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Troubleshooting Rotating Machinery: Including Centrifugal Pumps and Compressors, Reciprocating Pumps and Compressors, Fans, Steam Turbines, Electric Motors, and More

ISBN: 978-1-119-29439-9
384 pages
July 2016
Troubleshooting Rotating Machinery: Including Centrifugal Pumps and Compressors, Reciprocating Pumps and Compressors, Fans, Steam Turbines, Electric Motors, and More (1119294398) cover image

Description

Process machines are critical to the profitability of processes.  Safe, efficient and reliable machines are required to maintain dependable manufacturing processes that can create saleable, on-spec product on time, and at the desired production rate.   As the wards of process machinery, we wish to keep our equipment in serviceable condition.

One of the most challenging aspects of a machinery professional or operator’s job is deciding whether an operating machine should be shut down due to a perceived problem or be allowed to keep operating. If he or she wrongly recommends a repair be conducted, the remaining useful machine life is wasted, but if he or she is right, they can save the organization from severe consequences, such as product releases, fires, costly secondary machine damage, etc. This economic balancing act is at the heart of all machinery assessments.

Troubleshooting is part science and part art.  Simple troubleshooting tables or decision trees are rarely effective in solving complex, real-world machine problems.  For this reason, the authors want to offer a novel way to attack machinery issues that can adversely affect the reliability and efficiency of your plant processes.  The methodology presented in this book is not a rigid “cook book” approach but rather a flexible and dynamic process aimed at exploring process plant machines holistically, in order uncover the true nature the problem at hand.

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Table of Contents

Preface xi

Acknowledgements xv

1 Troubleshooting for Fun and Profit 1

1.1 Why Troubleshoot? 10

1.2 Traits of a Successful Troubleshooter 13

2 An Insight in Design: Machines and Their Components Serve a Function 19

2.1 An Overview of the Design Process 30

2.2 Complex Machine Element Environments 34

3 Machinery Design Issues and Failure Modes 37

3.1 Common Failure Modes 44

3.1.1 Pluggage 45

3.1.2 Erosive Wear 45

3.1.3 Fatigue 46

3.1.4 Compressor Blade Fatigue Example 47

3.1.5 Bearing Failure 49

3.1.6 Rubbing 50

3.1.7 Unique Failure Modes 50

4 Machinery in Process Services – The Big Picture 53

5 Causes Versus Symptoms 61

5.1 Causal Chains 66

5.2 Summary 71

6 Approach Field Troubleshooting Like a Reputable News Reporter 73

7 The “What” Questions 77

7.1 What is the Problem or What Are the Symptoms? 78

7.2 What Is Your Assessment of the Problem? 80

7.3 What Is at Stake? 85

7.4 What Risk Is at Hand? 86

7.5 What Additional Information Is Required? 87

8 Who Knows the Most About the Problem? 91

9 When Do the Symptoms Show Up? 97

9.1 “When” Questions to Ask 100

9.2 Ways to Display Time Related Data 101

9.3 Timelines 102

9.4 Trend Plots 106

9.5 Constant Amplitude Trends 110

9.6 Step Changes 110

9.7 Gradual Versus Rapidly Changing Trends 111

9.8 Correlations 113

9.9 Speed-Related Issues 114

9.10 Erratic Amplitude 117

10 Where Do the Symptoms Show Up? 121

10.1 Locating a Machine-Train Problem 122

10.2 Troubleshooting Problems Involving Multiple Machine-Trains 128

10.3 Multiple Versus Single Machine Train Examples 130

10.4 Analyzing Noises, Pings, and Knocks 132

10.5 Seeing the Light at the End of the Tunnel 135

11 Why Is the Problem Occurring? 137

11.1 Fitting the Pieces Together 139

11.2 Reciprocating Compressor Example 142

11.3 Troubleshooting Matrices 143

11.4 Assessing Machine with Multiple Symptoms 144

12 Analyze, Test, Act, and Confirm (Repeat as Needed) 147

12.1 The Iterative Path to the Final Solution 150

13 Real-World Examples 155

13.1 Case Study #1 155

13.1.1 Closing Comments 158

13.2 Case Study #2 158

13.2.1 Closing Comments 163

13.3 Case Study #3 163

13.3.1 Closing Comments 170

13.4 Case Study #4 170

13.5 Case Study #5 174

13.5.1 Closing Comments 179

14 The “Hourglass” Approach to Troubleshooting 181

14.1 Thinking and Acting Globally 186

15 Vibration Analysis 187

15.1 Vibration Analysis Primer 188

15.2 Identifying Machine Vibration Characteristics 201

16 Applying the 5Qs to Rotordynamic Investigations 207

16.1 Introduction 208

16.1.1 Rotordynamics: A Brief Overview 208

16.2 Using Rotordynamic Results for Troubleshooting 213

16.3 Closing 222

17 Managing Critical Machinery Vibration Data 227

17.1 Vibration Analysis Strategies 230

18 Closing Remarks 235

18.1 Practice the Method 235

18.2 Provide Training on Fault Trees and Cause Mapping 236

18.3 Employ Team Approach for Complex Problems 236

18.4 Get Management’s Support 237

Appendix A: The Field Troubleshooting Process—Step by Step 239

Appendix B: Troubleshooting Matrices and Tables 249

Index 351

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