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Progress in Adhesion and Adhesives, Volume 2

K. L. Mittal (Editor)
ISBN: 978-1-119-40638-9
464 pages
June 2017
Progress in Adhesion and Adhesives, Volume 2 (1119406382) cover image

Description

With the ever-increasing amount of research being published it is a Herculean task to be fully conversant with the latest research developments in any field, and the arena of adhesion and adhesives is no exception. Thus, topical review articles provide an alternate and very efficient way to stay abreast of the state-of-the-art in may subjects representing the field of adhesion science and adheisves.

Based on the success and the warm reception accorded to the premier volume in this series “Progress in Adhesion and Adhesives” (containing the review articles published in Volume 2 (2014) of the journal Reviews of Adhesion and Adhesives (RAA)), volume 2 comprises 14 review articles published in Volume 4 (2016) of RAA.

The subjects of these 14 reviews fall into the following general areas:

1. Surface modification of polymers for a variety of purposes.

2. Adhesion aspects in reinforced composites

3. Thin films/coatings and their adhesion measurement

4. Bioadhesion and bio-implants

5. Adhesives and adhesive joints

6. General adhesion aspects

The topics covered include: surface modification of natural fibers for reinforced polymer composites; adhesion of submicrometer thin metals films; surface treatments to modulate bioadhesion; hot-melt adhesives from renewable resources; particulate-polymer composites; functionally graded adhesively bonded joints; fabrication of nano-biodevices; effects of particulates on contact angles , thermal stresses in adhesively bonded joints and ways to mitigate these; laser-assisted electroless metallization of polymer materials; adhesion measurement of coatings on biodevices/implants; cyanoacrylate adhesives; and adhesion of green flame retardant coatings onto polyolefins.

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Table of Contents

Preface xiii

1 Surface Modification of Natural Fibers for Reinforced Polymer Composites 1
M. Masudul Hassan and Manfred H. Wagner

1.1 Introduction 1

1.1.1 Natural Fibers (NFs): Sources and Classification 2

1.1.2 Composition of NFs 2

1.1.3 New Trends in the Chemistry of Cellulose 3

1.1.4 Action of Reducing and Oxidizing Agents 6

1.1.5 Drawbacks of Natural Fibers 7

1.2 Modifications of Natural Fibers 9

1.2.1 Physical Modifications of Natural Fibers 9

1.2.2 Chemical Modifications of Natural Fibers 11

1.3 Composites 16

1.3.1 Hybrid Composites 17

1.3.2 Compatibilization 17

1.3.3 Effect of Radiation on Fiber Composites 19

1.3.4 Initiative in Product Development of NF Composites 20

1.4 Properties Evaluation 20

1.4.1 Lantana-Camara Fiber 20

1.4.2 Tea Dust-Polypropylene (TDPP) Composite 23

1.4.3 Water Absorption Test 27

1.4.4 Jute Fiber Reinforced Vinylester Composites 27

1.4.5 Coir Fiber Reinforced Polyester Composites 29

1.4.6 Effect of Alkali Treatment on Hemp, Sisal and Kapok for Composite Reinforcement 31

1.4.7 DSC Analysis of Mercerized Fibers 34

1.4.8 XRD Analysis of Mercerized Fibers 34

1.4.9 SEM Analysis of Alkalized Fibers 34

1.5 Conclusions 36

Acknowledgements 37

References 37

2 Factors Influencing Adhesion of Submicrometer Thin Metal Films 45
A. Lahmar, A. Assaf, M.J. Durand, S. Jouanneau, G. Thouand and B. Garnier

2.1 Introduction 46

2.2 Experimental Details 47

2.2.1 Film Deposition 47

2.2.2 Measurement of the Critical Load 48

2.3 Results and Discussion 50

2.3.1 Scanning Electron Microscopy Observations 50

2.3.2 Effects of Film Thickness and Substrate Bias on the Mean Critical Load 51

2.3.3 Effects of Ion Bombardment Etching of Substrate Surface 54

2.3.4 Effect of Ageing Treatment after Deposition 55

2.3.5 Effect of Roughness of the Substrate Surface 56

2.3.6 Dependence of Critical Load and Thermal Resistance on Deposition Conditions 58

2.3.7 Correlation Between Adhesion and Thermal Contact Resistance 60

2.4 Summary 63

References 63

3 Surface Treatments to Modulate Bioadhesion 67
D.G. Waugh, C. Toccaceli, A.R. Gillett, C.H. Ng, S.D. Hodgson and J. Lawrence

