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Nanotechnology Commercialization: Manufacturing Processes and Products

ISBN: 978-1-119-37172-4
448 pages
November 2017
Nanotechnology Commercialization: Manufacturing Processes and Products (1119371724) cover image

Description

A fascinating and informative look at state-of-the-art nanotechnology research, worldwide, and its vast commercial potential 

Nanotechnology Commercialization: Manufacturing Processes and Products presents a detailed look at the state of the art in nanotechnology and explores key issues that must still be addressed in order to successfully commercialize that vital technology. Written by a team of distinguished experts in the field, it covers a range of applications notably: military, space, and commercial transport applications, as well as applications for missiles, aircraft, aerospace, and commercial transport systems.

The drive to advance the frontiers of nanotechnology has become a major global initiative with profound economic, military, and environmental implications. Nanotechnology has tremendous commercial and economic implications with a projected $ 1.2 trillion-dollar global market. This book describes current research in the field and details its commercial potential—from work bench to market.

  • Examines the state of the art in nanotechnology and explores key issues surrounding its commercialization  
  • Takes a real-world approach, with chapters written from a practical viewpoint, detailing the latest research and considering its potential commercial and defense applications
  • Presents the current research and proposed applications of nanotechnology in such a way as to stimulate further research and development of new applications
  • Written by an all-star team of experts, including pioneer patent-holders and award-winning researchers in nanotechnology  

The major challenge currently faced by researchers in nanotechnology is successfully transitioning laboratory research into viable commercial products for the 21st century. Written for professionals across an array of research and engineering disciplines, Nanotechnology Commercialization: Manufacturing Processes and Products does much to help them bridge the gap between lab and marketplace.

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Table of Contents

List of Contributors xv

Preface xix

Editor in Chief xxi

1 Overview: Affirmation of Nanotechnology between 2000 and 2030 1
Mihail C. Roco

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Nanotechnology – A FoundationalMegatrend in Science and Engineering 2

