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CWTS, CWS, and CWT Complete Study Guide: Exams PW0-071, CWS-2017, CWT-2017

ISBN: 978-1-119-38503-5
600 pages
October 2017
CWTS, CWS, and CWT Complete Study Guide: Exams PW0-071, CWS-2017, CWT-2017 (1119385032) cover image

Description

The must-have guide to the CWTS exam, updated for 2017

CWTS Certified Wireless Technology Specialist Study Guide is your number-one resource for comprehensive exam preparation. Updated to study in 2017 and beyond, this book takes a multi-modal approach to ensure your complete confidence and ability for the big day: full coverage of all CWTS exam objectives reinforces your conceptual knowledge, hands-on exercises help hone your practical skills, and the Sybex online learning environment provides flashcards, a glossary, and review questions to help you test your understanding along the way. An objective map and pre-assessment test allow for more efficient preparation by showing you what you already know and what you need to review—and the companion website's complete practice exams give you a "dry run" so you can pinpoint weak areas while there's still time to improve. If you're serious about earning your CWTS certification, this book is your ideal companion for complete and thorough preparation.  

Learn critical concepts and apply essential skills in areas like hardware and software, radio frequency fundamentals, surveying and installation, support, troubleshooting, security, and more. This guide gives you everything you need to approach the exam with confidence.

  • Master 100 percent of the CWTS exam objectives
  • Use effective planning tools to get the most out of your study time
  • Practice your skills with hands-on exercises and real-world scenarios
  • Access online study aids that let you review any time, any place

The CWTS certification gets your foot in the door of a growing industry, and is a stepping stone to the industry standard CWNP certification. The exam will test your abilities in all fundamental areas of Wi-Fi technology, so it's important that your study plan be complete and up-to-date. CWTS Certified Wireless Technology Specialist Study Guide is your ideal solution for comprehensive preparation.

