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Tools for Oceanography and Ecosystemic Modeling

ISBN: 978-1-119-33024-0
372 pages
July 2016, Wiley-ISTE
Tools for Oceanography and Ecosystemic Modeling (1119330246) cover image

Description

Studying the Ocean Planet requires measuring and sampling instruments to feed models that take into account its complexity.  This book presents the diversity of observation and monitoring techniques at various scales, but also different kinds of model that take into account some conceptual schemes incorporating various scientific knowledge.

Sampling is approached via the efficiency of fishing gears; underwater acoustics is used to detect, count, identify and listen to live and mobile living resources. Bio-logging allows us to rely on the behavior of marine animals to help investigate environments that are difficult to sample by conventional means, while listing the physiological changes they undergo.

Modeling is presented not only in a functional framework, but also in an exploratory design incorporating various scenarios for ecosystem changes under the pressure of global change.

This ninth volume completes the “Seas and Oceans” Set that adopts a transversal approach leading to the governance and sustainable management of the marine environment.

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Table of Contents

Foreword  xi

Chapter 1. For a Systemic and Transdisciplinary Approach to the Environment  1
André MONACO, Patrick PROUZET and Patrick VINCENT

1.1. Introduction 1

1.2. A complex and vulnerable ocean system 4

1.3. Suitable observation tools  9

1.3.1. For a systemic vision of the ocean 10

1.3.2. To assess our vulnerability to global change 11

1.3.3. The contribution of operational oceanography  13

1.3.4. New technologies applied to the living world  15

1.4. Conclusion 16

1.5. Acknowledgments 17

1.6. Bibliography  17

Chapter 2. Vulnerability to Global Change: Observation Strategies for the Marine Environment  19
Patrick FARCY, Gilles REVERDIN and Philippe BERTRAND

2.1. Introduction 19

2.2. Marine environment observation strategies  20

2.2.1. Parameters to measure  21

2.2.2. Measurement techniques with wide-ranging applications 25

2.3. Some large observation domains  28

2.3.1. The open sea  28

2.3.2. The coastal and littoral ocean  30

2.3.3. The ocean floor: substratum and population 36

2.4. Satellite contribution to observation strategies  42

2.5. In situ observation 45

2.5.1. Lagrangian measurements at the surface and in the water column 45

2.5.2. Eulerian measurements 56

2.5.3. Other significant parameters  60

2.6. Observation strategies 64

2.6.1. The “observatory” approach  64

2.6.2. Some examples of the complementariness of the measurements taken by networks 66

2.6.3. What’s the point of modeling? 67

2.7. What next? 69

2.8. Bibliography  72

Chapter 3. Fishing Technology for Fisheries Research 75
Pascal LARNAUD and Benoit VINCENT

3.1. Introduction 75

3.2. The methods employed to measure selectivity  77

3.2.1. What is selectivity?  77

3.2.2. The tools employed to measure meshes  79

3.2.3. The case of trawls 81

3.2.4. Fishing nets and other gear 89

3.3. The tools and observation methods of fishing gear 94

3.3.1. Hydrodynamic tank test 95

3.3.2. Submarine video recording 99

3.3.3. Measurement tools in the domain of fishing technology  103

3.4. Computer simulation tools  104

3.5. Perspectives  108

3.6. Bibliography  109

Chapter 4. Acoustics to Detect and Measure Underwater Organisms  113
Verena TRENKEL, Aude PACINI and Laurent BERGER

4.1. Introduction 113

4.1.1. Physical principles of underwater acoustics 113

4.1.2. Instruments  117

4.2. How animals use acoustics  120

4.2.1. Marine mammals 121

4.2.2. Fish 123

4.2.3. Other marine animals  124

4.3. How researchers use acoustics 124

4.3.1. Widening the observation scope  124

4.3.2. Describing animal behavior 126

4.3.3. Estimating fish abundance 128

4.3.4. Ecosystem indicators 130

4.3.5. Seafloor and benthic habitat characterization  131

4.3.6. Quantifying the impact of human activities on ecosystems 131

4.4. Practical uses of acoustics  132

4.4.1. Equipment 132

4.4.2. Carrying out a research cruise 135

4.4.3. Data processing  137

4.4.4. Advantages and drawbacks of acoustics 139

4.5. Acknowledgments 140

4.6. Bibliography  140

Chapter 5. “Bio-logging” as a Tool to Study and Monitor Marine Ecosystems, or How to Spy on Sea Creatures 143
Yann TREMBLAY and Sophie BERTRAND