1.3 Three Stages for Establishing the New General Purpose Technology 9

1.4 Several Challenges for Nanotechnology Development 15

1.5 About the Return on Investment 16

1.6 Closing Remarks 21

Acknowledgments 22

References 22

2 Nanocarbon Materials in Catalysis 25
Xing Zhang, Xiao Zhang, and Yongye Liang

2.1 Introduction to Nanocarbon Materials 25

2.2 Synthesis and Functionalization of Nanocarbon Materials 26

2.2.1 Synthesis and Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes 26

2.2.2 Synthesis and Functionalization of Graphene and Graphene Oxide 27

2.2.3 Synthesis and Functionalization of Carbon Nanodots 29

2.2.4 Synthesis and Functionalization of Mesoporous Carbon 29

2.3 Applications of Nanocarbon Materials in Electrocatalysis 31

2.3.1 Oxygen Reduction Reaction 32

2.3.2 Oxygen Evolution Reaction 36

2.3.3 Hydrogen Evolution Reaction 39

2.3.4 Roles of Nanocarbon Materials in Catalytic CO2 Reduction Reaction 43

2.4 Applications of Nanocarbon Materials in Photocatalysis 47

2.4.1 Application of Nanocarbon Materials as Photogenerated Charge Acceptors 48

2.4.2 Application of Nanocarbon Materials as Electron Shuttle Mediator 48

2.4.3 Application of Nanocarbon Materials as Cocatalyst for Photocatalysts 50

2.4.4 Application of Nanocarbon Materials as Active Photocatalyst 51

2.5 Summary 51

Acknowledgments 52

References 52

3 Controlling and Characterizing Anisotropic Nanomaterial Dispersion 65
Virginia A. Davis andMicah J. Green

3.1 Introduction 65

3.2 What Is Dispersion andWhy Is It Important? 66

3.2.1 Factors Affecting Dispersion 73

3.2.2 Thermodynamic Dissolution of Pristine Nanomaterials 73

3.2.3 Intermolecular Potential in Dispersions 74

3.2.4 Functionalization of Nanomaterials 75

3.2.5 Physical Mixing 77

3.2.5.1 Sonication 77

3.2.5.2 Solvent IntercalationMethods 78

3.2.5.3 Shear Mixing Methods 78

3.3 Characterizing Dispersion State in Fluids 81

3.3.1 Visualization 81

3.3.2 Spectroscopy 83

3.3.3 TEM 85

3.3.4 AFM 85

3.3.5 Light Scattering 85

3.3.6 Rheology 86

3.4 Characterization of Dispersion State in Solidified Materials 88

3.4.1 Microscopy 89

3.4.2 Electrical Percolation 89

3.4.3 Mechanical Property Enhancement 89

3.4.4 Thermal Property Changes 90

3.5 Conclusion 90

Acknowledgments 90

References 91

4 High-Throughput Nanomanufacturing via Spray Processes 101
Gauri Nabar,Matthew Souva, Kil Ho Lee, Souvik De, Jodie Lutkenhaus, Barbara Wyslouzil, and Jessica O.Winter

4.1 Introduction 101

4.2 Flash Nanoprecipitation 104

4.2.1 Overview 104

4.2.2 Importance of Rapid Mixing 105

4.2.3 Mixers Employed in FNP 106

4.2.3.1 Confined Impinging Jet Mixers (CIJMs) 106

4.2.3.2 Multi-Inlet Vortex Mixers (MIVMs) 107

4.2.3.3 Mixer Selection 107

4.2.4 FNP Product Structure 107

4.2.5 Applications of FNP Nanocomposites 108

4.3 Electrospray 108

4.3.1 Overview 108

4.3.2 Single Nozzle Electrospray 109

4.3.2.1 Forces and Modes of Electrospray 109

4.3.2.2 Applications of Single Nozzle Electrospray 110

4.3.3 Coaxial Electrospray 111

4.3.3.1 Configuration 111

4.3.3.2 Applications 112

4.3.4 Future Directions 113

4.4 Liquid-in-Liquid Electrospray 113

4.4.1 Overview 113

4.4.2 Importance of Relative Conductivities of the Dispersed and Continuous Phases 114

4.4.3 Modified Liquid-in-Liquid Electrospray Designs 115

4.4.4 Applications and Future Directions 117

4.5 Spray-Assisted Layer-by-Layer Assembly 117

4.5.1 Overview 117

4.5.2 Influence of Processing Parameters on Film Quality 119

4.5.2.1 Effect of Concentration 120

4.5.2.2 Effect of Spraying Time 120

4.5.2.3 Effect of Spraying Distance 120

4.5.2.4 Effect of Air Pressure 121

4.5.2.5 Effect of Charge Density 121

4.5.2.6 Effect of Rinsing and Blow-Drying 122

4.5.2.7 Effect of Rinsing Solution 122

4.5.3 Applications 122

4.5.4 Future Directions 123

4.6 Conclusion and Future Directions 123

References 123

5 Overview of Nanotechnology in Military and Aerospace Applications 133
Eugene Edwards, Christina Brantley, and Paul B. Ruffin

