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Empowered Educators in Australia: How High-Performing Systems Shape Teaching Quality

ISBN: 978-1-119-36964-6
288 pages
April 2017, Jossey-Bass
Empowered Educators in Australia: How High-Performing Systems Shape Teaching Quality (1119369649) cover image

Description

BEST PRACTICES FROM AUSTRALIA'S HIGH-PERFORMING SCHOOL SYSTEMS

Empowered Educators in Australia is one volume in a series that explores how high- performing educational systems from around the world achieve strong results. The anchor book, Empowered Educators: How High-Performing Systems Shape Teaching Quality Around the World, is written by Linda Darling-Hammond and colleagues, with contributions from the authors of this volume.

The authors of Empowered Educators in Australia take an in-depth look at the policies and practices surrounding teaching quality in two different states: New South Wales (NSW) and Victoria. NSW offers significant support for government schools in areas such as staffing and teacher professional development. Victoria operates a highly devolved school system. Each provides a contrasting view of how federal and state policies combine to shape learning outcomes for students in Australia.

The interplay between state and federal policy characterizes an intriguing "centralizing decentralization." Initiatives to create national curricular, teaching, and teacher education standards all sit in balanced tension with a movement towards greater devolution of authority to schools. Together the NSW and Victoria case studies provide insights into policies that can support high-quality teaching in a federal education system.

Australia's current educational reforms place increasing emphasis on issues of teaching quality, reshaping teaching as a standards-based, evidence-informed profession, and one that seeks to foster collegiality and professional exchange. These reforms encompass many aspects of a system that supports teaching quality, and highlight: the way teachers are trained, how they are inducted into the teaching profession and supported with mentors, the professional learning they receive, how they are appraised on their work, and the career pathways for teachers.

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Table of Contents

Foreword vii

Acknowledgments xi

About the Sponsoring Organizations xiii

About the Authors xv

Online Documents and Videos xvii

Chapter 1 A National Framework to Support Teaching Quality in Australia 1

Australia, Its Constitution, and Federalism in Education 2

A Pivot Point—The Melbourne Declaration 4

About Australia 6

Social Democratic Systems in Australia 8

Australian Education in International Comparison 9

Schooling in Australia 9

International Educational Performance and Comparisons 11

Education and Equity 15

Professional Teaching Standards and the Role of AITSL 17

Development of the Professional Teaching Standards 17

The Australian Professional Standards for Teachers (APST) 19

Implementation and Impact of the Standards 20

Australian Professional Standard for Principals 21

Initial Teacher Education 23

Ongoing Developments—Initial Teacher Education Reform 27

Role of ACARA 30

Assessment 30

Curriculum 31

Education Funding in Australia and Gonski 35

Education Funding in Australia 36

Federal Funding and the Melbourne Declaration 36

National Partnerships: Federal Funding to Improve Teaching Quality 37

The Gonski Review 38

Summary 40

Notes 41

Chapter 2 From Policy to Practice: Teacher Quality in New South Wales, Australia 43

About New South Wales (NSW) 44

Demographics 44

NSW Economy and Government 45

Equity and Education in NSW 46

The NSW Education System 47

Overview of the New South Wales Education System 47

The Education Policy Context in NSW 48

NSW Five-year Strategic Plan 2012–2017 50

Local Schools, Local Decisions 51

Education Funding in NSW and the Gonski Review 52

The Resource Allocation Model 53

Students in NSW Schools 54

Diversity in NSW Public Schools 55

Teachers in NSW Schools 63

Teacher Remuneration 64

Teacher Recruitment Incentives 65

Recruitment Incentives for Rural and Remote Areas 66

Casual and Temporary Teachers 66

Portraits of School Practice 67

Engadine High School: A Portrait of Practice 67

Homebush West Public School: A Portrait of Practice 69

Curriculum and Assessment in NSW Schools 71

Curriculum 72

Assessment in NSW Schools 74

Teacher Quality in NSW Schools 76

Great Teaching, Inspired Learning (NSW Policy) 76

Teacher Preparation in NSW 78

Teacher Accreditation in NSW 87

Teacher Induction 91

Professional Learning and Accreditation 94

Teacher Appraisal, Performance, and Development 103

Career Paths and Leadership Development 109

NSW Principals’ Credential: A Portrait of Practice 112

Policy Principles and Design and the Teachers Union 115

Common Platforms for Government, Catholic, and Independent Schools 118

Conclusion 121

Chapter 3 Building Teacher Capacity and Collaborative Cultures: Teaching and Teacher Quality in Victoria 123

Characterizing the Victorian System 124

Overview and Context 125

Demography and Economy 125

School System 127

Indigenous Students in Victoria 128

Curriculum 130

Education Policy Context 131

Three Waves of Reform 131

Understanding the Reforms 139

Education Governance in Victoria 140

Governmental Organizations 140

The Victorian Institute of Teaching 141

Teacher Unions and Professional Organizations 142

Governance of Catholic and Independent Schools 143

School Management and Funding 146

Resourcing Education—How Victorian Schools Are Funded 150

Recruitment 152

Meeting Supply and Demand in Victoria 152

The Teaching Career and Stages 159

Salaries 160

Working Conditions 162

Short-term Contracts 163

Preparation 166

Overview: Teacher Training and Registration in Victoria 166

Accreditation of Teacher Education Programs 167

Content of ITE Programs 170

Improving Clinical Practice in Victoria 177

Induction, Mentoring, and Teacher Registration 185

Teacher Registration in Victoria 186

Supports for Induction 189

Induction and Mentorship in Practice 190

Effectiveness of Teacher Induction 191

The Organization of Schooling in Victoria 195

Organization within Schools 195

School Networks 201

School Review and Improvement 202

Professional Learning 204

School-based, Evidence-supported Professional Learning 204

Professional Learning Polices in Victoria 211

Appraisal 217

The Evaluation Process 218

Teacher Appraisal and Improving Teaching 220

Continual Review and the Politics of Teacher Evaluation 221

Leadership 225

Leadership Framework and Skills 226

Leadership Training and the Bastow Institute 228

Summary 234

Notes 235

Conclusion 237

Appendix 241

References 243

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Author Information

DION BURNS is a senior researcher with the Learning Policy Institute and research analyst at the Stanford Center for Opportunity Policy in Education.

ANN MCINTYRE is an experienced principal, superintendent, and NSW state policy leader who is recognized for her work in quality teaching, leadership, and school and system improvement.

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