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Modern Nuclear Chemistry, 2nd Edition

ISBN: 978-1-119-32838-4
768 pages
March 2017
Modern Nuclear Chemistry, 2nd Edition (1119328381) cover image

Description

Written by established experts in the field, this book features in-depth discussions of proven scientific principles, current trends, and applications of nuclear chemistry to the sciences and engineering.

•    Provides up-to-date coverage of the latest research and examines the theoretical and practical aspects of nuclear and radiochemistry
•    Presents the basic physical principles of nuclear and radiochemistry in a succinct fashion, requiring no basic knowledge of quantum mechanics
•    Adds discussion of math tools and simulations to demonstrate various phenomena, new chapters on Nuclear Medicine, Nuclear Forensics and Particle Physics, and updates to all other chapters
•    Includes additional in-chapter sample problems with solutions to help students
•    Reviews of 1st edition: "... an authoritative, comprehensive but succinct, state-of-the-art textbook ...." (The Chemical Educator) and "...an excellent resource for libraries and laboratories supporting programs requiring familiarity with nuclear processes ..." (CHOICE)
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Table of Contents

Preface to the Second Edition xv

Preface to the First Edition xvii

1 Introductory Concepts 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 The Excitement and Relevance of Nuclear Chemistry 2

1.3 The Atom 3

1.4 Atomic Processes 4

1.5 The Nucleus: Nomenclature 7

1.6 Properties of the Nucleus 8

1.7 Survey of Nuclear Decay Types 9

1.8 Modern Physical Concepts Needed in Nuclear Chemistry 12

Bibliography 21

2 Nuclear Properties 25

2.1 Nuclear Masses 25

2.2 Terminology 28

2.3 Binding Energy Per Nucleon 29

2.4 Separation Energy Systematics 31

2.5 Abundance Systematics 32

2.6 Semiempirical Mass Equation 33

2.7 Nuclear Sizes and Shapes 39

2.8 Quantum Mechanical Properties 43

2.9 Electric and Magnetic Moments 45

Problems 51

Bibliography 55

3 Radioactive Decay Kinetics 57

3.1 Basic Decay Equations 57

3.2 Mixture of Two Independently Decaying Radionuclides 65

3.3 Radioactive Decay Equilibrium 66

3.4 Branching Decay 76

3.5 Radiation Dosage 77

3.6 Natural Radioactivity 79

3.7 Radionuclide Dating 84

Problems 90

Bibliography 92

4 Nuclear Meddicine 93

4.1 Introduction 93

4.2 Radiopharmaceuticals 94

4.3 Imaging 96

4.4 99Tcm 98

4.5 PET 99

4.6 Other imaging techniques 103

4.7 Some Random Observations about the Physics of Imaging 104

4.8 Therapy 108

Problems 110

Bibliography 112

5 Particle Physics and the Nuclear Force 113

5.1 Particle Physics 113

5.2 The Nuclear Force 117

5.3 Characteristics of the Strong Force 119

5.4 Charge Independence of Nuclear Forces 120

Problems 124

Bibliography 124

6 Nuclear Structure 125

6.1 Introduction 125

6.2 Nuclear Potentials 127

6.3 Schematic Shell Model 129

6.4 Independent Particle Model 141

6.5 Collective Model 143

6.6 Nilsson Model 149

6.7 Fermi Gas Model 152

Problems 161

Bibliography 164

7 ��-Decay 167

7.1 Introduction 167

7.2 Energetics of α Decay 169

7.3 Theory of α Decay 173

7.4 Hindrance Factors 182

7.5 Heavy Particle Radioactivity 183

7.6 Proton Radioactivity 185

Problems 186

Bibliography 188

8 ��-Decay 191

8.1 Introduction 191

8.2 Neutrino Hypothesis 192

8.3 Derivation of the Spectral Shape 196

8.4 Kurie Plots 199

8.5 β Decay Rate Constant 200

8.6 Electron Capture Decay 206

8.7 Parity Nonconservation 207

8.8 Neutrinos Again 208

8.9 β-Delayed Radioactivities 209

8.10 Double β Decay 211

Problems 213

Bibliography 214

9 ��-Ray Decay 217

9.1 Introduction 217

9.2 Energetics of γ-Ray Decay 218

9.3 Classification of Decay Types 220

9.4 Electromagnetic Transition Rates 223

9.5 Internal Conversion 229

9.6 Angular Correlations 232

9.7 Mössbauer Effect 238

Problems 244

Bibliography 245

10 Nuclear Reactions 247

10.1 Introduction 247

10.2 Energetics of Nuclear Reactions 248

10.3 Reaction Types and Mechanisms 252

10.4 Nuclear Reaction Cross Sections 253

10.5 Reaction Observables 264

10.6 Rutherford Scattering 264

10.7 Elastic (Diffractive) Scattering 268