5.1 Introduction 133

5.2 Implications of Nanotechnology in Military and Aerospace Systems Applications 134

5.3 Nano-Based Microsensor Technology for the Detection of Chemical Agents 135

5.3.1 Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy 135

5.3.1.1 Design Approach 136

5.3.1.2 Experiment 137

5.3.1.3 Results 138

5.3.2 Voltammetric Techniques 139

5.3.2.1 Design Approach 140

5.3.2.2 Experimental/Test Setup 142

5.3.2.3 Results 143

5.3.3 Functionalized Nanowires – Zinc Oxide 145

5.3.3.1 Design Approach 145

5.3.3.2 Experimental/Test Setup 146

5.3.3.3 Results 146

5.3.4 Functionalized Nanowires – Tin Oxide 147

5.3.4.1 Design Approach 148

5.3.4.2 Prototype Configuration/Testing 148

5.3.4.3 Results 148

5.4 Nanotechnology for Missile Health Monitoring 149

5.4.1 Nanoporous Membrane Sensors 150

5.4.1.1 Design Approach 150

5.4.1.2 Experimental Setup and Prototype Configuration 150

5.4.1.3 Results 152

5.4.2 Multichannel Chip with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Sensor Arrays 154

5.4.2.1 Design Concept 154

5.4.2.2 Experimental Configuration 154

5.4.2.3 Results 155

5.4.3 Optical Spectroscopic Configured Sensing Techniques – Fiber Optics 155

5.4.3.1 Design Concept Spectroscopic Sensing 156

5.4.3.2 Experimental Approach/Aged Propellant Samples 156

5.4.3.3 Results from Absorption Measurements 157

5.5 Nanoenergetics – Missile Propellants 158

5.5.1 Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes 158

5.5.1.1 Design Approach 158

5.5.1.2 Experiment 159

5.5.1.3 Results 160

5.5.2 Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes 160

5.5.2.1 Design Approach 160

5.5.2.2 Experiment 161

5.5.2.3 Results 162

5.6 Nanocomposites for Missile Motor Casings and Structural Components 162

5.6.1 Thermal Methods 162

5.6.2 VibrationalMethods 164

5.6.2.1 Design Approach 164

5.6.2.2 Experiment 164

5.6.2.3 Results 165

5.7 Nanoplasmonics 167

5.7.1 Metallic Nanostructures 168

5.7.2 Gallium-Based UV Plasmonics 169

5.8 Nanothermal Batteries and Supercapacitors 169

5.9 Conclusion 172

References 173

6 Novel Polymer Nanocomposite Ablative Technologies for Thermal Protection of Propulsion and Reentry Systems for Space Applications 177
Joseph H. Koo and Thomas O. Mensah

