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Global Networks: Engineering, Operations and Design

ISBN: 978-1-119-94340-2
414 pages
December 2012
Global Networks: Engineering, Operations and Design (111994340X) cover image

The telecommunications industry has advanced in rapid, significant and unpredictable ways into the 21st century. Global Networks: Design, Engineering and Operation guides the global industry and academia even further by providing an in-depth look at the current and developing trends, as well as examining the complex issues of developing, introducing, and managing cutting-edge telecommunications technologies. The author draws upon his considerable experience in the telecommunications industry to educate engineers designing equipment and systems on the hardware and software features essential to fault tolerant operation.  He describes how to design networks that are fault tolerant and global in scope; how to identify best engineering and operations practices; and examines the role of technology labs in carrier networks. Software and hardware engineering practices are covered in depth. Hardware and software designs are explained with an emphasis on application and interaction of craft and operators with equipment and systems. The author proposes that equipment, systems and network designs should be integrated with the engineering and operations teams that run them. Practice, experience and a historical background are used to describe which designs and technologies fit which network services and applications. Global Networks is a complete and thorough assessment of the communications industry today, written by an author of international renown.

Key features:

  • Comprehensive treatment of the key theories and technologies associated with the design of modern communications networks, including equipment, systems and network design
  • Coverage of equipment and software design, mobile networks, integration and the characteristics of large network outages
  • Written in an accessible style and fully illustrated, it offers a complete and up-to-date picture of communications technologies from initial design through to application
  • Includes a section on future challenges such as the Exabyte traffic growth and an assessment of the dual roles of IPV4 and IPV6
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List of Figures xv

