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Analog Electronics for Measuring Systems

ISBN: 978-1-119-40516-0
180 pages
April 2017, Wiley-ISTE
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Description

Many instrumentation engineers and scientists often deal with analog electronic issues when approaching delicate measurements. Even if off-the-shelf measuring solutions exist, comprehension of the analog behavior of the measuring system is often a necessity.
This book provides a concise introduction to the main elements of a low frequency analog acquisition chain. It aims to be sufficiently general to provide an introduction, yet specific enough to guide the reader through some classical problems that may be encountered in the subject. Topics include sensors, conditioning circuits, differential and instrumentation amplifiers, active filters (mainly for anti-aliasing purposes) and analog to digital converters. A chapter is devoted to an introduction to noise and electronic compatibility.
This work is intended for people with a general background in electronics and signal processing, who are looking for an introduction to classical electronic solutions employed in measuring instruments involving low frequency analog signal processing.

 

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Table of Contents

Introduction ix

Chapter 1 Fundamentals of Sensing and Signal Conditioning 1

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Voltage generating sensors  1

1.3 Current generating sensors  9

1.4 Charge generating sensors  19

1.5 Resistive sensors 24

1.6 Reactive sensors 36

1.7 Conclusion 37

Chapter 2 Amplification and Amplifiers 39

2.1 Introduction 39

2.2 Introduction to operational amplifiers 40

2.3 Limitations of real operational amplifiers 42

2.4 Instrumentation amplifiers  47

2.5 Isolation amplifiers 57

2.6 Conclusion 59

Chapter 3 Elements of Active Filter Synthesis  61

3.1 Introduction 61

3.2 Low-pass filter approximation 64

3.3 Active filter synthesis by means of standard cells 76

3.4 Frequency transform techniques 82

3.5 Conclusion 88

Chapter 4 Analog to Digital Converters 89

4.1 Digital to analog converters and analog to digital converters: an introduction  89

4.2 Notations and digital circuits 91

4.3 Sample and hold circuits 94

4.4 Converter structures 96

4.5 No silver bullet: choosing the best trade-off 112

4.6 Conclusion 118

Chapter 5 Introduction to Noise Analysis in Low Frequency Circuits 121

5.1 What is noise?  121

5.2 Stochastic modeling of a noise 123

5.3 Different kinds of stochastic noises 129

5.4 Limits of modeling 134

5.5 Contributions from stochastically independent noise sources 135

5.6 Noise equivalent bandwidth and noise factor 137

5.7 Amplifiers and noise 139

5.8 Noise from “outer space”: electromagnetic compatibility 148

5.9 Conclusion 152

Appendix 153

Bibliography 155

Index 157

 

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