3.1 Introduction 67

3.1.1 The Role of Wettability in Biological and Microbiological Adhesion 69

3.2 Various Surface Treatments 70

3.2.1 Laser Surface Treatment 70

3.2.2 Lithography 75

3.2.3 Micro/Nano Contact Printing 77

3.2.4 Plasma Surface Treatment 79

3.2.5 Radiation Grafting 81

3.2.6 Ion Beam and Electron Beam Processing 82

3.3 Prospects 85

3.4 Summary 89

References 89

4 Hot-Melt Adhesives from Renewable Resources 101
P. Utekar, H. Gabale, A. Khandelwal and S.T. Mhaske

4.1 Introduction 101

4.2 Potential Renewable Base Polymers 103

4.3 Lactic Acid Based Polymers as Hot-Melt Adhesives 104

4.4 Soy Protein Based Polymers as Hot-Melt Adhesives 106

4.5 Bio-Based Polyamides as Hot-Melt Adhesives 107

4.6 Starch Based Polymers as Hot-Melt Adhesives 109

4.7 Summary 111

References 111

5 Relevance of Adhesion in Particulate/Fibre-Polymer Composites and Particle Coated Fibre Yarns 115
V.B. Mohan, K. Jayaraman and D. Bhattacharyya

5.1 Introduction 115

5.1.1 Mechanisms of Adhesion 118

5.1.2 Tests for Interfacial Adhesion in Composites 120

5.2 Theory of Interaction 124

5.2.1 Adhesion Mechanism in Fibre Yarns and Polymer Systems 125

5.2.2 Surface Modification Techniques 126

5.2.3 Adhesion Properties of Fibres 130

5.2.4 Morphological Evaluation of Fibre Yarns Coated with Nanoparticles 131

5.2.5 Interfacial Adhesion in Particle and Polymer Blends 138

5.3 Summary 140

References 142

6 Study and Analysis of Damages in Functionally Graded Adhesively Bonded Joints of Laminated FRP Composites 147
S.K. Panigrahi and Rashmi Ranjan Das

6.1 Introduction 148

6.2 Damage Analysis of Adhesively Bonded Laminated Composite Joints 149

6.2.1 Damage Analysis of Adhesively Bonded Flat FRP Composite Joints 149

6.2.2 Damage Analysis of Adhesively Bonded Tubular FRP Composite Joints 151

6.3 Effect of Adhesive Property on Damages in Adhesively Bonded Joints 152

6.4 Effect of Functionally Graded Adhesives on Damages in Adhesively Bonded Joints 153

6.5 Conclusion 156

References 156

7 Surface Modification Strategies for Fabrication of Nano-Biodevices 161
Ankur Gupta, Vinay Kumar Patel, Rishi Kant and Shantanu Bhattacharya