5.1. Introduction 143

5.2. The variety of sensors and measurements 144

5.2.1. Position measurements  144

5.2.2. Physiological measurements  147

5.2.3. Behavioral measurements  147

5.2.4. Environmental measurements 148

5.2.5. Presence measurements 149

5.3. Attachment methods: limits and ethics 150

5.4. Current challenges 152

5.5. Some examples of discoveries resulting from bio-logging  153

5.5.1. The marine field is huge, and yet…  153

5.5.2. To adjust, yes, but how? 154

5.5.3. Animals as oceanographers 156

5.5.4. The impact of oceanographic structures 156

5.5.5. Interactions with fisheries, their management and conservation 157

5.6. Conclusion 161

5.7. Bibliography  162

Chapter 6. Modeling Strategies for Ecosystems 175
Cédric BACHER and Nathalie NIQUIL

6.1. Definition of mathematical modeling 175

6.1.1. Introduction  175

6.1.2. The main currents of ecological modeling  177

6.2. Mathematical formalization 178

6.2.1. State variables, process variables and the equation of state 178

6.2.2. Functional responses 180

6.2.3. Simplified food web 187

6.3. Metabolic foundations of population dynamics  192

6.3.1. Metabolic laws  192

6.3.2. Population and communities  197

6.4. Modeling complexity 199

6.4.1. Introduction  199

6.4.2. From NPZD to trophodynamic models  203

6.4.3. Static holistic models 204

6.5. Conclusion 209

6.5.1. The ideal of end-to-end models 209

6.5.2. To find out more 210

6.6. Acknowledgments 212

6.7. Bibliography  212

Chapter 7. The Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries: Reconciling Conservation and Exploitation 221
Philippe CURY, Arnaud BERTRAND, Sophie BERTRAND, Marta COLL, Philippe GROS, Souad KIFANI, François Le LOCH, Olivier MAURY, Frédéric MENARD, Florent RENAUD, Lynn SHANNON and Yunne-Jai SHIN

7.1. The ecosystem approach to fisheries: a shared view on the management of marine resources 221

7.1.1. The challenges of the ecosystem approach  221

7.1.2. Three bodies of the United Nations structure the ecosystem approach to global fisheries  223

7.1.3. The complex matter of scientific issues supporting governance 233

7.2. The way marine ecosystems work 236

7.2.1. Bottom-up, top-down and wasp-wait controls  236

7.2.2. Trophic relationships in marine ecosystems 248

7.3. EAF and research on marine ecosystems 256

7.3.1. Quantifying ecological interactions  256

7.3.2. Understanding spatial dynamics  258

7.3.3. Modeling as a tool to integrate knowledge  262

7.4. Ecological indicators Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD)  271

7.4.1. Three current levels of organization: international, national and regional  273

7.4.2. The ecosystem approach of the MSFD  274

7.4.3. The assessment of food webs  275

7.5. Implementing the EAF: the Benguela and Humboldt examples  278

7.5.1. Benguela  278

7.5.2. The Humboldt 283

7.6. Dynamic approaches to the ecosystem management of fisheries  289

7.7. Bibliography  290

Chapter 8. Modeling in Contemporary Sciences: Efficiency and Limits Examples from Oceanography  313
Alain PAVÉ

8.1. Introduction 313

8.2. A language to describe reality  314

8.3. Relationships between models and reality 315

8.4. What about marine ecological systems and their management? 323

8.5. Interdisciplinarity, transdisciplinarity and modeling 329

8.5. Bibliography  332

List of Authors  337

Index 339

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