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Table of Contents

Introduction xvii

Assessment Test xl

Chapter 1 Computer Networking Fundamentals 1

Network Types 2

The Local Area Network 3

The Wide Area Network 3

The Metropolitan Area Network 4

The Campus Area Network 5

The Personal Area Network 6

Network Topologies 7

The Bus Topology 8

The Ring Topology 9

The Star Topology 10

The Mesh Topology 10

Ad Hoc Connections 12

Point-to-Point Connections 13

Point-to-Multipoint Connections 13

The OSI Model 14

Layer 1 – The Physical Layer 15

Layer 2 – The Data Link Layer 16

Layer 3 – The Network Layer 17

Layer 4 – The Transport Layer 17

Layer 5 – The Session Layer 18

Layer 6 – The Presentation Layer 18

Layer 7 – The Application Layer 18

How the Layers Work Together 18

Peer-Layer Communication 19

Data Encapsulation 20

Device Addressing 21

Physical Addressing 22

Logical Addressing 23

Network Address Translation 25

Summary 27

Exam Essentials 28

Review Questions 30

Chapter 2 Wireless Local Area Networking, Standards, and Certifications 35

The Wireless Computer Network 36

The Wireless Personal Area Network 36

The Wireless Local Area Network 37

The Wireless Metropolitan Area Network 37

The Wireless Wide Area Network 38

Building-to-Building Connectivity Using Wireless LAN

Technology 38

Wireless Point-to-Point Connections 38

Wireless Point-to-Multipoint Connections 39

Radio Frequency Regulatory Domain Governing

Bodies and Local Regulatory Authorities 40

United States: Federal Communications Commission 41

Europe: European Telecommunications

Standards Institute 42

The IEEE 42

The IEEE 802.11 Standard 43

The IEEE 802.11a Amendment 44

The IEEE 802.11b Amendment 45

The IEEE 802.11g Amendment 46

The IEEE 802.11n Amendment 49

The IEEE 802.11ac Amendment 50

Summary of IEEE 802.11 Communications Standards and Amendments 52

Additional IEEE 802.11 Amendments 53

Interoperability Certifications 55

The Wi-Fi Alliance 56

The Wi-Fi Protected Access Certification 56

The Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 Certification 57

The Wi-Fi Multimedia Certification 58

Wi-Fi Multimedia Power Save Certification 58

Wi-Fi Protected Setup Certification Overview 58

Common Wireless Local Area Network Deployment Scenarios 59

Small Office/Home Office 60

Enterprise Deployments: Corporate Data Access and End-User Mobility 61

Extension of Existing Networks into Remote Locations 62

Public Wireless Hotspots (Public Wi-Fi) and Hospitality 62

Office (Carpeted) Deployments 64

Educational Institution Deployments 64

Industrial Deployments 67

Healthcare Deployments 67

Last-Mile Data Delivery: Wireless ISP 69

High-Density Deployments Including Conference Centers 70

Municipal, Law Enforcement, and Transportation Networks 71

Summary 71

Exam Essentials 72

Review Questions 73

Chapter 3 Infrastructure and Client Devices Used with Wireless Networking 77

The Wireless Access Point 80

Autonomous Access Points 82

Controller-Managed Access Points 91

Cloud-Managed Access Points 93

Wireless Branch Router/Remote Access Point 94

Wireless Mesh 95

Wireless Bridges 96

Wireless Repeaters/Range Extenders 97

Wireless LAN Controllers and Cloud-Managed Architectures 98

Centralized Administration 99

Virtual Local Area Networks 99

Power over Ethernet Capability 99

Improved Mobile Device Transition 100

Wireless LAN Profiles and Virtual Wireless LANs 100

Advanced Security Features 100

Captive Web Portals 100

Built-in RADIUS Services 101

Predictive Modeling Site Survey Tools 101

Radio Frequency Spectrum Management 101

Firewalls 101

Quality of Service 102

Infrastructure Device Redundancy 102

Wireless Intrusion Prevention System 102

Direct and Distributed Access Point Connectivity 102

Layer 2 and Layer 3 Access Point Connectivity 102

Distributed and Centralized Data Forwarding 103

Power over Ethernet 104

Power Sourcing Equipment 105

Powered Devices and Classification Signatures 106

Benefits of PoE 107

Radio Hardware Used with Wireless LAN Technology 108

USB 1.0, USB 1.1, USB 2.0, and USB 3.0 108

Features of USB 109

Installation and Configuration of USB Devices 110

Peripheral Component Interconnect 112

Features of PCI 112

Installation and Configuration of PCI Cards 113

Mini-PCI, Mini-PCIe, and Half Mini-PCIe 115

Features of Mini-PCI, Mini-PCIe, and Half Mini-PCIe Cards 116

Installation and Configuration of Mini-PCI, Full Mini-PCIe, and Half Mini-PCIe Cards 117