About the Author xix

Foreword xxi

Preface xxiii

Acknowledgments xxv

List of Acronyms xxvii

Part I NETWORKS

1 Carrier Networks 3

1.1 Operating Global Networks 3

1.1.1 The Power of Redundancy 4

1.1.2 The Virtuous Cycle 6

1.1.3 Measurement and Accountability 7

1.2 Engineering Global Networks 8

1.2.1 Architecture 8

1.2.2 Systems Engineering 8

1.2.3 Capacity Management 8

1.3 Network Taxonomy 10

1.3.1 Voice Systems 10

1.3.2 Data Systems 12

1.3.3 Networks 13

1.3.4 Network Systems 13

1.4 Summary 14

References 14

2 Network Systems Hardware 15

2.1 Models 15

2.2 Telco Systems Model 16

2.2.1 Form and Function 16

2.2.2 Frames and Shelves 20

2.2.3 Chassis 20

2.2.4 Line I/O 21

2.2.5 Power Supply Cards 25

2.2.6 Network Fabric Cards 25

2.2.7 Application Processing 28

2.3 Modular Computing – Advanced Telecommunications Computing Architecture (AdvancedTCA™) 29

2.3.1 Chassis 29

2.4 Blade Center Model 30

2.4.1 Midplane Design 31

2.4.2 Flexible High Speed Interconnection 32

2.4.3 Management Controller 32

2.4.4 Power and Fans 33

2.5 Summary 33

References 33

3 Network Systems Software 35

3.1 Carrier Grade Software 35

3.1.1 Real-Time 35

3.1.2 Reliable 36

3.1.3 Scalable 36

3.1.4 Upgradable and Manageable 38

3.2 Defensive Programming 38

3.2.1 Are You Really Sure? 38

3.2.2 Default Parameters 39

3.2.3 Heap Management 39

3.2.4 Exception Handling and Phased Recovery 39

3.2.5 Last Gasp Forensics 40

3.2.6 Buffer Discards and Dumps 40

3.3 Managed Objects 40

3.3.1 Administrative States 42

3.3.2 Service States 42

3.4 Operational Tests and Fault Conditions 43

3.4.1 Service Turn Up 43

3.4.2 Interrupt or Fault Induced 43

3.4.3 Out of Service Retries 43

3.4.4 On Demand 44

3.5 Alarms 44

3.5.1 Notifications 44

3.5.2 Severity 44

3.5.3 Scope 45

3.5.4 Creation and Persistence 46

3.5.5 Ethernet NIC Example 46

3.6 Network System Data Management 49

3.6.1 Management Information Bases (MIBs) 51

3.6.2 Syslog 52

3.6.3 Audits 53

3.7 Summary 54

References 54

4 Service and Network Objectives 55

4.1 Consumer Wireline Voice 55

4.1.1 Service Request 55

4.1.2 Address Signaling 56

4.1.3 Call Setup 56

4.1.4 Alerting 56

4.1.5 Call Completion 56

4.1.6 Disconnect 56

4.1.7 Network Service Objectives 57

4.1.8 Consumer Wireline Voice Network Model 57

4.1.9 Local Loops 58

4.1.10 Originating Office A 58

4.1.11 Toll Connect Group A–C 59

4.1.12 Tandem Office C 60

4.1.13 Toll Completing Group C–B 60

4.1.14 Terminating Office B 60

4.1.15 Long Term Downtime 60

4.1.16 Measurement Summary 60

4.2 Enterprise Voice over IP Service 61

4.2.1 Five 9’s 61

4.2.2 Meaningful and Measurable Objectives 61

4.3 Technology Transitions 65

4.4 Summary 66

References 66

5 Access and Aggregation Networks 69

5.1 Wireline Networks 70

5.1.1 Voice Services 70

5.1.2 Broadband Services 74

5.1.3 DSL 74

5.1.4 DSL Design and Engineering 76

5.1.5 DSL Operations 79

5.1.6 DSL Objectives, Metrics, and Line Management 80

5.1.7 ADSL Aggregation Networks 82

5.1.8 ADSL2+ and VDSL Aggregation Networks 82

5.1.9 Fiber to the Home (FTTH) 83

5.1.10 Fiber to the Curb (FTTC) 87

5.1.11 Fiber to the Node (FTTN) 87

5.1.12 FTTH Design and Engineering 87

5.1.13 FTTH Operations 90

5.1.14 FTTH Aggregation Networks 91

5.2 Hybrid Fiber Coax (HFC) Networks 92

5.2.1 Node Design 93

5.2.2 Digital TV 93

5.2.3 DOCSIS 94

5.2.4 HFC Design and Engineering 94

5.2.5 HFC Operations 95

5.3 Wireless Mobile Networks 96

5.3.1 GSM 97

5.3.2 Universal Mobile Telecommunications Systems (UMTS) 106

5.3.3 Long Term Evolution (LTE) 111

5.4 Wireless Design and Engineering 118

5.4.1 Air Interface 118

5.4.2 Mobility 121

5.4.3 Inter-Radio Access Technology (IRAT) 122

5.4.4 Device Behavior 122

5.5 Summary 123

References 123

6 Backbone Networks 125

6.1 Transport 127

6.1.1 Transport Services 127

6.1.2 Transport Resiliency and Protection 130

6.2 IP Core 135

6.2.1 Regional IP Backbones 136

6.2.2 Points of Presence (POPs) 137

6.2.3 Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) 137

6.2.4 Route Reflectors 143

6.3 Backbone Design and Engineering 143

6.3.1 Location and Size of POPs 144

6.3.2 Fault Recovery 144

6.3.3 Quality of Service QoS 145

6.3.4 Traffic Demand 146

6.3.5 Control Plane 146

6.4 Summary 147

References 147

7 Cloud Services 149

7.1 Competition 149

7.2 Defining the Cloud 150

7.2.1 Architecture 150

7.2.2 Infrastructure 151

7.2.3 Intelligent Networks and Intelligent Clouds 152

7.2.4 Internet Protocol Multimedia Subsystem (IMS) 156

7.2.5 Application Servers and Enablers 162

7.2.6 IMS Design and Engineering 164

7.3 Cloud Services 166

7.3.1 Network-Based Security 166

7.3.2 Voice over IP (VoIP) Services 167

7.3.3 Conferencing 170

7.3.4 Compute and Storage 170

7.3.5 The Mobile Cloud 170

7.4 Summary 171

References 171

8 Network Peering and Interconnection 173

8.1 Wireline Voice 173

8.1.1 Interexchange Carriers (IXCs) 174

