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Chitosan: Derivatives, Composites and Applications

Shakeel Ahmed (Editor), Saiqa Ikram (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-119-36481-8
516 pages
August 2017
Chitosan: Derivatives, Composites and Applications (1119364817) cover image

Description

This book delves deeply in to the preparation, characterization and multiple applications of chitin and chitosan. The 17 chapters written by leading experts is an excellent reference source and state-of-the-art review for researchers and scientists using chitosan or biopolymers in their respective areas.
This book is divided into following sections:

• Production and derivatives of chitosan
• Chitosan in the textile and food industries
• Chitosan in biomedical applications
• Chitosan in agriculture and water treatment

The book is practical as readers will be able to see descriptions of chitosan production methods as well as techniques that can be used to estimate and modify their physical and chemical properties. It provides a full description not only of the traditional and recent developments in the applications of chitosan in the fields of biotechnology, environmental studies, food, medicine, water treatments, drug delivery, but it includes all of the  therapeutically usages as well.

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Table of Contents

Preface xvii

Section I Production and Derivatives of Chitosan

1 Chitin and Chitosan: History, Composition, and Properties 3
Annu, Shakeel Ahmed and Saiqa Ikram

1.1 Chitin 4

1.2 Chitosan 11

1.3 Conclusion  21

References  21

2 Nitrogenated Polysaccharides – Chitin and Chitosan, Characterization and Application 25
Michael  Ioelovich

2.1 Introduction 26

2.2 Extraction of Nitrogenated Polysaccharides from Natural Sources 27

2.3 Research Methods of Nitrogenated Polysaccharides 28

2.4 Characterization of Nitrogenated Polysaccharides 47

2.5 Properties of Nitrogenated Polysaccharides 54

2.6 Applications 58

2.7 Conclusion 60

References 61

3 Enzymes for Production of Chitin, Chitosan, and Chitooligosaccharide and Determination of Activities of Enzymes Using Chitinous Substrates 71
Sai Pyae Sone Aung, Wint Le Nu, Khin Chaw Win, Htun Inzali, Hla Ngwe and Nitar Nwe

3.1 Introduction 72

3.2 Fermentation Methods for Production of Enzymes 74

3.3 Methods for Purification of Enzymes 74

3.4 Storage Conditions of Enzyme 78

3.5 Commercial Enzymes 78

3.6 Determinations of Enzyme Activities Using Chitinous Materials 78

3.7 Conclusion 85

Acknowledgement 85

References 85

4 Production of Chitin, Chitosan, and Chitooligosaccharide from Shrimp and Crab Shells Using Green Technology and Applications of Their Composite Materials 89
Wint Le Nu, Khin Chaw Win, Sai Pyae Sone Aung, Htun Inzali, Tetsuya Furuike, Hiroshi Tamura and Nitar Nwe