10.8 Aside on the Optical Model 270

10.9 Direct Reactions 271

10.10 Compound Nuclear Reactions 273

10.11 Photonuclear Reactions 279

10.12 Heavy-Ion Reactions 281

10.13 High-Energy Nuclear Reactions 291

Problems 298

Bibliography 302

11 Fission 305

11.1 Introduction 305

11.2 Probability of Fission 308

11.3 Dynamical Properties of Fission Fragments 323

11.4 Fission Product Distributions 327

11.5 Excitation Energy of Fission Fragments 334

Problems 337

Bibliography 338

12 Nuclear Astrophysics 339

12.1 Introduction 339

12.2 Elemental and Isotopic Abundances 340

12.3 Primordial Nucleosynthesis 343

12.4 Thermonuclear Reaction Rates 351

12.5 Stellar Nucleosynthesis 353

12.6 Solar Neutrino Problem 366

12.7 Synthesis of Li, Be, and B 373

Problems 375

Bibliography 376

13 Reactors and Accelerators 379

13.1 Introduction 379

13.2 Nuclear Reactors 380

13.3 Neutron Sources 391

13.4 Neutron Generators 392

13.5 Accelerators 393

13.6 Charged-Particle Beam Transport and Analysis 410

13.7 Radioactive Ion Beams 415

13.8 Nuclear Weapons 421

Problems 425

Bibliography 427

14 The Transuranium Elements 429

14.1 Introduction 429

14.2 Limits of Stability 429

14.3 Element Synthesis 434

14.4 History of Transuranium Element Discovery 437

14.5 Superheavy Elements 449

14.6 Chemistry of the Transuranium Elements 452

14.7 Environmental Chemistry of the Transuranium Elements 461

Problems 468

Bibliography 469

15 Nuclear Reactor Chemistry 473

15.1 Introduction 473

15.2 Fission Product Chemistry 475

15.3 Radiochemistry of Uranium 478

15.4 The Nuclear Fuel Cycle: The Front End 480

15.5 The Nuclear Fuel Cycle: The Back End 488

15.6 Radioactive Waste Disposal 493

15.7 Chemistry of Operating Reactors 504

Problems 506

Bibliography 507

16 Interaction of Radiation with Matter 509

16.1 Introduction 509

16.2 Heavy Charged Particles 512

16.3 Electrons 526

16.4 Electromagnetic Radiation 531

16.5 Neutrons 540

16.6 Radiation Exposure and Dosimetry 544

Problems 548

Bibliography 550

17 Radiation Detectors 553

17.1 Introduction 553

17.2 Detectors Based on Collecting Ionization 556

17.3 Scintillation Detectors 578

17.4 Nuclear Track Detectors 584

17.5 Neutron Detectors 585

17.6 Nuclear Electronics and Data Collection 587

17.7 Nuclear Statistics 589

Problems 599

Bibliography 600

18 Nuclear Analytical Methods 603

18.1 Introduction 603

18.2 Activation Analysis 603

18.3 PIXE 612

18.4 Rutherford Backscattering 615

18.5 Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) 619

18.6 Other Mass Spectrometric Techniques 620

Problems 621

Bibliography 623

19 Radiochemical Techniques 625

19.1 Introduction 625

19.2 Unique Aspects of Radiochemistry 626

19.3 Availability of Radioactive Material 630

19.4 Targetry 632

19.5 Measuring Beam Intensity and Fluxes 637

19.6 Recoils, Evaporation Residues, and Heavy Residues 639

19.7 Radiochemical Separation Techniques 644

19.8 Low-Level Measurement Techniques 653

Problems 659

Bibliography 660

20 Nuclear Forensics 663

20.1 Introduction 663

20.2 Chronometry 670

20.3 Nuclear Weapons and Their Debris 672

20.4 Deducing Sources and Routes of Transmission 678

Problems 680

Bibliography 681

Appendix A: Fundamental Constants and Conversion Factors 683

Appendix B: Nuclear Wallet Cards 687

Appendix C: Periodic Table of the Elements 711

Appendix D: Alphabetical List of the Elements 713

Appendix E: Elements of Quantum Mechanics 715

Index 737

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Author Information

WALTER D. LOVELAND, PhD, is a professor of chemistry at Oregon State University, USA.

DAVID J. MORRISSEY, PhD, is a professor of chemistry and associate director of the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University, USA.

GLENN T. SEABORG, PhD (deceased), was a professor of chemistry at the University of California, Berkeley, and cofounder and chairman of the Lawrence Hall of Science, USA. He is credited with discovering 10 new elements, including plutonium and one that now bears his name, seaborgium. In 1951, Dr. Seaborg and his colleague, Edwin McMillan, were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for research into transuranium elements.

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