7.1 Introduction 161

7.2 Interfacial Interactions for Proper Functioning of Nano-biodevices 164

7.3 Strategies for Surface Modification of Polymers in Nano-biodevices 167

7.3.1 Surface Modification of Polymers Through Plasma Treatment 168

7.3.2 Surface Modification of Surfaces Through Chemical Route 168

7.3.3 Surface Modification Through Silanization of Surfaces 169

7.3.4 Surface Modification of Polymers with SAMs by Micro-contact Printing Technique 170

7.3.5 Other Surface Modification Strategies 171

7.4 Benefits of Surface Modifications to Nano-Biodevices 176

7.5 Summary 177

References 177

8 Effects of Particulates on Contact Angles and Adhesion of a Droplet 187
Youhua Jiang, Wei Xu and Chang-Hwan Choi

8.1 Introduction 187

8.2 Theoretical Background of Contact Angles and Adhesion of a Droplet 189

8.3 Effects of Particulates on Static Contact Angles 191

8.3.1 Deposition of Particulates on Solid-liquid Interface 192

8.3.2 Adsorption of Particulates on Liquid-Gas Interface 194

8.3.3 Adsorption of Surfactants on Solid-Gas Interface 195

8.4 Effects of Particulates on Droplet Pinning 197

8.4.1 Flows Within a Droplet 199

8.4.2 Interactions amongst Particulates, Solid Substrates, and Liquid-Gas Interfaces 201

8.4.3 Structural Disjoining Pressure 204

8.5 Effects of Particulates on Droplet Motion 205

8.5.1 Contact Line Velocity 205

8.5.2 Stick-Slip Behavior 206

8.6 Summary 210

8.7 Prospects 210

Acknowledgements 211

References 211

9 Thermal Stresses in Adhesively Bonded Joints/Patches and Their Modeling 217
M. Kemal Apalak

9.1 Introduction 217

9.2 Thermal Stresses 219

9.2.1 Bi-material Strips 219

9.2.2 Linear Analyses 220

9.2.3 Nonlinear Analyses 225

9.3 Thermal Residual Stresses 230

9.3.1 Residual Stresses - Adhesive Curing 233

9.3.2 Residual Stresses - Hygrothermal Ageing 246

9.4 Viscoelastic Analyses 250

9.5 Fracture and Fatigue 255

9.6 Summary 263

References 264

10 Ways to Mitigate Thermal Stresses in Adhesively Bonded Joints/Patches 271
M. Kemal Apalak

10.1 Introduction 271

10.2 CFRP Strengthened Beams and Plates 273

10.3 Weld-Bonded Joints, Cutting Tools 276

10.4 Adhesive Joints Under Cryogenic Temperatures 279

10.5 Low and High-Temperature Adhesives 285

10.6 Fillers and Electrically-conductive Adhesives 289

10.6.1 Adhesive Layer with Fillers or Voids 289

10.6.2 Electrically-conductive Adhesives 292

10.7 Microelectronics, Optics and Nuclear Applications 296x Contents

10.8 Dental Applications 307

10.9 Summary 312

References 314

11 Laser-Assisted Electroless Metallization of Polymer Materials 321
Piotr Rytlewski, Bartomiej Jagodzi?ski and Krzysztof Moraczewski

11.1 Introduction 321

11.2 Application of Lasers in the Metallization of Polymer Materials 323

11.2.1 Modification in a Gaseous Medium 324

11.2.2 Modification in Solutions 326

11.2.3 Modification of Thin Films 327

11.2.4 Modification of Composite Materials 328

11.3 Modification of Polymer Composite Materials 328

11.3.1 Polyamide Composites 328

11.4 Summary 346

Acknowledgement 347

References 347

12 Adhesion Measurement of Coatings on Biodevices/Implants 351
Wei-Sheng Lei, Kash Mittal and Zhishui Yu

12.1 Introduction 352

12.2 Mechanical Test Methods of Adhesion Measurement 354

12.2.1 Cross-Cut Test 354

12.2.2 Peel Test 355

12.2.3 Scribe (Scratch) Test 356

12.2.4 Pull-Off (Tensile) Test 360

12.2.5 Single-Lap Shear Test 363

12.2.6 Blister Test 364

12.2.7 Micro- and Nano- Indentation Tests 365

12.2.8 Small-Punch Test 369

12.2.9 Micro- and Nano- Scale Tensile Testing 369

12.2.10 Four-Point Bending Test 371

12.2.11 Other Test Methods 372

12.3 Summary and Remarks 373

References 374Contents xi

13 Cyanoacrylate Adhesives 381
P. Rajesh Raja

13.1 Introduction 381

13.2 Synthesis and Processing 382

13.3 Applications 386

13.3.1 Industrial and Consumer 386

13.3.2 Medical 390

13.3.3 Forensics 393

13.3.4 Recent Advances in Cyanoacrylate Adhesives 393

13.4 Summary 394

References 394

14 Promotion of Adhesion of Green Flame Retardant Coatings onto Polyolefins by Depositing Ultra-Thin Plasma Polymer Films 399
Moustapha E. Moustapha, J”rg F. Friedrich, Zeinab R. Farag, Simone Kr ger, Gundula Hidde and Maged M. Azzam

14.1 Introduction 400

14.2 Role of Adhesion in the Use of Thick Fire-Retardant Coatings 400

14.3 Strategies for Adhesion Promotion of Flame-Retardant Coatings 406

14.4 Plasma Polymerization 409

14.5 Adhesion Improvement by Plasma Polymer Layers 412

14.5.1 Inorganic Flame Retardant Layers (Water Glass Layers) 412

14.5.2 Coating with Prepolymer of Melamine Resin 414

14.5.3 Curing of the Melamine Prepolymer 414

14.6 Results of Adhesion Improvement Using Adhesion-Promoting Plasma Polymers 415

14.6.1 Results of Adhesion Promotion 415

14.6.2 Locus of Adhesion Failure 418

14.7 Flame Retardancy Tests 420

14.8 Thermal Behavior 421

14.9 Summary 423

Acknowledgement 424

References 424

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Author Information

Kashmiri Lal Mittal was employed by the IBM Corporation from 1972 through 1993 Currently, he is teaching and consulting worldwide in the broad areas of adhesion as well as surface cleaning. He has received numerous awards and honors including the title of doctor honoris causa from Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Lublin, Poland. He is the editor of more than 135 books dealing with adhesion measurement, adhesion of polymeric coatings, polymer surfaces, adhesive joints, adhesion promoters, thin films, polyimides, surface modification surface cleaning, and surfactants. Dr. Mittal is also the Founding Editor of the journal Reviews of Adhesion and Adhesives.

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