Wireless Workgroup Bridges 118

Features of Wireless Workgroup Bridges 119

Installation and Configuration of Wireless Workgroup Bridges 120

Client Device Drivers 121

Client Utility Software 121

Manufacturer-Specific Client Utilities 122

Third-Party Client Utilities 123

Summary 124

Exam Essentials 125

Review Questions 126

Chapter 4 Radio Frequency Fundamentals for Wireless Networking 131

Understanding Radio Frequency 133

Wavelength in Wireless LANs 136

Frequency in Wireless LANs 137

Amplitude in Wireless LANs 138

Phase in Wireless LANs 138

Radio Frequency Used in Wireless LANs 139

Wireless LAN Coverage and Capacity 143

Wireless LAN Coverage 144

Wireless LAN Capacity 146

Radio Frequency Channel Reuse and Device Co-location 149

Radio Frequency Range and Speed 150

Line of Sight in Wireless Networking 150

Wi-Fi and Non–Wi-Fi Interference 152

Adjacent Channel and Co-channel Interference 152

WLAN/WPAN Interference 154

Environment: Radio Frequency Behavior 155

Basic Units of Radio Frequency Measurement 158

Absolute Measurements of Radio Frequency Power 158

Relative Measurements of Radio Frequency Power 160

Radio Frequency Signal Measurements 162

Summary 166

Exam Essentials 167

Review Questions 168

Contents ix

Chapter 5 Antenna Technology for Wireless Networking 171

Basic Radio Frequency Antenna Concepts 172

Radio Frequency Lobes 173

Antenna Beamwidth 173

Antenna Gain 176

Passive Gain 176

Active Gain 178

Antenna Polarization 178

Wireless LAN Antenna Types 180

Omnidirectional Antennas 180

Omnidirectional Antenna Specifications 182

Semidirectional Antennas 184

Highly Directional Antennas 193

Highly Directional Antenna Specifications 194

Radio Frequency Cables and Connectors 195

Radio Frequency Cable Types 196

Radio Frequency Cable Length 196

Radio Frequency Cable Cost 197

Impedance and VSWR 197

Radio Frequency Connectors 198

Factors in Antenna Installation 199

Addressing the Effects of Earth Curvature 199

Antenna Placement 199

Minimizing the Effects of Multipath Using Antenna Diversity 200

Combating Effects of Wind and Lightning in

Wireless LAN Installations 201

Lightning Arrestors 202

Grounding Rods 203

Installation Safety 203

Antenna Mounting 203

Internal and External (to the Access Point) Antennas 204

Pole/Mast Mount 205

Ceiling Mount 206

Wall Mount 206

Maintaining Clear Communications 206

Visual Line of Sight 207

Radio Frequency LoS 207

Fresnel Zone 207

Summary 208

Exam Essentials 209

Review Questions 211

Chapter 6 Communication for Wireless Networking 215

Wireless LAN Operation Methods 216

The Independent Basic Service Set 217

The Basic Service Set 222

The Extended Service Set 224

The Basic Service Area 225

Connecting to an IEEE 802.11 Wireless Network 227

IEEE 802.11 Frame Types 227

Wireless Network Discovery 228

Passive Scanning 228

Active Scanning 230

IEEE 802.11 Authentication 231

IEEE 802.11 Association 235

IEEE 802.11 Deauthentication and Disassociation 236

The Distribution System 237

Data Rates 238

Throughput 240

Dynamic Rate Switching 246

Wireless LAN Transitioning/Roaming 247

IEEE 802.11 Power Save Operations 249

Active Mode 249

Power Save Mode 250

Automatic Power Save Delivery 251

IEEE 802.11 Protection Mechanisms 251

IEEE 802.11g Extended Rate Physical Protection

Mechanisms 252

IEEE 802.11n High-Throughput Protection Mechanisms 253

Summary 254

Exam Essentials 256

Review Questions 257

Chapter 7 Modulation Technology for Wireless Networking 261

Network Access Methods 262

Detecting Network Traffic Collisions with CSMA/CD 263

Avoiding Network Traffic Collisions with CSMA/CA 264

Reserving Time for Data Transmission Using Distributed Coordination Function 265

Effects of Half-Duplex on Wireless Throughput 266

Narrowband vs. Spread-Spectrum Communication 267

Spread-Spectrum Technology 269

Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum 269

802.11 Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum 270

802.11b High Rate/Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum 271

IEEE 802.11 DSSS and HR/DSSS Channels 271

IEEE 802.11g Extended Rate Physical 273

IEEE 802.11n High Throughput 275

IEEE 802.11a, 802.11g, 802.11n, and 802.11ac OFDM 275