6.1 Introduction 177

6.2 Motor Nozzle and Insulation Materials 179

6.2.1 Behavior of Ablative Materials 182

6.3 Advanced Polymer Nanocomposite Ablatives 184

6.3.1 Polymer Nanocomposites for Motor Nozzle 185

6.3.1.1 Phenolic Nanocomposites Studies byThe University of Texas at Austin 185

6.3.1.2 Phenolic-MWNT Nanocomposites Studies by Texas State University-San Marcos 188

6.3.2 Polymer Nanocomposites for Internal Insulation 189

6.3.2.1 Thermoplastic Polyurethane Nanocomposite (TPUN) Studies by The University of Texas at Austin 190

6.4 New Sensing Technology 195

6.4.1 In situ Ablation Recession and Thermal Sensors 196

6.4.1.1 Production of the C/C Sensor Plugs 198

6.4.1.2 Ablation Test Results of Carbon/Carbon Sensors 200

6.4.1.3 Ablation Test Results of Carbon/Phenolic Carbon Sensors 209

6.4.1.4 Other Ablation Sensors Results 211

6.4.1.5 Summary and Conclusions 212

6.4.2 Char Strength Sensor 213

6.4.2.1 Setup and Calibration of Compression Sensor 214

6.4.2.2 Analysis Method 215

6.4.2.3 Char Compressive Strength Results 216

6.4.2.4 Additional Considerations on the Interpretation of the Data 223

6.4.2.5 Concluding Remarks 226

6.5 Technologies Needed to Advance Polymer Nanocomposite Ablative Research 227

6.5.1 Thermophysical Properties Characterization 227

6.5.1.1 Thermal Conductivity 227

6.5.1.2 Thermal Expansion 228

6.5.1.3 Density and Composition 228

6.5.1.4 Microstructure 229

6.5.1.5 Elemental Composition 229

6.5.1.6 Char Yield 229

6.5.1.7 Specific Heat 229

6.5.1.8 Heat of Combustion 230

6.5.1.9 Optical Properties 230

6.5.1.10 Porosity 230

6.5.1.11 Permeability 230

6.5.2 Ablation Modeling 231

6.6 Summary and Conclusion 236 Nomenclature 236

Acronyms 237

Acknowledgments 237

References 238

7 Manufacture of Multiscale Composites 245
David O. Olawale,Micah C. McCrary-Dennis, and Okenwa O. Okoli

7.1 Introduction 245

7.1.1 Multifunctionality of Multiscale Composites 245

7.1.2 Nanomaterials 247

7.2 Nanoconstituents Preparation Processes 249

7.2.1 Functionalization of CNTs 249

7.2.1.1 Chemical Functionalization 249

7.2.1.2 Physical (Noncovalent) Functionalization 250

7.2.2 Dispersion of Carbon Nanotubes 252

7.2.2.1 Ultrasonication 254

7.2.2.2 Calendering Process 255

7.2.2.3 Ball Milling 256

7.2.2.4 Stir and Extrusion 256

7.2.3 Alignment of CNTS 258

7.2.3.1 Ex situ Alignment 258

7.2.3.2 Force Field-Induced Alignment of CNTs 259

7.2.3.3 Magnetic Field-Induced Alignment of CNTs 259

7.2.3.4 Electrospinning-Induced Alignment of CNTs 260

7.2.3.5 Liquid Crystalline Phase-induced Alignment of CNTs 261

7.3 Liquid Composites Molding (LCM) Processes for Multiscale Composites Manufacturing 261

7.3.1 Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) 262

7.3.2 Vacuum-Assisted Resin Transfer Molding (VARTM) 263

7.3.3 Resin Film Infusion (RFI) 265

7.3.4 The Resin Infusion under Flexible Tooling (RIFT) and Resin Infusion between Double Flexible Tooling (RIDFT) 266

7.3.5 Autoclave Manufacturing 267

7.3.6 Out-of-Autoclave Manufacturing: Quickset 268

7.3.6.1 Quickstep 268

7.4 Continuous Manufacturing Processes for Multiscale Composites 269

7.4.1 Pultrusion 269

7.4.2 FilamentWinding 270

7.5 Challenges and Advances in Multiscale Composites Manufacturing – Environmental, Health, and Safety (E, H, & S) 271

7.5.1 Nanoconstituents Processing Hazards 271

7.5.2 Composite Production and Processing 272

7.5.3 Life Cycle Assessment – Use and Disposal 273

7.6 Modeling and Simulation Tools for Multiscale Composites Manufacture 273

7.6.1 Nanoparticle Modeling 274

7.6.2 Molecular Modeling 274

7.6.3 Simulation 274

7.7 Conclusion 275

References 276

8 Bioinspired Systems 285
Oluwamayowa Adigun, Alexander S. Freer, LaurieMueller, Christopher Gilpin, BryanW. Boudouris, and Michael T. Harris

8.1 Introduction and Literature Overview 285

8.2 Electrical Properties of a Single Palladium-Coated Biotemplate 289

8.3 Materials and Methods 290

8.4 Results and Discussion 293

8.5 Conclusion and Outlook 297

Acknowledgments 300

References 300

9 Prediction of Carbon Nanotube Buckypaper Mechanical Properties with Integrated Physics-Based and Statistical Models 307
KanWang, Arda Vanli, Chuck Zhang, and BenWang

9.1 Introduction 307

9.2 Manufacturing Process of Buckypaper 310

9.3 Finite Element-Based ComputationalModels for Buckypaper Mechanical Property Prediction 313

9.4 Calibration and Adjustment of FE Models with Statistical Methods 322

9.5 Summary 331

References 332

10 Fabrication and Fatigue of Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Nanocomposites – A Tool for Quality Control 335
Daniel C. Davis and Thomas O. Mensah

