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Lignocellulosic Biomass Production and Industrial Applications

Arindam Kuila (Editor), Vinay Sharma (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-119-32360-0
304 pages
June 2017
Lignocellulosic Biomass Production and Industrial Applications (1119323606) cover image


Lignocellulosic Biomass Production and Industrial Applications describes the utilization of lignocellulosic biomass for various applications. Although there have been numerous reports on lignocellulosic biomass for biofuel application, there have been very few other applications reported for lignocellulosic biomass-based chemicals and polymers. Therefore, this book covers all of the possible lignocellulosic biomass applications. Besides describing the different types of biofuel production, such as bioethanol, biobutanol, biodiesel and biogas from lignocellulosic biomass, it also presents various other lignocellulosic biomass biorefinery applications for the production of chemicals, polymers, paper and bioplastics. In addition, there are chapters on valorization of lignocellulosic materials, alkali treatment to improve the physical, mechanical and chemical properties of lignocellulosic natural fibers,  and a discussion of the major benefits, limitations and future prospects of the use of lignocellulosic biomass.

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Table of Contents

Preface xv

1 Valorization of Lignocellulosic Materials to Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) 1

Arpan Das

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Lignocellulose: An Abundant Carbon Source for PHA Production 5

1.3 Lignocellulosic Pretreatment Techniques 8


vi Contents

1.4 Hydrolysis of Lingocellulose 14

1.5 Lignocellulose Biomass as Substrate for PHA Production 16

1.6 Conclusion 19

References 19

2 Biological Gaseous Energy Recovery from Lignocellulosic Biomass 27

Shantonu Roy

2.1 Introduction 27

2.2 Simple Sugars as Feedstock 28

2.3 Complex Substrates as Feedstock 32

2.4 Biomass Feedstock 32

2.5 Waste as Feedstock 36

2.6 Industrial Wastewater 38

2.7 Conclusion 40

References 41

3 Alkali Treatment to Improve Physical, Mechanical and Chemical Properties of Lignocellulosic Natural Fibers for Use in Various Applications 47

Suvendu Manna, Prosenjit Saha, Sukanya Chudhury and Sabu Thomas

3.1 Introduction 48

Contents vii

3.3 Application of the Alkali-Steam-Treated Fibers 55

3.4 Summary 59

References 60

4 Biodiesel Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass Using Oleaginous Microbes: A Review 65

S.P. Jeevan Kumar, Lohit K. Srinivas Gujjala, Archana Dash, Bitasta Talukdar and Rintu Banerjee

4.1 Introduction 66

4.2 Lignocellulosics Distribution, Availability and Diversity 67

4.3 Prospective Oleaginous Microbes for Lipid Production 70

LCB Utilization 73

Co-Utilization of Substrate 74

4.4 Technical Know-How for Biodiesel Production from LCBs 76

4.5 Fermentation 78

4.6 Transesterification for Biodiesel Production 80

viii Contents

4.7 Characteristics of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters 83

4.8 Conclusion 83

References 84

5 Biopulping of Lignocellulose 93

Arijit Jana, Debashish Ghosh, Diptarka Dasgupta, Pradeep Kumar Das Mohapatra and Keshab Chandra Mondal

5.1 Introduction 93

5.2 Composition of Lignocellulosic Biomass 95

5.3 Pulping and its Various Processes 97

5.4 Biopulping – Process Overview 98

5.5 Advantages and Disadvantages of Biopulping 104

5.6 Future Prospects 105

Acknowledgment 105

References 106

6 Second Generation Bioethanol Production from Residual Biomass of the Rice Processing Industry 111

Luciana Luft, Juliana R. F. da Silva, Raquel C. Kuhn and Marcio A. Mazutti

6.1 Introduction 112

6.2 Residual Biomass 112

6.3 Rice and Processing 113

6.4 Pretreatment  Techniques 115


6.5 Hydrolysis 124

6.6 Fermentation 125

6.7 Bioethanol Production 127

6.8 Concluding Remarks 127

Acknowledgments 128

References 128

7 Microbial Enzymes and Lignocellulosic Fuel Production 135

Avanthi Althuri, Anjani Devi Chintagunta, Knawang Chhunji Sherpa, Rajiv Chandra Rajak, Debajyoti Kundu, Jagriti Singh, Akanksha Rastogi and Rintu Banerjee

