAN Connection Types 887

WAN Support 888

Cisco Intelligent WAN (IWAN) 891

Cabling the Serial Wide Area Network 894

Serial Transmission 894

Data Terminal Equipment and Data Communication Equipment 895

High-Level Data-Link Control (HDLC) Protocol 896

Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) 898

Link Control Protocol (LCP) Configuration Options 899

PPP Session Establishment 900

PPP Authentication Methods 901

Configuring PPP on Cisco Routers 901

Configuring PPP Authentication 901

Verifying and Troubleshooting Serial Links 902

Multilink PPP (MLP) 907

PPP Client (PPPoE) 911

Configuring a PPPoE Client 912

Virtual Private Networks 913

Benefits of VPNs 914

Enterprise- and Provider-Managed VPNs 915

Introduction to Cisco IOS IPsec 917

IPsec Transforms 918

GRE Tunnels 919

GRE over IPsec 920

Configuring GRE Tunnels 921

Verifying GRP Tunnels 923

Single-Homed EBGP 925

Protocol Comparison and Overview 926

Configuring and Verifying EBGP 929

Verifying EBGP 931

Summary 934

Exam Essentials 934

Written Lab 21 935

Hands-on Labs 935

Hands-on Lab 21.1: Configuring PPP Encapsulation and Authentication 936

Hands-on Lab 21.2: Configuring and Monitoring HDLC 937

Hands-on Lab 21.3: Configuring a GRE Tunnel 938

Review Questions 941

Chapter 22 Evolution of Intelligent Networks 947

Switch Stacking 948

Cloud Computing and Its Effect on the Enterprise Network 950

Service Models 952

Overview of Network Programmability in Enterprise Network 953

Application Programming Interfaces (APIs) 954

Southbound APIs 955

Northbound APIs 956

Cisco APIC-EM 957

Using APIC-EM for Path Tracing 959

Cisco Intelligent WAN 960

Quality of Service 962

Traffic Characteristics 962

Trust Boundary 964

QoS Mechanisms 965

Classification and Marking 965

Policing, Shaping, and Re-Marking 966

Tools for Managing Congestion 967

Tools for Congestion Avoidance 970

Summary 971

Exam Essentials 971

Written Lab 22 971

Review Questions 973

Appendix A Answers to Written Labs 977

Chapter 1: Internetworking 978

Written Lab 1.1: OSI Questions 978

Written Lab 1.2: Defining the OSI Layers and Devices 979

Written Lab 1.3: Identifying Collision and Broadcast Domains 979

Chapter 2: Ethernet Networking and Data Encapsulation 980

Written Lab 2.1: Binary/Decimal/Hexadecimal Conversion 980

Written Lab 2.2: CSMA/CD Operations 982

Written Lab 2.3: Cabling 982

Written Lab 2.4: Encapsulation 982

Chapter 3: Introduction to TCP/IP 983

Written Lab 3.1: TCP/IP 983

Written Lab 3.2: Mapping Applications to the DoD Model 983

Chapter 4: Easy Subnetting 984

Written Lab 4.1: Written Subnet Practice #1 984

Written Lab 4.2: Written Subnet Practice #2 985

Written Lab 4.3: Written Subnet Practice #3 985

Chapter 5: VLSMs, Summarization and Troubleshooting TCP/IP 986

Chapter 6: Cisco’s Internetworking Operating System (IOS) 986

Written Lab 6: Cisco IOS 986

Chapter 7: Managing a Cisco Internetwork 987

Written Lab 7.1: IOS Management 987

Written Lab 7.2: Router Memory 987

Chapter 8: Managing Cisco Devices 988

Written Lab 8.1: IOS Management 988

Chapter 9: IP Routing 988

Chapter 10: Layer 2 Switching 989

Chapter 11: VLANs and InterVLAN Routing 989

Chapter 12: Security 990

Chapter 13: Network Address Translation (NAT) 991

Chapter 14: Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) 991

Written Lab 14.1: IPv6 Foundation 991

Written Lab 14.2: EUI-64 Format 992

Chapter 15: Enhanced Switched Technologies 992

Written Lab 15 992

Chapter 16: Network Device Management and Security 993

Written Lab 16 993

Chapter 17: Enhanced IGRP 993

Written Lab 17 993

Chapter 18: Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) 994

Written Lab 18 994

Chapter 19: Multi-Area OSPF 994

Written Lab 19 994

Chapter 20: Troubleshooting IP, IPv6, and VLANs 995

Written Lab 20 995

Chapter 21: Wide Area Networks 995

Written Lab 21 995

Chapter 22: Evolution of Intelligent Networks 996

Written Lab 22 996

Appendix B Answers to Review Questions 997

Chapter 1: Internetworking 998

Chapter 2: Ethernet Networking and Data Encapsulation 1000

Chapter 3: Introduction to TCP/IP 1002

Chapter 4: Easy Subnetting 1003

Chapter 5: VLSMs, Summarization, and Troubleshooting TCP/IP 1005

Chapter 6: Cisco’s Internetworking Operating System (IOS) 1007

Chapter 7: Managing a Cisco Internetwork 1009

Chapter 8: Managing Cisco Devices 1010

Chapter 9: IP Routing 1012

Chapter 10: Layer 2 Switching 1013

Chapter 11: VLANs and InterVLAN Routing 1015

Chapter 12: Security 1017

Chapter 13: Network Address Translation (NAT) 1019

Chapter 14: Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) 1020

Chapter 15: Enhanced Switched Technologies 1022

Chapter 16: Network Device Management and Security 1024

Chapter 17: Enhanced IGRP 1025

Chapter 18: Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) 1027

Chapter 19: Multi-Area OSPF 1029

Chapter 20: Troubleshooting IP, IPv6, and VLANs 1031

Chapter 21: Wide Area Networks 1032

Chapter 22: Evolution of Intelligent Networks 1033

Appendix C Disabling and Configuring Network Services 1037

Blocking SNMP Packets 1038

Disabling Echo 1038

Turning off BootP and Auto-Config 1039

Disabling the HTTP Interface 1040

Disabling IP Source Routing 1040

Disabling Proxy ARP 1040

Disabling Redirect Messages 1040

Disabling the Generation of ICMP Unreachable Messages 1041

Disabling Multicast Route Caching 1041

Disabling the Maintenance Operation Protocol (MOP) 1041

Turning Off the X.25 PAD Service 1042

Enabling the Nagle TCP Congestion Algorithm 1042

Logging Every Event 1042

Disabling Cisco Discovery Protocol 1043

Disabling the Default Forwarded UDP Protocols 1043

Cisco’s auto secure 1044

Index 1047

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Author Information

Todd Lammle, Cisco certified in almost every category, is the authority on Cisco networking and certification. His three decades of real-world experience is prevalent in his writing. He is an experienced networking engineer with very practical experience working on the largest bounded and unbounded networks in the world at such companies as Xerox, Hughes Aircraft, Texaco, AAA, Cisco, and Toshiba, among many others. Todd has published over 60 books, including the very popular and bestselling CCNA: Cisco Certified Network Associate Study Guide and Cisco Firepower NGIPS. Todd runs an international training company from Texas, and a large scale consulting business out of Colorado. You can reach Todd through his forum and blog at www.lammle.com/ccna.

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