IEEE 802.11a, 802.11g, 802.11n, and 802.11ac OFDM Channels 276

IEEE 802.11n/ac Multiple Input/Multiple Output Technology 278

IEEE 802.11n/ac MIMO Channels 280

Co-location of IEEE 802.11b HR/DSSS

and IEEE 802.11a/g/n OFDM Systems 282

Adjacent-Channel and Co-channel Interference 284

WLAN/WPAN Coexistence 285

Summary 287

Exam Essentials 287

Review Questions 289

Chapter 8 Security Fundamentals for Wireless Networking 293

Introducing IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN Security 295

Wireless LAN Threats and Intrusion 295

IEEE 802.11 Standard Security 297

IEEE 802.11 Open System Authentication 298

IEEE 802.11 Shared-Key Authentication 298

Early Wireless LAN Security Methods 298

The Service Set Identifier 299

SSID Hiding 299

The Media Access Control Address 300

MAC Address Filtering 301

MAC Address Spoofing 302

IEEE 802.11 Authentication and Data Encryption 302

About Wired Equivalent Privacy 303

How Wired Equivalent Privacy Was Used 303

IEEE 802.11 SOHO and Enterprise Security Technologies 304

Wi-Fi Protected Setup PIN-Based or Push-Button

Configuration Wireless Security 304

PIN-Based Security 305

Push-Button Configuration Security 306

Wi-Fi Protected Access and WPA2 Personal Security 307

Passphrase Characteristics 307

WPA and WPA2 Enterprise Security 308

IEEE 802.1X/EAP 308

IEEE 802.1X 309

Extensible Authentication Protocol 310

IEEE 802.1X and EAP Together: IEEE 802.1X/EAP 310

Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service 310

Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting 312

IEEE 802.11 Encryption Methods 313

Wired Equivalent Privacy 314

Temporal Key Integrity Protocol 315

Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message

Authentication Code Protocol 316

Role-Based Access Control 317

Virtual Private Networking 318

Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol 320

Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol 320

Components of a VPN Solution 320

The Wireless Intrusion Prevention System 328

WIPS Configuration and Maintenance 330

Overlay and Integrated WIPS Technology 331

The Captive Portal 334

Wireless Network Management and Monitoring Systems 334

WNMS: Software, Hardware, or Cloud? 335

Wireless Network Monitoring 337

Industry Regulatory Compliance 339

PCI Compliance 339

HIPAA Compliance 340

Summary 340

Exam Essentials 341

Review Questions 343

Chapter 9 Design for Wireless Networking 347

Wireless Site Surveys 349

Size of the Physical Location 351

Intended Use of the Wireless Network 351

Number of Wireless Devices 352

Wireless Client Device Capabilities 352

The Environment 353

Performance Expectations 353

Bring Your Own Device Acceptance 354

Building Age and Construction Materials 355

Network Infrastructure Devices 355

Gathering Business Requirements 356

General Office/Enterprise 357

Interviewing Stakeholders 358

Manufacturer Guidelines and Deployment Guides 362

Gathering Site-Specific Documentation 362

Floor Plans and Blueprints 362

Furnishings 363

Electrical Specifications 364

Existing Network Characteristics 364

Identifying Infrastructure Connectivity and Power

Requirements 366

Understanding Application Requirements 368

Understanding Radio Frequency Coverage and Capacity

Requirements 369

Client Connectivity Requirements 369

Antenna Use Considerations 370

The Physical Radio Frequency Site Survey Process 374

Radio Frequency Spectrum Analysis 375

Spectrum Analysis for IEEE 802.11 Wireless Networks 375

Wi-Fi and Non–Wi-Fi Interference Sources 378

Wi-Fi Interference 384

Received Signal Strength 385

Performing a Manual Radio Frequency Wireless Site Survey 387

Obtaining a Floor Plan or Blueprint 388

Identifying Existing Wireless Networks 388

Testing Access Point Placement 390

Analyzing the Results 391

Considering the Advantages and Disadvantages of Manual Site Surveys 391

Performing a Software-Assisted Manual Site Survey 392

Using a Manual Site Survey Toolkit 398

Performing a Predictive Modeling Site Survey 400

Internet-Based Predictive Modeling Site Survey 402

Performing a Post-Deployment Site Survey 403

Protocol Analysis 403

RF Coverage Planning 410