4.1 Introduction 90

4.2 Microorganisms for Production of Chitin and Chitosan Using Green Technology 92

4.3 Production of Chitin Using Microorganisms 93

4.4 Production of Chitosan from Chitin Using Chitin Deacetylase from Microorganisms 94

4.5 Production of Crude Chitooligosaccharide from Shrimp and Crab Shells Using Fermentation Technology 98

4.6 Applications of Chitin, Chitosan, Chitooligosaccharides and Their Composite Materials 101

4.7 Conclusion 102

Acknowledgement 107

References 107

5 Chitosan and Its Derivatives: Overlook of Commercial Application in Diverse Field 115
Tanvir Arfin

5.1 History 115

5.2 Synthesis of Chitosan 116

5.3 General Properties 117

5.4 Biological Properties 117

5.5 Physicochemical Aspects 118

5.6 Molecular Weight 118

5.7 Stability 118

5.8 Fabrication 119

5.9 Self-Assembly 120

5.10 Strategies Self-Assembly 121

5.11 Chief Significance 122

5.12 Various Forms 122

5.13 Chemical Modification 122

5.14 Technologic Features for Medicinal Utilization 122

5.15 Synthetic Procedure of Chitosan Nanoparticles 123

5.16 Modified Chitosan 123

5.17 Carboxymethyl Chitosan (CMC) 123

5.18 Michael Reaction 124

5.19 Antioxidant 124

5.20 Antibacterial Properties 126

5.21 Antimicrobial Activity 126

5.22 Antiviral Activity 129

5.23 Biological Adhesive 129

5.24 Bonding Purposes 130

5.25 Biodegradation 130

5.26 Parameter Moving Transfection Competence 131

5.27 Conjugation 131

5.28 Functionalization of Chitosan 131

5.29 Schiff ’s Base Formation 131

5.30 Reductive Amination 134

5.31 Chitosan–Proteins Interaction 134

5.32 Absorption Enhancer 135

5.33 Chitosan–Starch Blends 135

5.34 Application in Various Fields 135

5.35 Conclusion 146

References 146

6 Chitin and Chitosan-Complexes and Their Applications 151

6.1 Introduction 152

6.2 Synthesis of Chitosan from Chitin 153

6.3 Different Properties of Chitosan 154

6.4 Polyelectrolyte Complexes of Chitosan 156

6.5 Complexes of Polyelectrolyte between Chitosan and Naturally Occurring Polymers 157

6.6 Various Useful and Important Applications of Chitosan 159

6.7 Conclusion 162

Acknowledgement 162

References 162

7 Enzymes from Genetically Modified Microorganisms for Production of Chitin, Chitosan, and Chitooligosaccharide 167

7.1 Introduction 168

7.2 Enzymes for Production of Chitin/Chitosan, and CTO 169

7.3 Enzyme and DNA Technology for Production of Chitin, Chitosan, and CTO 169

7.4 Determinations of Enzyme Activities Using Chitinous Materials 172

7.5 Conclusion 176

References 179

Section II Chitosan in Textile and Food Industry

8 Chitosan Applications for the Food Industry 185

8.1 Introduction 185

8.2 Biological Activities of Chitosan and Its Derivatives 187

8.3 Chitosan and Its Derivatives for Food Applications 193

8.4 Nutritional Aspects of Chitin and Chitosan 213

8.5 Preparation of Chitin and Chitosan Oligomers and Their Applications in the Food Industry as Health Supplements 215

8.6 Future Trends: Chitosan-Based Nanotechnology for Food Applications 217

8.7 Conclusion 217

Acknowledgements 218

References 218

9 Chitosan: Sustainable and Environment Friendly Resource for Textile Industry 233

9.1 Introduction 233

9.2 Chitosan and Chitosan Resources 234

9.3 Chitosan Treatment of Textiles 236

9.4 Textile Functionalities Achieved 240

9.5 Effluent Treatment Applications 245

9.6 Future Perspectives and Conclusion 246

References 247

Section III Chitosan in Biomedical Applications

10 Perspectives of Chitin- and Chitosan-based Scaffolds Dressing in Regenerative Medicine 255

10.1 Introduction 256

10.2 Scaffold Characteristics 258

10.3 Fabrication Techniques 260

10.4 Applications of Chitin and Chitosan as Regenerative Medicine 261

10.5 Conclusion 264

References 265

11 Chitin – and Chitosan-Based Scaffolds 271

11.1 Introduction 272

11.2 Scaffold Components 274

11.3 Scaffold Requirements 274

11.4 Chitin – and Chitosan-Based Scaffolds Fabrication Techniques 276

11.5 Applications of Chitin and Chitosan for Regeneration of Various Tissues 281

11.6 Chitin – and CS-Based Scaffolds for Drug and Growth Factors Delivery 293

11.7 Chitin – and CS-Based Scaffolds/Dressings in Market 294

11.8 Conclusions 294

11.9 Future perspectives 295

Abbreviations 295

References 300

12 Nanopolymer Chitosan in Cancer and Alzheimer Biomedical Application 311

12.1 Introduction 311

12.2 Chitosan Applications in Cancer 317

12.3 Chitosan Applications in Alzheimer’s 335

12.4 Conclusion 348

References 348

13 Biomedical Significance of Chitin- and Chitosan-Based Nanocomposites 361

13.1 Introduction 362

13.2 Biomedical Applications 363

13.3 Conclusion 377

References 378

14 Potential Biomedical Applications of Chitosan – and Chitosan-Based  Nanomaterials 385

14.1 Introduction 386

14.2 Production of Chitin and Chitosan 387

14.3 Bioactivities of Chitin and Chitosan 388

14.4 Biomedical Application of Chitin – and Chitosan-Based Nanomaterials 394

14.5 Conclusions and Future Perspective 400

Acknowledgement 401

References 401

Section IV Chitosan in Agriculture and Water treatment 15 Practical and Plausible Implications of Chitin- and Chitosan-Based Nanocomposites in Agriculture 411

15.1 Introduction 412

15.2 Applications of Chitin and Chitosan Nanocomposite in Agriculture 413

15.3 Conclusion 423

References 423

16 Scope of Electrospun Chitosan Nanofibrous Web for Its Potential Application in Water Filtration 431

16.1 Introduction 431

16.2 Chitosan as an Efficient Material for Water Purification/ Disinfection 433

16.3 Electrospinning Process 438

16.4 Electrospun Chitosan Nanofibers Embedded with Silver Nanoparticles for Filtration of Water Contaminated with Bacteria 442

16.5 Chitosan-Based Nanocomposites for Water Filtration 446

16.6 Current Challenges and Future Perspectives 448

References 449

17 Application of Chitin/Chitosan and Its Derivatives as Adsorbents, Coagulants, and Flocculants 453

17.1 Introduction 454

17.2 Chitin and Chitosan 455

17.3 Properties of Chitin and Chitosan 455

17.4 Modification of Chitin and Chitosan 456

17.5 Application of Natural Polymers in Wastewater Treatment as Promising Adsorbents 461

17.6 Chitin and Chitosan as a New Type of Polymer Coagulant/Flocculants 465

17.7 Future Directions for Research 474

17.8 Conclusion 475

Acknowledgments 475

References 475

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