10.1 Introduction 335

10.2 Materials 336

10.2.1 Carbon Fabric and Fiber 337

10.2.2 Glass Fabric and Fibers 337

10.2.3 Polymer Resin 337

10.2.4 Carbon Nanotubes 338

10.2.5 Carbon Nanofibers 339

10.2.6 Nanoclays 340

10.3 Composite Fabrication 341

10.3.1 Hand Layup 341

10.3.2 Resin Transfer Molding 342

10.4 Discussion – Fatigue and Fracture 344

10.4.1 Fatigue and Durability 344

10.4.2 Carbon Nanotube – Polymer Matrix Composites 347

10.4.3 Carbon Nanofiber – Polymer Matrix Composites 349

10.4.4 Nanoclay – PolymerMatrix Composites 354

10.5 Summary and Conclusion 359

Acknowledgments 360

References 360

11 Nanoclays: A Review of Their Toxicological Profiles and Risk Assessment Implementation Strategies 369
Alixandra Wagner, Rakesh Gupta, and Cerasela Z. Dinu

11.1 Introduction 369

11.2 Nanoclay Structure and Resulting Applications 369

11.3 Nanoclays in Food Packaging Applications 370

11.4 Possible Toxicity upon Implementation of Nanoclay in Consumer Applications 375

11.4.1 In Vitro Studies Reveal the Potential of Nanoclay to Induce Changes in Cellular Viability 376

11.4.2 Proposed Mechanisms of Toxicity for the In Vitro Cellular Studies 380

11.4.3 In Vivo Evaluation of Nanoclay Toxicity 383

11.5 Conclusion and Outlook 385

Acknowledgments 387

References 388

12 Nanotechnology EHS: Manufacturing and Colloidal Aspects 395
Geoffrey D. Bothun and Vinka Oyanedel-Craver

12.1 Introduction 395

12.1.1 Challenges 397

12.1.2 Recent Initiatives and Reviews 399

12.2 Colloidal Properties and Environmental Transformations 400

12.3 Assessing Nano EHS 402

12.3.1 Example: Silver Nanoparticles (AgNPs) 407

12.3.2 Role of Manufacturing 407

Summary 409

Acknowledgments 409

References 409

Index 417

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Author Information

THOMAS O. MENSAH, PhD, is currently the President and CEO of the Georgia Aerospace Systems, an advanced aerospace composite manufacturing company, which has supplied nanoscale composite structures for unmanned aerial vehicle systems to the US Department of Defense. He is a Fellow of the National Academy of Inventors and is a holder of 7 US Patents. He has previously worked at AT&T Bell Laboratories and Corning Glass Works. He is a Director of AIChE Nanoscale Engineering Forum.

BEN WANG, PhD, Director of Georgia Tech Manufacturing Institute. He is the Executive Director Georgia Tech Manufacturing Institute. He is the co-developer of the first continuous process for making free standing carbon nanotube network or Bucky paper. Dr. Wang was awarded the Micro/NANO 25 Award by NASA and the Nanotechnology Institute and is the holder of 6 US patents. He is Chair of the Industrial Systems Engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology.

GEOFFREY BOTHUN, PhD, is Professor of Chemical Engineering and Principal Investigator as well as Director of Rhode Island Consortium for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, a state wide Initiative. He is also Director of Rhode Island NSF EPSCoR and the current Chairman of AIChE Nanoscale Engineering Forum, NSEF.

JESSICA WINTER, PhD is the H.C. Slip Slider Assistant Professor of Chemical and Biological Engineering at the University of Ohio, Columbus. She is a Fellow of the American Institute of Medical and Biological Engineers and a Fellow of the American Association of the Advancement of Science AAAS. She is Past Chairman of AIChE Nanoscale Engineering Forum NSEF.

VIRGINIA DAVIS, PhD is Associate Professor Chemical Engineering, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama. She is Global Marketing manager at Shell Chemicals in Europe and serves as Director of AIChE Nanoscale Engineering Forum NSEF. She is the recipient of NSEF Young Investigator Award.

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