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Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil Walls

ISBN: 978-1-119-37584-5
544 pages
June 2018, Wiley-Blackwell
Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil Walls (1119375843) cover image

Description

The first book to provide a detailed overview of Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil Walls

Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil (GRS) Walls deploy horizontal layers of closely spaced tensile inclusion in the fill material to achieve stability of a soil mass. GRS walls are more adaptable to different environmental conditions, more economical, and offer high performance in a wide range of transportation infrastructure applications. This book addresses both GRS and GMSE, with a much stronger emphasis on the former. For completeness, it begins with a review of shear strength of soils and classical earth pressure theories. It then goes on to examine the use of geosynthetics as reinforcement, and followed by the load-deformation behavior of GRS mass as a soil-geosynthetic composite, reinforcing mechanisms of GRS, and GRS walls with different types of facing. Finally, the book finishes by covering design concepts with design examples for different loading and geometric conditions, and the construction of GRS walls, including typical construction procedures and general construction guidelines.

The number of GRS walls and abutments built to date is relatively low due to lack of understanding of GRS. While failure rate of GMSE has been estimated to be around 5%, failure of GRS has been found to be practically nil, with studies suggesting many advantages, including a smaller susceptibility to long-term creep and stronger resistance to seismic loads when well-compacted granular fill is employed. Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil (GRS) Walls will serve as an excellent guide or reference for wall projects such as transportation infrastructure—including roadways, bridges, retaining walls, and earth slopes—that are in dire need of repair and replacement in the U.S. and abroad.

  • Covers both GRS and GMSE (MSE with geosynthetics as reinforcement); with much greater emphasis on GRS walls
  • Showcases reinforcing mechanisms, engineering behavior, and design concepts of GRS and includes many step-by-step design examples
  • Features information on typical construction procedures and general construction guidelines
  • Includes hundreds of line drawings and photos

Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil (GRS) Walls is an important book for practicing geotechnical engineers and structural engineers, as well as for advanced students of civil, structural, and geotechnical engineering. 