8.1.2 Competitive Local Exchange Carriers (CLECs) 177

8.2 SS7 Interconnection 178

8.2.1 Services 178

8.3 IP Interconnection 180

8.3.1 VPN Peering 180

8.3.2 Internet Peering 180

8.3.3 Public Peering 183

8.3.4 Mobility Peering 185

8.4 Summary 187

References 188

Part II TEAMS AND SYSTEMS

9 Engineering and Operations 191

9.1 Engineering 192

9.1.1 Systems Engineers 192

9.1.2 Network Planning 196

9.1.3 Network and Central Office Engineers 196

9.1.4 Outside Plant Engineers 197

9.1.5 Common Systems Engineers 197

9.2 Operations 197

9.2.1 Network Operations Center (NOCs) 198

9.2.2 Tiered Maintenance 202

9.3 Summary 204

References 205

10 Customer Marketing, Sales, and Care 207

10.1 Industry Markets 207

10.1.1 Competitive Local Exchange Carriers (CLECs) 207

10.1.2 Interexchange Carriers (IXCs) 210

10.2 Consumer Markets 211

10.2.1 Product Marketing 212

10.2.2 Consumer Care 214

10.3 Enterprise Markets 218

10.3.1 Pre-Sales Support 219

10.3.2 Sales Support 220

10.3.3 Engineering and Implementation 220

10.4 Summary 220

References 221

11 Fault Management 223

11.1 Network Management Work Groups 223

11.2 Systems Planes 224

11.2.1 Bearer Planes 224

11.2.2 Control Planes 225

11.2.3 Management Planes 226

11.3 Management Systems 227

11.3.1 Network Management Systems 227

11.3.2 Element Management Systems 230

11.3.3 Network Elements 231

11.3.4 Management Interfaces 231

11.3.5 Specialized Management Systems 240

11.4 Management Domains 244

11.4.1 Optical Networks 245

11.4.2 IP/MPLS Networks 246

11.4.3 Other Domains 247

11.5 Network Management and the Virtuous Cycle 247

11.5.1 Notifications 247

11.5.2 Sectionalization 249

11.5.3 Fault Isolation 249

11.6 Summary 250

References 251

12 Support Systems 253

12.1 Support Systems Standards and Design 253

12.2 Capacity Management Systems 255

12.2.1 Work Groups 256

12.2.2 Data Collection 257

12.2.3 Engineering Rules 259

12.2.4 Capacity Management Applications 260

12.2.5 Supply Chain Management 261

12.3 Service Fulfillment 261

12.3.1 Offers and Proposals 262

12.3.2 Service Ordering 264

12.3.3 Service Activation 267

12.4 Design and Engineering 268

12.5 Summary 268

References 268

Part III TRANSFORMATION

13 Integration and Innovation 271

13.1 Technology Integration 271

13.1.1 Technology Scanning 272

13.1.2 Technology Selection 273

13.1.3 Network System Testing and Verification 277

13.1.4 Support Systems Integration 287

13.2 Lifecycle Support 288

13.3 Invention and Innovation 290

13.3.1 The Role of Research 291

13.3.2 The Bridge to Research 292

13.4 Summary 295

References 296

14 Disasters and Outages 297

14.1 Disasters 297

14.1.1 Carrier Teams 298

14.1.2 Disaster Response 300

14.1.3 Engineering and Design 300

14.2 Outages 302

14.2.1 Anatomy of an Outage 302

14.2.2 Congestion Onset 307

14.2.3 Congestion Propagation 307

14.2.4 Root Cause 308

14.2.5 Contributing Cause 309

14.2.6 Triggering Events 309

14.2.7 Teams in an Outage 309

14.2.8 Press and External Affairs 311

14.3 The Vicious Cycle 313

14.3.1 Engineering and Operational Defense 314

14.4 Summary 316

References 316

15 Technologies that Matter 317

15.1 Convergence or Conspiracy? 317

15.1.1 Enter the World Wide Web 318

15.1.2 Silicon Valley – A Silent Partner 318

15.1.3 US Telecommunication Policy 318

15.1.4 The Conspiracy – A Confluence of Events 319

15.1.5 Local Phone Service in Jeopardy 320

15.1.6 Technologies in Response 322

15.2 Technologies Beyond 2012 324

15.2.1 IPv6 324

15.2.2 Invisible Computing 332

15.2.3 Beyond 400G 334

15.3 HTML5 and WEBRTC 335

15.3.1 Video Evolution 337

15.3.2 High Definition Voice 338

15.4 Summary 340

References 341

16 Carriers Transformed 343

16.1 Historical Transformations 343

16.1.1 Stored Program Control Switching 1965–1985 343

16.1.2 Digital Wireline Communications 1975–2000 344

16.1.3 Digital Wireless Communication 1990–Onwards 345

16.2 Regulation and Investment 346

16.2.1 Regulation 346

16.2.2 Investment 347

16.3 Consumer Wireline Networks and Services 347

16.3.1 Market Trends 347

16.3.2 Technology 348

16.4 Wireless Networks and Services 351

16.4.1 Market Trends 351

16.4.2 Technology 352

16.5 Backbone Networks 352

16.6 Science and Technology Matter 353

References 353

Appendix A: IPv6 Technologies 355

Appendix B: The Next Generation Network and Why We’ll Never See It 361

Index 367

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Keith Cambron began his career at Bell Telephone Laboratories and was President and CEO of SBC Laboratories from 2003-2006, and President and CEO of AT&T Laboratories from 2006-2011. In 2010 he was named as one of the Top 25 Technology Thought Leaders in the world by CRN Magazine. He has ten patents for telecommunications software and systems which he designed and deployed. The author has a personal website www.moonlight-networks.com
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