7.1 Introduction 136

Biofuel Production 136

7.2 Lignocellulosic Biomass as Sustainable Alternative

for Fuel Production 137

7.2.1 Constituents of Lignocelluloses: Cellulose, Hemicellulose, Lignin and Other Biomolecules 138

7.3 Enzymes and Their Sources for Biofuel Generation 139

7.4 Microbial Enzymes towards Lignocellulosic Biomass Degradation 142

x Contents

7.5 Applications in Biofuel Production 159

7.6 Conclusion 162

References 163

8 Sugarcane: A Potential Agricultural Crop for Bioeconomy through Biorefinery 171

Knawang Chhunji Sherpa, Rajiv Chandra Rajak and Rintu Banerjee

8.1 Introduction 171

8.2 Present Status of Sugarcane Production

and its Availability 173

8.3 Morphology of Sugarcane 174

8.4 Factors Involved in Sugarcane Production 175

8.5 Major Limitations of Sugarcane Production 185

8.6 An Overview of Biotechnological Developments for Sugarcane Improvement 186

8.7 By-Products of Sugarcane Processing 188

8.7.1 Bagasse 188

8.7.2 Molasses 189

8.7.3 Vinasse 189

8.8 Applications of Sugarcane for Biorefinery Concept 189

Contents xi

8.9 Utilization of Sugarcane Residue for

Bioethanol Production 190

8.10 Conclusions 192

References 192

9 Lignocellulosic Biomass Availability Map: A GIS-Based Approach for Assessing Production Statistics of Lignocellulosics and its Application in Biorefinery 197

Sanjeev Kumar, G. Lohit Kumar Srinivas and Rintu Banerjee

9.1 Introduction 198

9.2 Geographical Information System (GIS) 199

9.3 Application of GIS in Mapping Lignocellulosic Biomass 202

9.4 Biofuels from Lignocellulosics 209

9.5 Conclusion 211

References 212

10 Lignocellulosic Biomass Utilization for the Production of Sustainable Chemicals and Polymers 215

Mukherjee Gunjan, Dhiman Gourav and Akhtar Nadeem

10.1 Introduction 216

10.2 Lignocellulosic Biomass 216

10.3 Pretreatment Strategies 219

Pulsed Electric Field 219

10.4 Value-Added Chemicals from Lignocellulosic Biomass 224

xii Contents

10.5 Sustainable Polymers from Lignocellulosic Biomass 228

(HMF)- and 2,5-Furandicarboxylic Acid (FDCA)-Based Polymers 229

Platform-Based Polymers 229

Platform-Based Polymers 231

Derived Polymers 234

10.6 Potential Challenges for a Sustainable Biorefinery 234

10.7 Environmental Effects of Biorefineries 235

10.8 Future Perspectives of Biorefineries and Their Products 236

10.9 Conclusion 236

References 237

Contents xiii

11 Utilization of Lignocellulosic Biomass for Biobutanol Production: A Review 247

Anand Prakash, Vinay Sharma, Deepak Kumar, Arindam Kuila and Arun Kumar Sharma

11.1 Introduction 247

11.2 Bioconversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Biobutanol 248

11.3 Composition of Lignocellulosic Biomass 248

11.4 Structure of Lignocellulosic Biomass 248

11.5 Biobutanol Production from Lignocellulosic Biomass 249

11.6 Conclusion 258

References 258

12 Application of Lignocellulosic Biomass in the Paper Industry 265

Mainak Mukhopadhyay and Debalina Bhattacharya

12.1 Introduction 265

12.2 Major Raw Materials Used in the Paper Industry 266

12.6 Conclusion 275

References 276
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Author Information


The book has a diverse audience. It will be particularly useful to scientists and researchers working in the renewable energy sector and lignocellulosic biorefinery application. The book will be also useful to academic researchers and industry engineers in the areas of fermentation technology, bioprocess engineering, enzymology, agricultural biotechnology, chemical and process engineering, bioplastics and polymer science.

Arindam Kuila is Assistant Professor at the Department of Bioscience & Biotechnology, Banasthali University, Rajasthan, India. Previously, he worked as a research associate at Hindustan Petroleum Green R&D Centre, Bangalore. He obtained his PhD in bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass from the Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, India in 2013.

Vinay Sharma is Dean, Faculty of Science & Technology and Chair, Department of Bioscience & Biotechnology at Banasthali??University, India. Earlier he served as Lecturer and then Reader during 1986 and 1996 at IIT Roorkee, India. He has more than 30 years of teaching and research experience and has published more than 250 research papers (including 31 as conference proceedings/ book chapters). His major areas of research interests are plant biotechnology and bioinformatics.

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