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Table of Contents

Preface ix

Acknowledgements xiii

1 Stresses and Shear Strength of Soils 1

1.1 Stress at a Point 1

1.1.1 Stress Vector 2

1.1.2 Cauchy Formula 2

1.1.3 Mohr Circle of Stress 5

1.1.4 Pole of Mohr Circle 7

1.2 Concept of Effective Stress 12

1.3 Mohr ]Coulomb Failure Criterion 12

1.4 Shear Strength Tests 14

1.4.1 Direct Shear Test 14

1.4.2 Triaxial Test 16

1.4.3 Plane ]Strain Test 24

1.4.4 Vane Shear Test 25

1.4.5 Standard Penetration Test 26

1.4.6 Cone Penetration Test 26

1.4.7 Plate Load Test 30

1.5 Design Consideration 32

1.5.1 Shear Strength of Granular Soils 32

1.5.2 Shear Strength of Clays 37

1.5.3 Shear Strength of Silts 49

References 49

2 Rigid Earth Retaining Walls and Lateral Earth Pressure 53

2.1 At ]Rest Earth Pressure 53

2.2 Rankine Analysis 56

2.2.1 Active and Passive Conditions and Graphical Solution 58

2.2.2 Mathematical Solution 60

2.2.3 Failure Planes 65

2.2.4 Inclined Crest and/or Inclined Surcharge 65

2.2.5 Influence of Submergence 71

2.2.6 External Loads on Wall Crest 72

2.2.7 Applicability of Rankine Analysis 72

2.3 Coulomb Analysis 75

2.3.1 Active Condition 76

2.3.2 Passive Condition 81

2.3.3 Influence of Submergence 84

2.3.4 Influence of Seepage 85

2.3.5 Influence of Relative Wall Movement 89

2.3.6 Influence of Seismic Force 89

2.4 Rankine Analysis versus Coulomb Analysis 95

2.5 Additional Topics Regarding Design of Rigid Retaining Walls 98

2.5.1 Common Proportions of Rigid Retaining Walls 100

2.5.2 Design Charts for Estimation of Active Force 101

2.5.3 Equivalent Fluid Density 101

2.5.4 Compaction ]Induced Stress 104

2.5.5 Evaluation of Wall Stability 105

2.5.6 Selection of Shear Strength Parameters in Design 105

References 107

3 Reinforced Soil and Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil (GRS) Walls 109

3.1 Reinforced Soil and GRS 110

3.2 Field ]Scale Experiments of GRS 114

3.2.1 “Mini ]Pier” Experiments 115

3.2.2 Unconfined Compression Experiments 116

3.2.3 Generic Soil–Geosynthetic Composite Plane ]Strain Experiments 117

3.3 Reinforcing Mechanisms of GRS Walls 120

3.3.1 Mechanisms of Apparent Confining Pressure and Apparent Cohesion 121

3.3.2 Mechanism of Suppression of Soil Dilation 126

3.3.3 Mechanism of Increase in Compaction ]Induced Stress 129

3.3.4 Other Reinforcing Mechanisms 131

3.4 Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil (GRS) Walls 134

3.4.1 Wrapped ]Face GRS Wall 135

3.4.2 Concrete Block GRS Wall 139

3.4.3 Cast ]in ]Place Full ]Height Facing GRS Wall 142

3.4.4 Precast Full ]Height Panel Facing GRS Wall 143

3.4.5 Timber Facing GRS Wall 147

3.4.6 Other Types of GRS Walls 149

3.5 Advantages and Disadvantages of Different Types of GRS Walls 149

3.5.1 Wrapped ]Face GRS Walls 152

3.5.2 Concrete Block GRS Walls 154

3.5.3 Timber Facing GRS Walls 155

References 156

4 Geosynthetics as Reinforcement for GRS Walls 159

4.1 Geosynthetics as Reinforcement 159

4.1.1 Geotextiles 160

4.1.2 Geogrids 164

4.1.3 Geocells 164

4.1.4 Geocomposites 166

4.1.5 Description of Geosynthetics 166

4.1.6 Costs 167

4.2 Mechanical and Hydraulic Properties of Geosynthetics 168

4.2.1 Load–Deformation Properties of Geosynthetics 168

4.2.2 Creep of Geosynthetics and Soil–Geosynthetic Composites 177

4.2.3 Stress Relaxation of Geosynthetics 184

4.2.4 Soil–Geosynthetic Interface Properties 191

4.2.5 Hydraulic Properties of Geosynthetics 194

4.3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Geosynthetics as Reinforcement 195

References 197

5 Design of GRS Walls 201

5.1 Fundamental Design Concepts 201

5.2 Overview of Design Methods for GRS Walls 204

5.3 Some Recent Advances in Design of GRS Walls 210

5.3.1 Required Reinforcement Stiffness and Strength 210

5.3.2 Evaluation of Pullout Stability 215

5.3.3 Lateral Movement of Wall Face 217

5.3.4 Required Long ]Term Strength of Geosynthetic Reinforcement 220

5.3.5 Connection Stability of Concrete Block Facing 223

5.3.6 Required Reinforcement Length 228

5.4 The US Forest Service (USFS) Design Method 233

5.4.1 Design Procedure: US Forest Service 233

5.4.2 Design Example: US Forest Service 238

5.5 The AASHTO Allowable Stress Design (ASD) Method 242

5.5.1 Design Procedure: AASHTO ASD Method 243

5.5.2 Design Example: AASHTO ASD Method 248

5.6 The NCHRP Design Method for GRS Bridge Abutments 252

5.6.1 Design Procedure: NCHRP Method for GRS Abutments 253

5.6.2 Design Example: NCHRP Method for GRS Abutments 261

5.7 The GRS Non ]Load ]Bearing (GRS ]NLB) Walls Design Method 273

5.7.1 Design Procedure: GRS ]NLB Method 274

5.7.2 Design Examples: GRS ]NLB Method 288

References 310

6 Construction of GRS Walls 317

6.1 Construction Procedure 317

6.1.1 Concrete Block GRS Walls 317

6.1.2 Wrapped ]Face GRS Walls 320

6.1.3 Full ]Height Precast Panel Facing GRS Walls 325

6.1.4 Timber Facing GRS Walls 329

6.2 General Construction Guidelines and Specifications 331

6.2.1 Site and Foundation Preparation 332

6.2.2 Geosynthetic Reinforcement and Reinforcement Placement 332

6.2.3 Fill Material and Fill Placement 333

6.2.4 Facing 335

6.2.5 Drainage 339

6.2.6 Construction Sequence 340

References 340

Index

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Author Information

Jonathan T. H. Wu, PhD, is Professor of Civil Engineering at the University of Colorado Denver, Director of the Reinforced Soil Research Center, and Editor-in-Chief of the Journal of Transportation Infrastructure Geotechnology. Dr. Wu's research interest is in the use of innovative physical and numerical modeling techniques to develop design methods and construction guidelines for sustainable earthwork systems, and to solve problems associated with earth structures. 

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