Infrastructure Hardware Selection and Placement 410

Testing Different Antennas 411

Testing Multiple Antenna Types 411

Choosing the Correct Antennas 412

Wireless Channel Architectures 413

Multiple-Channel Architecture 413

Single-Channel Architecture 414

Wireless Device Installation Limitations 414

Site Survey Report 415

Summary 417

Exam Essentials 418

Review Questions 420

Chapter 10 Mobile Device Management and BYOD Fundamentals 425

Mobile Device Management Solutions 427

The Software as a Service Solution 428

The On-Premises Solution 428

Common Mobile Device Operating System Platforms 430

The Mobile Application Store 431

Pushing Content to Mobile Devices 435

Mobile Device Management Administrative Permissions 436

Understanding Mobile Device Management High Availability and Redundancy 436

Mobile Device Management Device Groups 437

Location-Based Services 438

Geo-fencing 438

Geo-location 439

Mobile Device Telecommunications Expense Management 440

Captive and Self-Service Portals 440

Captive Portals 440

Self-Service Portals 441

General Technology Network and Security Policy 442

Security Policy Framework 443

Information Technology and Security Policy Implementation and Adherence 443

Acceptable Use Policy 445

Balancing Security and Usability 445

Backup, Restore, and Recovery Policies 445

Operating System Modifications and Customization 446

Operating System Vendors 446

Original Equipment Manufacturer 447

Vendor-Default Device Applications 447

Technology Profiles 448

Mobile Device Profiles 448

Directory Services Integration 449

Issuing Digital Certificates 450

End-User License Agreement 450

Understanding Group Profiles 451

Corporate-Owned Mobile Device Profiles 452

Employee-Owned Mobile Device Profiles 452

Outside Consultants’ and Visitors’ Mobile Device Profiles 453

Policy and Profile Pilot Testing 453

Summary 454

Exam Essentials 455

Review Questions 456

Chapter 11 Troubleshooting for Wireless Networking 461

Identifying Wireless LAN Problems 462

Radio Frequency Transmitters and Receivers 464

Wireless LAN Connectivity—Coverage and Capacity Problems 465

No Wireless Connectivity 465

Intermittent Wireless Connectivity Problems 473

Wireless LAN Throughput 477

Application Performance Problems 480

Wireless Device Software and Hardware Upgrades 481

Optimizing Wireless Networks 488

Wireless Infrastructure Hardware Selection and Placement 488

Identifying, Locating, and Removing Sources of Wi-Fi and Non-Wi-Fi Interference 489

Wireless Client Device Load Balancing and Infrastructure Device Redundancy 490

Wireless Infrastructure Device Redundancy 491

Analyzing Wireless Infrastructure Capacity and Utilization 492

Radio Frequency Performance Problems: Multipath 492

Radio Frequency Performance Problems: Hidden Node 493

Quality of Service Considerations 497

Summary 498

Exam Essentials 499

Review Questions 500

Appendix Answers to Review Questions 505

Chapter 1: Computer Networking Fundamentals 506

Chapter 2: Wireless Local Area Networking, Standards, and Certifications 508

Chapter 3: Infrastructure and Client Devices Used with Wireless Networking 509

Chapter 4: Radio Frequency Fundamentals for Wireless Networking 511

Chapter 5: Antenna Technology for Wireless Networking 512

Chapter 6: Communication for Wireless Networking 514

Chapter 7: Modulation Technology for Wireless Networking 516

Chapter 8: Security Fundamentals for Wireless Networking 517

Chapter 9: Design for Wireless Networking 519

Chapter 10: Mobile Device Management and BYOD Fundamentals 521

Chapter 11: Troubleshooting for Wireless Networking 525

Index 529

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Author Information

Robert J. Bartz, CWNE, CWNT, is a technical trainer and consultant with more than 26 years of experience in computer networking technology. He has been involved with the CWNP program since its inception, and has taught vendor-neutral IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN technology to thousands of people globally. Robert is also the author of the first two editions of CWTS: Certified Wireless Technology Specialist Official Study Guide.

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